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Rodin J - - 1990
Using a within-subjects design, we gave over-weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 min after the preload was completed. ...
Brand J C - - 1990
The in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility were determined for six staple foods (corn, lima beans, white and yellow teparies, mesquite, and acorns) traditionally consumed by Pima Indians. Equivalent carbohydrate portions (25 g) of the foods were fed to eight healthy Caucasian volunteers. The calculated ...
Khan A - - 1990
An unidentified factor that potentiates the action of insulin in glucose metabolism was investigated in selected foods and spices. Chromium content of these foods and spices was also determined. Foods and spices were extracted with 0.1N NH4OH (1:20, w/v) and the supernatants assayed for insulin potentiation activity in the rat ...
Wolever T M - - 1990
We studied 12 subjects with diabetes to determine how well the glycemic index (GI) predicted the ranking of glycemic responses of different foods in individuals. All subjects ate three mixed meals (bread, rice, or spaghetti with GIs of 100, 79, and 61, respectively) four times in a randomized complete block ...
Stoffolano J G JG - - 1990
A modified behavioral test for determining the median tarsal acceptance thresholds of field-collected, female Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart to sugars showed that flies were sensitive to the three major nectar sugars (fructose, sucrose, and glucose, in that order of decreasing sensitivity) whereas galactose, a nonnectar sugar, was not comparably stimulating. Comparisons ...
Wolever T M - - 1990
Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for ...
Broberg D J - - 1989
Preabsorptive insulin release was examined in bulimic women and in matched controls who diet. A palatable food was presented to subjects after an overnight fast and plasma insulin and glucose were measured at baseline, during presentation of the food and after it had been tasted. Food presentation and consumption were ...
Juliano B O - - 1989
Glycemic index responses of two cooked rices and six types of cooked noodles consumed by eight noninsulin-dependent diabetics correlated positively with in vitro starch digestibility of food slurry and negatively with amylose content of the food. Glutinous (waxy) rice had the highest values, and mung bean noodles the lowest.
Wahlqvist M L - - 1989
In developed countries, the health outcome most under scrutiny with respect to food intake is macrovascular disease. Since food is so complex, global indices of food intake are required to assess the relation. In the present study, an index of food variety was examined for its ability to predict changes ...
Raisbeck M F - - 1989
Gram negative endotoxins play a contributory role in the syndrome which results from over consumption of carbohydrates by horses and ponies. Since the antibiotic polymyxin B exerts a direct anti-endotoxin effect by chemically modifying the active lipid A moiety of endotoxin, it might be expected to protect horses after carbohydrate ...
Molla A M - - 1989
The efficacy in acute childhood diarrhoea of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) based on staple foods (maize, millet, wheat, sorghum, rice, or potato) was compared with that of standard ORT based on glucose. 266 children aged 1-5 years, with a history of acute diarrhoea for 48 h or less, moderate to ...
Wolever T M - - 1989
It is not known whether the variability of the glycemic index (GI) in different subjects is due to within- or between-individual variation. In addition, it is not known how large a difference in GI between different meals is clinically important for individuals with diabetes. Therefore, insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) ...
Hung C T - - 1989
The conventional food exchange list which has been used in most hospitals and nutrition related institutes in Taiwan is derived from that published by a Joint Committee of the American Diabetes Association, American Dietetic Association, and the Diabetes Section, U.S. Public Health Services in 1950. There are several disadvantages of ...
Anderson C R - - 1989
Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases ...
Stryjek-Kaminska D - - 1988
Thyroid hormone and glucose serum concentrations (SC) of carps (Cyprinus carpio L) have been monitored at weekly intervals throughout the year. T4 and rT3 concentrations were always below the limit of detection of the assays applied. T3 and glucose mean SC showed seasonal variations. Highest T3 SC were reached in ...
Wolever T M - - 1988
The effects of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate eaten the previous night on the glycemic response to a standard test meal eaten subsequently in the morning (breakfast) was studied. On separate evenings normal subjects ate low- or high-GI test meals of the same nutrient composition. The dinners consisted of ...
Mourot J - - 1988
Twelve young healthy adults (five men, seven women) ingested four test meals on four occasions so we could examine the relationship between the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and the glucose response to different starchy foods. Each meal consisted of one food product containing 50 g starch: spaghetti, rice, French ...
Kumar K G - - 1988
Two better titrimetric methods have been developed for determination of carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose, and sugars present in honey and milk. They involve reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by the carbohydrate concerned, and oxidative titration of the Cu(I) with a standard solution of N-bromophthalimide or N-bromosaccharin.
Muehlstein L K - - 1988
Zoospores of the marine chytrid Rhizophydium littoreum are attracted to a variety of substances common to their environment. In general, carbohydrates and polysaccharides elicited strong concentration-dependent positive responses. There was no direct correlation between all substances used as foods and those stimulating positive responses. The chemotactic activities of this organism ...
Rodin J - - 1988
Differential effects of fructose and glucose preloads on carbohydrate metabolism and later food intake were examined in both lean and obese subjects. In study 1, a preload of either 50 g of fructose or glucose was administered in solution, and food intake at a buffet lunch presented 2.25 h after ...
Jenkins D J - - 1988
Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is some evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. A major reason appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the factors influencing this. A similar ranking in ...
Lock D R - - 1988
The applicability of the glycemic index concept in pregnancy has not been established. The postprandial glucose curves were measured for nine foods (glucose, bread, raisins, dates, sweet corn, bananas, oranges, spaghetti, and green peas) in 28 gestational diabetic subjects. Uniform glycemic indices were observed for each food, similar to those ...
Tur J A - - 1988
1. Gastrointestinal (GI) morphometry and motility were measured in young broilers (3, 8 and 15 days old) when they were submitted to three dietary patterns (ad libitum food, acute 48-hr fast and cumulative semi-starvation). 2. All GI regions were hypertrophied when acute or intermittent starvation were applied; lightly when acute ...
Sclafani A - - 1988
In Experiment 1, adult female rats were fed, in addition to chow and water, a carbohydrate source that consisted of pure amylopectin corn starch or hydrolyzed corn starch (Polycose) in either a dry powder form or a hydrated gel form. Over the 30-day test periods, carbohydrate intake, total food intake, ...
Kruesi M J - - 1987
Habitual sugar consumption and behavior following challenge by sugar and aspartame were studied in 30 preschool boys. The 18 subjects whose parents considered them sugar reactive had more disruptive behavior problems at baseline than the other 12 subjects. Habitual sugar consumption correlated only with duration of aggression against property in ...
Ross S W - - 1987
Our aim was to determine the in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility of seven processed wheat products (shortbread biscuits, custard, quick-cooking wheat, wholemeal bread, water biscuits, puffed wheat, and puffed crispbread). The degree of starch gelatinization in the foods was measured. Fifty-gram carbohydrate portions of ...
Jenkins D J - - 1987
The aim of this study was to assess differences between starchy foods in the amount of carbohydrate which escapes small intestinal absorption. One ileostomate volunteer tested in metabolic feeding trials a total of 20 starchy foods (nine of which were repeated on two to seven occasions, mean 3.5 +/- 1.7). ...
Wolever T M - - 1987
To see whether relative differences in the glycemic responses to different foods were similar in insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) we determined the glycemic index (GI) of a total of 20 foods and mixed test meals in groups of IDDM and NIDDM volunteers. The mean GI values ranged ...
Alfin-Slater R B - - 1987
Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. ...
Laine D C - - 1987
To determine whether the diabetic exchange lists or the glycemic index of foods better predicts postprandial responses to carbohydrate-containing foods eaten as part of a mixed meal, three test meals were developed and fed to 12 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 13 healthy subjects. Each test meal contained ...
Hamer M J - - 1987
Within 2 days of hatching in chicks, there are parallel increases in hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and phosphofructokinase-1 activity. The changes observed are a consequence of feeding on the carbohydrate-rich diet of neonatal life: lack of access to food after hatching prevents changes for either parameter. The results are discussed ...
Spitzer L - - 1987
To determine how the nutrient content of one eating event might affect amount consumed at the next, we evaluated whether equicaloric fructose and glucose preloads differentially influence subsequent food intake. Subjects consumed 50 g of glucose or fructose in 500 ml of water or water alone and were given a ...
Burke L M - - 1987
Carbohydrate loading techniques were studied in a survey of 76 marathon runners. It was found that these runners practised a variety of methods that they believed would achieve carbohydrate loading. Analysis of records of food use showed that the diets actually used by runners did not reach the level of ...
Bornet F R - - 1987
The glycemic index concept neglects the insulin secretion factor and has not been systematically studied during mixed meals. Six starch-rich foods were tested alone and in an isoglucido-lipido-protidic meal in 18 NIDDs and compared with a glucose challenge. These test meals were randomly assigned using a three factor experiment design. ...
Lucas F - - 1987
Insulin secretion occurs in response to cephalic stimulation by foods; in humans, the response is quite variable and its importance in meal situations is difficult to assess. Insulinemia also varies spontaneously in the absence of food stimulation. In the present work, a comparative study of spontaneous and food-associated insulinemia changes ...
Arase K - - 1987
The effects on food intake, blood glucose and the binding of guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP) to mitochondria from interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) were examined following the injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) into the third ventricle of the brain. Microinjections of 2-DOG increased food intake and blood glucose within 30 to 60 ...
Oettlé G J - - 1987
To determine whether realistic snacks containing added sugar evoke excessive insulin responses, 10 healthy subjects consumed four different snack meals, similar in fat and total energy content. Two snacks were based on sugary, manufactured products (chocolate-coated candy bar; cola drink with crisps) and two on whole foods (raisins and peanuts; ...
Savory C J - - 1987
1. Amounts of food eaten in 30 min, by fasted-refed immature hens, were not correlated with plasma glucose levels before feeding, or with increases in glucose after feeding. 2. When previously fasted birds were given 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g food to eat, their plasma glucose increased by ...
Jenkins D J - - 1987
The rate of the small intestine amylolytic digestion appears to be a major determinant of the glycemic response. Foods such as legumes appear to be digested less rapidly than many cereal foods although even amongst these large differences in rates of in vitro digestion exist. Studies of diabetes using high ...
Thorburn A W - - 1987
The aim of this study was to compare the digestibility and metabolic responses of western foods with traditional staples of two populations that show a susceptibility to diabetes, namely Australian Aborigines and Pacific islanders. Rate of starch digestion was studied in vitro in 37 foods (20 Australian Aboriginal bushfoods, 10 ...
Szathmary E J - - 1987
Dietary change among adult Dogrib Indians of the Northwest Territories, Canada, is examined in conjunction with differences in mean glucose levels among more acculturated-less acculturated settlements. There are significant differences in the intake components derived from non-traditional foods by community and by age. However, the traditional food base is stable. ...
Lieberman H R - - 1986
Two groups of obese individuals who consume excessive calories primarily as snack foods have been identified. Carbohydrate cravers consume most or all snacks as carbohydrate-rich foods despite the equal accessibility of protein-rich snacks. Noncarbohydrate cravers consume about equal amounts of protein- and carbohydrate-rich snack foods. Using standardized self-report questionnaires, we ...
Campfield L A - - 1986
To assess the strength and time course of the functional coupling between transient declines in blood glucose and meal initiation, access to food was prevented throughout declines followed by restoration of access to food when glucose returned to baseline. Neither preventing access to nor the absence of food affected the ...
Pesti G M - - 1986
In estimating the metabolizable energy of a food or feedstuff (MEf), the ME of a reference diet (MEr, containing glucose monohydrate) and the ME of a test (MEt, containing the feedstuff substituted for glucose) are determined from a feeding trial: MEf = MEglucose -1/P (MEr - MEt) where P is ...
Calle-Pascual A L - - 1986
We have studied the glycaemic response to 50 g of carbohydrate (CHO) within a standard meal in order to ascertain the usefulness of the glycaemic index of food high in CHO for planning the diabetic diet. Carbohydrate was given in the form of three kinds of food: rice, potatoes and ...
Connor S L - - 1986
A food's hypercholesterolaemic-atherogenic potential lies in its cholesterol and saturated-fat content. To help understand the contribution of these two factors a cholesterol/saturated-fat index (CSI) has been calculated. This index is based on a modification of a regression equation computed from metabolic studies designed to lower plasma lipids. A low CSI ...
Thorburn A W - - 1986
The glycaemic index is a measure of the extent to which the carbohydrate in a food can raise the blood glucose concentration and helps to identify foods which may be beneficial to a diabetic patient. This paper reviews the results that have been obtained so far with the glycaemic index ...
Wolever T M - - 1986
The breath hydrogen technique has suggested that a considerable amount of available plus unavailable carbohydrate enters the large intestine after the consumption of starchy foods (white bread 11%, wholemeal bread 8%, and red lentils 18%). Direct measurement of the available carbohydrate in ileal effluent after the consumption of test meals ...
Wolever T M - - 1986
There has been much interest in the use of the glycemic index (GI). A recent study reporting plasma glucose responses to mixed meals containing fat and protein concluded that the results were totally disparate from what would have been expected from published GI values of the foods fed. However, this ...
Brand J C - - 1985
The purpose of the study was to compare the in vitro starch digestibility and postprandial blood glucose response of conventionally-cooked versus factory-processed foods. Carbohydrate portions of three unprocessed foods (boiled rice, sweet corn, and potato) and six processed foods (instant rice, Rice Bubbles, corn chips, Cornflakes, instant potato, and potato ...
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