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Results 451 - 500 of 551
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de Graaf C - - 1992
Beliefs about the satiating effect of foods varying in contents of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fibre were investigated by face-to-face interviews with a random telephone sample of 101 subjects. Respondents were presented with photographs of two slices of bread covered with common spreads. Fibre level was manipulated by using white ...
Rehrer N J - - 1992
This study examined the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and dietary intake in triathletes. Fifty-five male triathletes (age 31 +/- 6 yrs) were surveyed regarding the most recently completed half Iron Man triathlon. Questions were asked regarding GI symptoms and dietary intake. Fifty-two percent complained of eructation and 48% of ...
Kurup P G - - 1992
To assess the true physiological basis of carbohydrate exchange of food, commonly eaten in South India, the "Glycemic Index", defined as the area of the glucose tolerance test, under 3 hr, for each food item, expressed as percentage of the area after taking the same amount of carbohydrate as glucose ...
Knowles M E - - 1991
Surveillance of chemical contaminants in food plays an important role in helping to ensure a safe food supply in those countries that undertake it. This paper reviews the methods used in the UK as a means of highlighting the essential elements required by any food chemical surveillance programme. The following ...
Wolever T M - - 1991
To determine whether there was any advantage to taking a soluble fiber supplement separate from food, as opposed to incorporated into a food, we used psyllium as a model, either taken in water just before a flaked bran cereal test meal, sprinkled on top of the cereal, or actually incorporated ...
Laitinen J H - - 1991
A study was undertaken to find out how the hedonic responses to, and reported liking and consumption of, sweet and fat foods change during the first months of diet therapy of recently diagnosed patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The patients were 12 women and 19 men aged 40-65 years. The ...
Wallbanks K R - - 1991
It is known that a sugar meal is a prerequisite for the transmission of Leishmania by sandflies in the laboratory. Lutzomyia peruensis the proven vector of Leishmania peruviana, was caught by aspiration from crevices in rocks near Chaute in the Rimac Valley, Peru, cryopreserved and analysed for sugars using HPLC. ...
Hollenbeck C B - - 1991
A classification of carbohydrate-containing foods based on their glycemic response to 50-g carbohydrate portions has recently been developed. The relative glycemic potency of many of these carbohydrate-containing foods have been compared, and these data have been published in the form of a glycemic index. It has been suggested that meals ...
Mani U V - - 1990
The glycemic index (GI) was determined in 36 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients who were fed 50 g carbohydrate portions of six Indian conventional foods, including rice, a combination of rice-legume (Bengalgram, peas, and greengram), and a combination of rice-dal (greengram dal and redgram dal -- dal is dehusked and split ...
Goldie P - - 1990
Hemozoin, the pigment granule which develops within the blood stage food vacuole of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, was biochemically characterized. Hemozoin was found to be composed of 65% protein, 16% ferriprotoporphyrin-IX (hematin), 6% carbohydrate, and trace amounts of lipid and nucleic acids. The overwhelming majority of the protein component ...
Kräuchi K - - 1990
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients often crave carbohydrates when depressed during the winter. We measured dietary intake using a daily Food/Drink Frequency Questionnaire in 36 SAD patients over four conditions: when depressed in winter, during light therapy (1 h 2500 lux, morning or evening), during withdrawal, and when euthymic in ...
Mathias C J - - 1990
Food intake results in a variety of responses, with the autonomic nervous system playing an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. In patients with autonomic failure, who have severe sympathetic impairment, food substantially lowers blood pressure even in the supine position. This is related to a marked increase in splanchnic ...
Niewind A C - - 1990
Current food use and habitual food use prior to the diagnosis of diabetes were measured using a food frequency questionnaire in a group of recently diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Patients (51 m, 29 f) were between the ages of 20 and 40 years and had been diagnosed as insulin-dependent diabetics ...
Haller C - - 1990
This study addresses three topics in the chloralose-anesthetized cat: (a) distribution of local CMRglc: values ranging from 5 to 109 mumols/100 g/min were found in 37 brain structures and the mean CMRglc over all examined structures was 30.6 mumols/100 g/min; (b) effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, 250 mg/kg i.v.) on local ...
Toloza E M - - 1990
The ratio of intestinal glucose (Glc) to amino acid (AA) transporter activity rises with age in animals of species in which the ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein also rises. Does this shift function to match transporter activity to current dietary substrate levels or to the high AA requirements of ...
Rodin J - - 1990
Using a within-subjects design, we gave over-weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 min after the preload was completed. ...
Brand J C - - 1990
The in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility were determined for six staple foods (corn, lima beans, white and yellow teparies, mesquite, and acorns) traditionally consumed by Pima Indians. Equivalent carbohydrate portions (25 g) of the foods were fed to eight healthy Caucasian volunteers. The calculated ...
Khan A - - 1990
An unidentified factor that potentiates the action of insulin in glucose metabolism was investigated in selected foods and spices. Chromium content of these foods and spices was also determined. Foods and spices were extracted with 0.1N NH4OH (1:20, w/v) and the supernatants assayed for insulin potentiation activity in the rat ...
Wolever T M - - 1990
We studied 12 subjects with diabetes to determine how well the glycemic index (GI) predicted the ranking of glycemic responses of different foods in individuals. All subjects ate three mixed meals (bread, rice, or spaghetti with GIs of 100, 79, and 61, respectively) four times in a randomized complete block ...
Stoffolano J G JG - - 1990
A modified behavioral test for determining the median tarsal acceptance thresholds of field-collected, female Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart to sugars showed that flies were sensitive to the three major nectar sugars (fructose, sucrose, and glucose, in that order of decreasing sensitivity) whereas galactose, a nonnectar sugar, was not comparably stimulating. Comparisons ...
Wolever T M - - 1990
Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for ...
Broberg D J - - 1989
Preabsorptive insulin release was examined in bulimic women and in matched controls who diet. A palatable food was presented to subjects after an overnight fast and plasma insulin and glucose were measured at baseline, during presentation of the food and after it had been tasted. Food presentation and consumption were ...
Juliano B O - - 1989
Glycemic index responses of two cooked rices and six types of cooked noodles consumed by eight noninsulin-dependent diabetics correlated positively with in vitro starch digestibility of food slurry and negatively with amylose content of the food. Glutinous (waxy) rice had the highest values, and mung bean noodles the lowest.
Wahlqvist M L - - 1989
In developed countries, the health outcome most under scrutiny with respect to food intake is macrovascular disease. Since food is so complex, global indices of food intake are required to assess the relation. In the present study, an index of food variety was examined for its ability to predict changes ...
Raisbeck M F - - 1989
Gram negative endotoxins play a contributory role in the syndrome which results from over consumption of carbohydrates by horses and ponies. Since the antibiotic polymyxin B exerts a direct anti-endotoxin effect by chemically modifying the active lipid A moiety of endotoxin, it might be expected to protect horses after carbohydrate ...
Molla A M - - 1989
The efficacy in acute childhood diarrhoea of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) based on staple foods (maize, millet, wheat, sorghum, rice, or potato) was compared with that of standard ORT based on glucose. 266 children aged 1-5 years, with a history of acute diarrhoea for 48 h or less, moderate to ...
Wolever T M - - 1989
It is not known whether the variability of the glycemic index (GI) in different subjects is due to within- or between-individual variation. In addition, it is not known how large a difference in GI between different meals is clinically important for individuals with diabetes. Therefore, insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) ...
Hung C T - - 1989
The conventional food exchange list which has been used in most hospitals and nutrition related institutes in Taiwan is derived from that published by a Joint Committee of the American Diabetes Association, American Dietetic Association, and the Diabetes Section, U.S. Public Health Services in 1950. There are several disadvantages of ...
Anderson C R - - 1989
Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases ...
Stryjek-Kaminska D - - 1988
Thyroid hormone and glucose serum concentrations (SC) of carps (Cyprinus carpio L) have been monitored at weekly intervals throughout the year. T4 and rT3 concentrations were always below the limit of detection of the assays applied. T3 and glucose mean SC showed seasonal variations. Highest T3 SC were reached in ...
Wolever T M - - 1988
The effects of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate eaten the previous night on the glycemic response to a standard test meal eaten subsequently in the morning (breakfast) was studied. On separate evenings normal subjects ate low- or high-GI test meals of the same nutrient composition. The dinners consisted of ...
Mourot J - - 1988
Twelve young healthy adults (five men, seven women) ingested four test meals on four occasions so we could examine the relationship between the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and the glucose response to different starchy foods. Each meal consisted of one food product containing 50 g starch: spaghetti, rice, French ...
Kumar K G - - 1988
Two better titrimetric methods have been developed for determination of carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose, and sugars present in honey and milk. They involve reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by the carbohydrate concerned, and oxidative titration of the Cu(I) with a standard solution of N-bromophthalimide or N-bromosaccharin.
Muehlstein L K - - 1988
Zoospores of the marine chytrid Rhizophydium littoreum are attracted to a variety of substances common to their environment. In general, carbohydrates and polysaccharides elicited strong concentration-dependent positive responses. There was no direct correlation between all substances used as foods and those stimulating positive responses. The chemotactic activities of this organism ...
Rodin J - - 1988
Differential effects of fructose and glucose preloads on carbohydrate metabolism and later food intake were examined in both lean and obese subjects. In study 1, a preload of either 50 g of fructose or glucose was administered in solution, and food intake at a buffet lunch presented 2.25 h after ...
Jenkins D J - - 1988
Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is some evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. A major reason appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the factors influencing this. A similar ranking in ...
Lock D R - - 1988
The applicability of the glycemic index concept in pregnancy has not been established. The postprandial glucose curves were measured for nine foods (glucose, bread, raisins, dates, sweet corn, bananas, oranges, spaghetti, and green peas) in 28 gestational diabetic subjects. Uniform glycemic indices were observed for each food, similar to those ...
Tur J A - - 1988
1. Gastrointestinal (GI) morphometry and motility were measured in young broilers (3, 8 and 15 days old) when they were submitted to three dietary patterns (ad libitum food, acute 48-hr fast and cumulative semi-starvation). 2. All GI regions were hypertrophied when acute or intermittent starvation were applied; lightly when acute ...
Sclafani A - - 1988
In Experiment 1, adult female rats were fed, in addition to chow and water, a carbohydrate source that consisted of pure amylopectin corn starch or hydrolyzed corn starch (Polycose) in either a dry powder form or a hydrated gel form. Over the 30-day test periods, carbohydrate intake, total food intake, ...
Kruesi M J - - 1987
Habitual sugar consumption and behavior following challenge by sugar and aspartame were studied in 30 preschool boys. The 18 subjects whose parents considered them sugar reactive had more disruptive behavior problems at baseline than the other 12 subjects. Habitual sugar consumption correlated only with duration of aggression against property in ...
Ross S W - - 1987
Our aim was to determine the in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility of seven processed wheat products (shortbread biscuits, custard, quick-cooking wheat, wholemeal bread, water biscuits, puffed wheat, and puffed crispbread). The degree of starch gelatinization in the foods was measured. Fifty-gram carbohydrate portions of ...
Jenkins D J - - 1987
The aim of this study was to assess differences between starchy foods in the amount of carbohydrate which escapes small intestinal absorption. One ileostomate volunteer tested in metabolic feeding trials a total of 20 starchy foods (nine of which were repeated on two to seven occasions, mean 3.5 +/- 1.7). ...
Wolever T M - - 1987
To see whether relative differences in the glycemic responses to different foods were similar in insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) we determined the glycemic index (GI) of a total of 20 foods and mixed test meals in groups of IDDM and NIDDM volunteers. The mean GI values ranged ...
Alfin-Slater R B - - 1987
Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. ...
Laine D C - - 1987
To determine whether the diabetic exchange lists or the glycemic index of foods better predicts postprandial responses to carbohydrate-containing foods eaten as part of a mixed meal, three test meals were developed and fed to 12 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 13 healthy subjects. Each test meal contained ...
Hamer M J - - 1987
Within 2 days of hatching in chicks, there are parallel increases in hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and phosphofructokinase-1 activity. The changes observed are a consequence of feeding on the carbohydrate-rich diet of neonatal life: lack of access to food after hatching prevents changes for either parameter. The results are discussed ...
Spitzer L - - 1987
To determine how the nutrient content of one eating event might affect amount consumed at the next, we evaluated whether equicaloric fructose and glucose preloads differentially influence subsequent food intake. Subjects consumed 50 g of glucose or fructose in 500 ml of water or water alone and were given a ...
Burke L M - - 1987
Carbohydrate loading techniques were studied in a survey of 76 marathon runners. It was found that these runners practised a variety of methods that they believed would achieve carbohydrate loading. Analysis of records of food use showed that the diets actually used by runners did not reach the level of ...
Bornet F R - - 1987
The glycemic index concept neglects the insulin secretion factor and has not been systematically studied during mixed meals. Six starch-rich foods were tested alone and in an isoglucido-lipido-protidic meal in 18 NIDDs and compared with a glucose challenge. These test meals were randomly assigned using a three factor experiment design. ...
Lucas F - - 1987
Insulin secretion occurs in response to cephalic stimulation by foods; in humans, the response is quite variable and its importance in meal situations is difficult to assess. Insulinemia also varies spontaneously in the absence of food stimulation. In the present work, a comparative study of spontaneous and food-associated insulinemia changes ...
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