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Zvicevičius, Egidijus
Micromycetes not only deteriorate the quality of grain, but also are potential producents of mycotoxins. The most reliable way not to contaminate grain with mycotoxins is to avoid their rise. Therefore, reducing the contamination of food products with mycotoxins, precautionary means pointed against mycotoxins are very important. Low moisture is ...
Bukelskienė, Virginija
Fungi, as a result of fungal infection, may colonise many kinds of feed and food on their route from the field to the table. The aim of this study was to evaluate health risks associated with the exposure of living beings to Aspergillus amstelodami. A. amstelodami 724 strain was isolated ...
Commins Scott P SP Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Electronic address: - - 2014
In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Although patients were remarkably consistent in their description of a 3- to 6-hour delay between eating mammalian meat and the appearance of symptoms, this delay has not ...
Giora Julia J Laboratório de Ictiologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, - - 2014
The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative ...
Luo Jianxi J Singapore University of Technology and Design, 20 Dover Drive, Singapore - - 2014
The structure of ecological networks, in particular food webs, determines their ability to evolve further, i.e. evolvability. The knowledge about how food web evolvability is determined by the structures of diverse ecological networks can guide human interventions purposefully to either promote or limit evolvability of ecosystems. However, the focus of ...
Kivuyo Happiness S HS Department of Zoology and Wildlife Conservation, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar-es-salaam, Dar-es-salaam, - - 2014
Rearing of Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquitoes in insectary with quality cheap food sources is of paramount importance for better and healthy colony. This study evaluated larval survival and the development rate of aquatic stages of An.gambiae s.s under five food regimes; tetramin fish food (a standard insectary larval food), maize ...
Berg Emily A EA Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, - - 2014
A novel form of food allergy has been described that initially became apparent from IgE reactivity with the drug cetuximab. Ongoing work regarding the etiology, distribution, clinical management, and cellular mechanisms of the IgE response to the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is reviewed. Brief review of the relevant literature in peer-reviewed ...
Commins Scott P SP Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. - - 2013
A novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to IgE antibody (Ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this IgE response is reviewed. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE Ab response that has been associated ...
Stanley William T WT Science and Education, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2013
The hero shrew's (Scutisorex somereni) massive interlocking lumbar vertebrae represent the most extreme modification of the vertebral column known in mammals. No intermediate form of this remarkable morphology is known, nor is there any convincing theory to explain its functional significance. We document a new species in the heretofore monotypic ...
O Donnell Michelle M - - 2013
Metabolic flexibility may be generally defined as "the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability". The metabolic diversification strategies used by individual bacteria vary greatly from the use of novel or acquired enzymes to the use of plasmid-localised genes and transporters. In this review, we describe ...
Milewski Antoni V - - 2013
Tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) are the only living vertebrates, beyond the order Proboscidea, found to possess a true proboscis, defined as a flexible tubular extension of the joint narial and upper labial musculature that serves, at least in part, to grasp food. Tapirs show only partial homology and analogy with elephants ...
Fa John E - - 2013
High dependence on the hunting and consumption of large mammals by some hominins may have limited their survival once their preferred quarry became scarce or disappeared. Adaptation to smaller residual prey would have been essential after the many large-bodied species decreased in numbers. We focus on the use of a ...
Bedaso Zelalem K - - 2012
Carbon and oxygen isotopes of mammalian tooth enamel were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments of Australopithecus afarensis from the middle Pliocene locality of Dikika, Ethiopia. Isotopic analyses were conducted on 210 mammalian herbivore teeth from 15 different taxa collected from the Basal Member (∼3.8-3.42 Ma) and Sidi Hakoma Member (3.42-3.24 Ma) of the ...
Tolleson William H - - 2012
We compared the kinetics and efficacies of sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid-based detergent, chlorinated alkaline detergent, quaternary ammonium-based sanitizer, and peracetic acid-based sanitizer for inactivating the potential bioterrorism agents ricin and abrin in simple buffers, food slurries (infant formula, peanut butter, and pancake mix), and in dried food residues ...
Zhang Xiaofeng - - 2012
A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method in conjunction with fluorescin-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes (PNA-FISH) for detection of Listeria species was developed. In silico analysis showed that three PNA probes Lis-16S-1, Lm-16S-2 and Liv-16S-5 were suitable for specific identification of Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. ...
Han Shuang - - 2012
Fluorescence nanoclusters have been used for the determination of melamine for the first time. The method is based on the fluorescence turn-on of oligonucleotide-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA-Ag NCs) by melamine. The enhancement factors (I-I(0))/I(0) increase linearly with melamine concentrations over the range 5.0×10(-8)-7.0×10(-6)M (R(2)=0.998). The detection limit is 1.0×10(-8)M, which ...
Zhang Ruoyu - - 2012
Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HSFI) is potentially useful for assessing food and agricultural products, because it combines the merits of both hyperspectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. This paper provides an introduction to HSFI: the principle and components of HSFI, calibration and image processing are described. In addition, recent advances in the ...
Nagata Jason M JM Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, UK. - - 2012
Food insecurity is a considerable challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, disproportionately affecting persons living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigates the lived experience, determinants, and consequences of food insecurity and hunger among individuals living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria in Suba District, Kenya. Parallel mixed methods included semi-structured interviews ...
Lohans Christopher T - - 2012
Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological ...
Linderborg Kaisa M - - 2011
The triacylglycerol (TAG) response to fatty meals containing dried and crushed berries or berry extraction residues was studied in a postprandial cross-over study with healthy normal-weight male volunteers. The berry material included sea buckthorn berries, sea buckthorn CO(2) extraction residue (CO(2)-sea buckthorn) and sea buckthorn or black currant CO(2) and ...
Tsai Alexander C AC Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States. - - 2011
HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. ...
Kjos M - - 2011
Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed ...
McMahon James H JH Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. - - 2011
Food insecurity is highly prevalent in HIV-infected populations, and analyses utilizing multiple assessments of food security to predict CD4 change are lacking. Five hundred Ninety-two patients with ≥ 4 food security assessments were followed prospectively. In the final model, for patients using antiretroviral therapy, increases in CD4 counts were on ...
Ryan Joseph Thomas - - 2011
Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the ...
Maritz Elke R - - 2011
Background: Although premastication of food for weaning infants might have nutritional benefit, it is also associated with transmission of pathogens. We investigated premastication practices in Cape Town, South Africa, in lower socioeconomic status caregivers of infants below 2 years of age. Methods: A previously reported questionnaire was adapted for South ...
Schön T - - 2011
In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from Gondar, Ethiopia (n = 180) ...
Colares-Bento Fernanda Cristina Jesus - - 2011
To evaluate the capacity to perceive bitter taste in a sample of the elderly population of the Brazilian Federal District, and to investigate its association with the consumption profile of distinct food groups. A total of 255 female outpatients aged 60 years or older took part in this cross-sectional study. ...
Fitzgerald Ciaran - - 2011
Macroalgae have for centuries been consumed whole amongst the East Asian populations of China, Korea and Japan. Due to the environment in which they grow, macroalgae produce unique and interesting biologically active compounds. Protein can account for up to 47 % of the dry weight of macroalgae depending on species ...
Wang Emily A - - 2011
Food insecurity negatively impacts HIV disease outcomes in international settings. No large scale U.S. studies have investigated the association between food insecurity and severity of HIV disease or the mechanism of this possible association. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of food insecurity on HIV disease ...
Voss K A - - 2010
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in cereal grains and cereal-based foods. DON concentrations in finished products are reduced under some processing conditions, but not others. DON concentrations in flour, wheat and selected foods made from them under commercially relevant conditions were compared by GC with electron capture detection. Average ...
Ghali Ridha - - 2010
To investigate natural aflatoxin occurrence, a total of 180 samples of different foods widely consumed in Tunisia were analysed by an in-house-validated high-performance liquid chromatography method including affinity column clean-up and post-column bromination techniques. The method used appeared to be rapid, selective and reproducible, and its performances were established. Detection ...
Duarte S C - - 2010
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring contaminants whose presence in food- and feedstuffs cannot be completely avoided. The safety and economic impact arising from the commercialization of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed supply chain is considerable and acknowledged. To protect consumers from mycotoxin-derived health risks, many countries have adopted regulations or guidelines to ...
Aydin Ali - - 2011
One hundred unpackaged rice samples, each weighing 500 g, were randomly collected at retail stores and open markets in the largest rice growing area (Thrace) in Turkey and analysed for mould counts, predominant mould genera, moisture content and mycotoxin levels. Mould counts ranged from 1.0 × 10(1) to 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/g ...
Traverso A - - 2010
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins derived from foodstuffs colonized by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus; they are common food contaminants with immunosuppressive, mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Aflatoxins are heat-resistant and are thus easily transmitted along the food chain. They are hepatotoxic and have the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Agri-food industry ...
Huffman Justin J Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588, - - 2010
Polyketides (PKs) are a large group of natural products produced by microorganisms and plants. They are biopolymers of acetate and other short carboxylates and are biosynthesized by multifunctional enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). This review discusses the biosynthesis of four toxic PK, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins (OTs), and zearalenone. These metabolites ...
Pestka James J JJ Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. - - 2010
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced in wheat, barley and corn following infestation by the fungus Fusarium in the field and during storage. Colloquially known as "vomitoxin" because of its emetic effects in pigs, DON has been associated with human gastroenteritis. Since DON is commonly detected in cereal foods, ...
Brera Carlo - - 2010
Use of proper sampling methods throughout the agri-food chain is crucial when it comes to effectively detecting contaminants in foods and feeds. The objective of the study was to estimate the performance of sampling plan designs to determine aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) contamination in corn fields. A total of 840 ears ...
Vendl O - - 2010
A collection of 84 cereal-based food products in 25 composites, including beer, was screened for the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their respective metabolites deoxynivalenol-3-glucopyranoside, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, alpha-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, beta-zearalenol-4-glucopyranoside, and zearalenone-4-sulfate. The most abundant analyte was zearalenone-4-sulfate, which was found in 13 composites, albeit in low concentrations. Furthermore, ...
Trucksess Mary W - - 2010
Deoxynivalenol (DON), commonly referred to as vomitoxin, belongs to a class of naturally occurring mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. The presence of DON in foods is a human health concern. The frequency of occurrence of DON in wheat is high, although cleaning prior to milling can reduce DON concentration in ...
Set E - - 2010
Total aflatoxin (AFT) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination, pH and water activity, and mold and yeast counts in unpacked and packed ground red pepper (GRP) and pistachio nut have been studied from September 2008 to February 2009. 17.1% (14/82) and 23.1% (19/82) unpacked GRP were over AFT and AFB1 legal ...
Schoevers E J - - 2010
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a secondary metabolite and mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species that occurs with a high prevalence in cereals and grains intended for human and animal consumption. Pigs are considered to be the most sensitive animal species and exposure to DON results in reduced feed intake, reduced performance ...
He Jianwei - - 2010
Mycotoxins are found worldwide in cereal grains, animal feed and human food that are produced from contaminated grains. This presents food safety risks. A variety of methods has been developed to reduce the safety risks by removing mycotoxins from contaminated grain products, eliminate the bioavailability of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal ...
Anfossi Laura - - 2010
Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by various moulds, which can affect a variety of crops. Due to their high toxicity and wide diffusion, mycotoxins constitute a severe risk for human health, therefore maximum tolerance levels in food and feed products have been set up all over the world and analytical ...
Duarte S C - - 2010
The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world renders them an important position in international nutrition, but concurrently allocates exposure to possible contained contaminants. Mycotoxins are natural food contaminants, difficult to predict, evade, and reduce, so it is important to establish the real contribution of each contaminated food ...
Chulze S N - - 2010
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the main cereals as a source of food, forage and processed products for industry. World production is around 790 million tonnes of maize because as a staple food it provides more than one-third of the calories and proteins in some countries. Stored maize ...
Bergamini E - - 2010
Fusarium mycotoxins are a relevant problem in the cereal supply chain at a worldwide level, with wheat, maize and barley being the main contaminated crops. Mould growth can happen in the pre-harvest phase and also during transport and storage due to ineffective drying conditions. Among Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) is ...
Romanazzo Daniela - - 2010
A reliable and cost-effective electrochemical method for the detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals and cereal-based food samples based on the use of a novel anti-DON Fab fragment is presented. The analytical system employed, Enzyme-Linked-Immunomagnetic-Electrochemical (ELIME) assay, is based on the use of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coupled with eight magnetized ...
Clarke D B - - 2010
The analysis of 252 food samples (UK-produced and imported) purchased from a variety of retail outlets in the UK was undertaken for the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and nine other perfluorocompounds (PFCs). A limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 microg/kg was achieved for all target analytes, ...
Köppen Robert - - 2010
Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a "carry-over" of mycotoxins and their metabolites into ...
Mézes Miklós - - 2010
Ingredients used in animal feeds and their contamination with undesirable substances, such as mycotoxins, are fundamentally important both in terms of the quality of animal products and the potential human health impacts associated with the animal-based food production chain. Feed ingredients contaminated with mycotoxins may have a wide range of ...
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