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Holt S H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether postprandial glucose and insulin responses were related to concurrent changes in satiety. DESIGN: Thirty-eight common foods, grouped into six food categories, were tested in total. Each food category was fed to a separate group of subjects. A within-subjects repeated-measures design ...
Ayuo P O - - 1996
Fifteen non-insulin dependent diabetic volunteers, aged 51 +/- 3.9 years, were studied over a two month period to determine their glycaemic responses to various local foods. They were all on chlorpropamide and one subject was removed from analysis due to concurrent use of insulin. They received on separate occasions two ...
- - 1996
Foods with fat replacers have the potential to help people with diabetes reduce total and saturated fat intake and may therefore, in time, reduce the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia in type II diabetes. However, for these foods to have any potential benefit to people with diabetes, people with diabetes must ...
Gittelsohn J - - 1996
This article presents the results of applied ethnographic research aimed at developing a community-based diabetes prevention program in an isolated Ojibway-Cree community in northern Ontario. Using qualitative techniques, the authors describe diabetes in its sociocultural context and underlying belief systems that affect related activity and dietary behaviors. Local concepts of ...
Burke L M - - 1996
We reported previously that intake of carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index (GI) produced greater glycogen storage and greater postprandial glucose and insulin responses during 24 h of postexercise recovery than did intake of low-GI carbohydrate foods. In the present study we examined the importance of the greater incremental ...
Englyst H N - - 1996
The glycaemic index (GI) is an in vivo measurement based on the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods, and allows foods to be ranked on the basis of the rate of digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates that they contain. GI values are normalized to a reference amount of available carbohydrate ...
Dark J - - 1996
We tested whether 1) glucose availability is a signal for initiation of torpor in male hamsters and 2) glucoprivation can override the inhibitory effects of androgens on daily torpor. Male hamsters maintained at ambient temperatures of 8-16 degrees C were injected with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a glucose analogue that interferes with ...
Pollard M A - - 1996
The acidogenic potential of a group of popular cereal-based foods and fruits and total carbohydrate content of salivary expectorants following their consumption were assessed using an indwelling electrode with telemetry and the anthrone method. Paired t tests indicated that sorbitol did not cause the plaque pH to fall as low ...
Pijl H - - 1995
Fifteen bulimic women (BN) and 19 healthy female controls (CO) were studied. The subjects were cross-over treated with either fluoxetine (FXT) or placebo during 4 days. They received, in randomized order, a breakfast containing pure carbohydrate (CHO) or a protein-rich (PROT) breakfast following day 3 and 4 of each treatment ...
Wurtman R J - - 1995
Serotonin-releasing brain neurons are unique in that the amount of neurotransmitter they release is normally controlled by food intake: Carbohydrate consumption--acting via insulin secretion and the "plasma tryptophan ratio"--increases serotonin release; protein intake lacks this effect. This ability of neurons to couple neuronal signaling properties to food consumption is a ...
Foster-Powell K - - 1995
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods based on their glycemic effect compared with a standard food. It has been used to classify carbohydrate foods for various applications, including diabetes, sports, and appetite research. The purpose of these tables is to bring together all of the published data ...
Holt S H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 ...
Heijnen M L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of amylose content on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects by serving fixed amounts of simple starchy foods with a varying but strictly controlled water, fat and guar gum content. DESIGN: A blind, randomised, balanced cross-over study. SETTING: The kitchen of the Nutrition ...
Murphy N J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. DESIGN: Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a ...
Asp N G - - 1995
Dietary guidelines encourage a considerable increase in carbohydrate intake compared with the present situation in Western countries. Recent developments regarding nutritional effects of various digestible and undigestible carbohydrates call for more detailed recommendations. The "carbohydrates by difference" concept emerged 150 y ago because of the lack of specific analytical techniques ...
Miller J B - - 1995
The primary aim of the present study was to expand the glycaemic index (GI) database by determining the GI and insulin index values of thirty-nine foods containing sugars in healthy adults. The second aim was to examine the hypothesis that glycaemic and insulin responses to foods which contain added sugar(s) ...
Post D M - - 1995
Post-harvest loss of resources to microbial competitors affects a number of species of animals, and many of them have evolved behaviors that reduce the likelihood of such loss. We previously described the inhibition ofBacillus psychrophilus by dogwood fruits (Cornus drummondii), which can comprise a significant portion of the winter food ...
Granfeldt Y - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the importance of incomplete gelatinization, food structure and presence of viscous dietary fibre for the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to oat and wheat products. DESIGN: Three common breakfast meals were tested, 'raw' rolled oats (muesli), boiled rolled oats (oat porridge) and white wheat bread. Boiled intact oat ...
Holt S H - - 1995
In order to assess the relationship between metabolic responses and satiety, four men and five women ate two pairs of foods containing 50 g of available carbohydrate, ordinary and quick-cooking rice and high- and low-amylose puffed rice. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and satiety ratings were assessed over 2 h ...
Nguyen P - - 1994
Postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin secretion depend on many factors, such as food composition, carbohydrate type and processing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of foods differing in composition in nonobese clinically normal dogs. These dogs were offered in a single meal one of the four foods. ...
Marchini J S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We set out to determine the daily glycemic profile of healthy and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) persons and to test the hypothesis that small amounts of sucrose added to NIDDM meals would not change their responses. METHODS: Thirteen NIDDM and six healthy volunteers participated in the study. They initially ...
Shetty P S - - 1994
This study investigated the relative importance of alterations in carbohydrate intake or oxidation as mechanisms for rectifying extreme perturbations of glycogen stores. Six lean men were studied on three occasions in which a stabilization period (days 1 and 2) was immediately followed by whole-body indirect calorimetry (days 3-5). Glycogen stores ...
Navia J M - - 1994
Carbohydrates, together with fats and proteins, provide the necessary energy needs for humans, and constitute, therefore, an integral part of a normal diet. An etiological model for caries that considers local and host factors is presented, highlighting the interaction of bacteria, saliva, minerals, and trace elements with food residues and ...
Björck I - - 1994
Carbohydrate foods differ considerably in their effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Qualitative differences among starchy foods are particularly intriguing because of the dominance of starch in human diets. This paper focuses on food properties in cereal (eg, pasta, bread, Arepas, and porridge) and legume products (eg, red kidney ...
Lenczycki K M - - 1994
The application of a psychology tool, the repertory grid, was explored. A diabetic sample was used to evaluate this new assessment tool. The grid measures attitudes about food and was created by determining elements (food items) and constructs (adjectival phrases) as identified by diabetic participants and dietitians. The grid was ...
Teff K L - - 1993
To investigate the effect of oral sensory stimulation on cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) and other compounds associated with glucose metabolism, a modified sham feed was used in which male subjects (n = 15) tasted, chewed, and then expectorated the food stimulus. Subjects remained fasted, sham fed, or ingested food ...
Trout D L - - 1993
Associations between published values for glycemic index (GI) and chemical components were examined by regression analysis in 18 starchy foods. Independent variables were the amounts of protein, fat, phytic acid, and total dietary fiber (TDF) present in food portions containing 50 g available carbohydrate. GI was similarly and significantly correlated ...
Dunford M - - 1993
The determination of blood glucose response to various carbohydrate foods may help athletes in their choice of preexercise feedings. This case study documented the postprandial glycemic responses of three male endurance athletes at rest after ingestion of 50-gram portions of three carbohydrate foods: graham crackers, orange juice, and oatmeal. Plasma ...
Christensen L - - 1993
The literature focusing on the use of food as a regulator of a negative mood state is reviewed. This literature reveals that individuals experiencing a negative mood state arising from disorders ranging from tobacco withdrawal to premenstrual symptoms make use of carbohydrate ingestion, especially simple carbohydrates, to provide a temporary ...
Warshaw H S - - 1993
This article reviews the three categories of fat replacers and characteristics of the individual products. Most importantly, this update provides strategies for staying abreast of current and future foods, and stimulates considerations for diabetes educators when advising clients about fat-modified foods. Creative techniques and tools also are presented for educating ...
Thomaides T - - 1993
We investigated the effect of a balanced liquid meal on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (with patients supine and during head-up tilt), and on levels of plasma catecholamines, glucose, and insulin, in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and in healthy ...
Miller J B - - 1992
We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted ...
Rumessen J J - - 1992
It is possible to point out subjects consuming considerable quantities of fructose and sorbitol, and the intake seems to be increasing both from added and natural sources. Studies of the absorption of fructose in animals are inconsistent, and the mechanisms of fructose uptake seem to vary in accordance with the ...
Truswell A S - - 1992
From the mid-1970s several groups realized progressively that the same amounts of carbohydrates in different foods produce quite different blood glucose curves after ingestion. The glycaemic index (GI) was introduced by Jenkins to express the rise of blood glucose after eating a food against a standard blood glucose curve after ...
Reddy P S - - 1992
Hyperglycemia was caused in the snail Pila globosa by the injection of the hyperglycemic hormones obtained from fresh water crabs (Oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). Tissue glycogen and total carbohydrates presented a significant decrease which indicated that the source of hyperglycemia was the tissue carbohydrates. The ...
Alam N H - - 1992
To evaluate the impact of food on the efficacy of oral rehydration solution (ORS), a randomised, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 182 adults with cholera. After initial rehydration with an intravenous polyelectrolyte solution for four hours, the patients were randomised to receive one of four rehydration therapies: glucose based ...
de Graaf C - - 1992
Beliefs about the satiating effect of foods varying in contents of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fibre were investigated by face-to-face interviews with a random telephone sample of 101 subjects. Respondents were presented with photographs of two slices of bread covered with common spreads. Fibre level was manipulated by using white ...
Rehrer N J - - 1992
This study examined the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and dietary intake in triathletes. Fifty-five male triathletes (age 31 +/- 6 yrs) were surveyed regarding the most recently completed half Iron Man triathlon. Questions were asked regarding GI symptoms and dietary intake. Fifty-two percent complained of eructation and 48% of ...
Kurup P G - - 1992
To assess the true physiological basis of carbohydrate exchange of food, commonly eaten in South India, the "Glycemic Index", defined as the area of the glucose tolerance test, under 3 hr, for each food item, expressed as percentage of the area after taking the same amount of carbohydrate as glucose ...
Knowles M E - - 1991
Surveillance of chemical contaminants in food plays an important role in helping to ensure a safe food supply in those countries that undertake it. This paper reviews the methods used in the UK as a means of highlighting the essential elements required by any food chemical surveillance programme. The following ...
Wolever T M - - 1991
To determine whether there was any advantage to taking a soluble fiber supplement separate from food, as opposed to incorporated into a food, we used psyllium as a model, either taken in water just before a flaked bran cereal test meal, sprinkled on top of the cereal, or actually incorporated ...
Laitinen J H - - 1991
A study was undertaken to find out how the hedonic responses to, and reported liking and consumption of, sweet and fat foods change during the first months of diet therapy of recently diagnosed patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The patients were 12 women and 19 men aged 40-65 years. The ...
Wallbanks K R - - 1991
It is known that a sugar meal is a prerequisite for the transmission of Leishmania by sandflies in the laboratory. Lutzomyia peruensis the proven vector of Leishmania peruviana, was caught by aspiration from crevices in rocks near Chaute in the Rimac Valley, Peru, cryopreserved and analysed for sugars using HPLC. ...
Hollenbeck C B - - 1991
A classification of carbohydrate-containing foods based on their glycemic response to 50-g carbohydrate portions has recently been developed. The relative glycemic potency of many of these carbohydrate-containing foods have been compared, and these data have been published in the form of a glycemic index. It has been suggested that meals ...
Mani U V - - 1990
The glycemic index (GI) was determined in 36 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients who were fed 50 g carbohydrate portions of six Indian conventional foods, including rice, a combination of rice-legume (Bengalgram, peas, and greengram), and a combination of rice-dal (greengram dal and redgram dal -- dal is dehusked and split ...
Goldie P - - 1990
Hemozoin, the pigment granule which develops within the blood stage food vacuole of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, was biochemically characterized. Hemozoin was found to be composed of 65% protein, 16% ferriprotoporphyrin-IX (hematin), 6% carbohydrate, and trace amounts of lipid and nucleic acids. The overwhelming majority of the protein component ...
Kräuchi K - - 1990
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients often crave carbohydrates when depressed during the winter. We measured dietary intake using a daily Food/Drink Frequency Questionnaire in 36 SAD patients over four conditions: when depressed in winter, during light therapy (1 h 2500 lux, morning or evening), during withdrawal, and when euthymic in ...
Mathias C J - - 1990
Food intake results in a variety of responses, with the autonomic nervous system playing an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. In patients with autonomic failure, who have severe sympathetic impairment, food substantially lowers blood pressure even in the supine position. This is related to a marked increase in splanchnic ...
Niewind A C - - 1990
Current food use and habitual food use prior to the diagnosis of diabetes were measured using a food frequency questionnaire in a group of recently diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Patients (51 m, 29 f) were between the ages of 20 and 40 years and had been diagnosed as insulin-dependent diabetics ...
Haller C - - 1990
This study addresses three topics in the chloralose-anesthetized cat: (a) distribution of local CMRglc: values ranging from 5 to 109 mumols/100 g/min were found in 37 brain structures and the mean CMRglc over all examined structures was 30.6 mumols/100 g/min; (b) effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, 250 mg/kg i.v.) on local ...
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