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Pitt J I JI Food Science Australia, North Ryde, NSW, Australia. - - 2000
Mycotoxins and the fungi that produce them are of increasing importance as causes of human illness, but the diseases produced remain poorly understood at the clinical level. This paper explores four aspects: the increase of interest in ochratoxin A, factors affecting mycotoxin production, toxicology of the major mycotoxins, and the ...
Ryu D - - 1999
The effects of extrusion cooking on the stability of zearalenone (ZEN) in spiked (4.4 microg/g) food-grade corn grits were investigated using a twin screw extruder. A ground rice culture material containing a high level of ZEN was used to spike the corn grits. The extrusion variables were screw type (mixing ...
Fink-Gremmels J - - 1999
Mycotoxins contaminate various feed and food commodities, due to the global occurrence of toxinogenic molds. They exert adverse health effects in human and animals. The nature of these toxic effects varies depending on the chemical structure of the toxin. The degree of these adverse effects is not only determined by ...
Paster N - - 1999
The effects of nisin and propionic acid (PA) on aflatoxin production and on mycelial growth and spore germination of the mycotoxigenic fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, A. ochraceus, and Fusarium moniliforme were investigated. The growth of A. ochraceus was completely inhibited on media containing PA with nisin in concentrations of 0.05% PA ...
Brown K - - 1999
Corn and other crops contaminated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus give off a carcinogenic by-product called aflatoxin, which is blamed for high rates of liver cancer in Asia and Africa, where rice and corn are food staples. In the United States, aflatoxin's major threat is to farm animals, which can ...
Kostecki M - - 1999
One strain of Fusarium subglutinans (ITEM-1434) isolated from maize ear rot in Poland was tested for the ability to synthesize moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and fusaproliferin (FP) on six cereal substrates (wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize and rice kernels) for 3 weeks at 25 degrees C and on rice at ...
Wolf-Hall C E - - 1999
The effects of high-temperature and -pressure processing of foods spiked with deoxynivalenol (DON) were examined. In extruded corn grits, extruded dry dog food, and autoclaved moist dog food, there were no significant reductions (P < 0.05) in DON after processing. Autoclaved cream-style corn showed a reduction in DON of only ...
Gurung N K - - 1999
Fumonisins were produced by inoculating corn with Fusarium moniliforme M-1325 and incubating for 5 w. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) concentration determined by high performance liquid chromatography was 5,087 ppm. Ruminal fluid inoculum obtained from 2 ruminally cannulated steers and tubes containing 0, 50 or 100 ppm of FB1 were incubated in ...
Schnürer J - - 1999
Fungal growth leads to spoilage of food and animal feeds and to formation of mycotoxins and potentially allergenic spores. Fungi produce volatile compounds, during both primary and secondary metabolism, which can be used for detection and identification. Fungal volatiles from mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium have been characterized with gas ...
Warfield C Y - - 1999
Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis ...
de Koe W J - - 1999
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that are present in a large part of the world food supply and bear potential threat to food safety. The European Union has been working for several years now on the harmonization of some mycotoxin standards for foods based on toxicological evaluation by its Scientific Committee ...
Hollinger K - - 1999
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi. Diseases caused by mycotoxins are collectively referred to as mycotoxicosis. Disease is usually initiated after ingestion of feeds containing toxic doses of mycotoxins. Signs and symptoms vary and depend on the animal, the organ system involved, and on the dose and type of ...
Hughes D M - - 1999
Studies were conducted to determine the dietary amounts of deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) in dog and cat food that are required to produce overt signs of toxicity (e.g., vomiting or reduced food intake). Wheat naturally contaminated with 37 mg of DON/kg was used to manufacture pet foods containing 0, 1, 2, ...
Santurio J M - - 1999
1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB ...
Schollenberger M - - 1999
A total of 237 commercially available samples of cereal-based foods including bread and related products, noodles, breakfast cereals, baby and infant foods, rice and other foods were randomly collected in southwest Germany during the first six months of 1998. The trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-,15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X ...
Jackson L S - - 1999
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a wide variety of fungal species that contaminate food or feed. Fumonisins (FUM), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are examples of common mycotoxins in grains that have been shown to affect human and/or animal health. Physical, chemical and biological methods have been used for ...
Jindal N - - 1999
A total of 100 maize and 50 poultry feed samples collected in 1998 at random from nine and eight districts of Haryana, respectively, were analysed for fumonisin B1. The samples were collected from poultry farms, feed manufacturers and markets. Ninety one (91%) maize samples and forty two (84%) poultry feed ...
Li F Q - - 1999
Two corn powder samples implicated in the human food poisoning that occurred in Guangxi province in 1989, and eight wheat and two barley samples linked to an episode that involved about 130,000 people in gastrointestinal disorders in Anhui province in 1991 were analyzed for trichothecenes including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) ...
Antonacci L - - 1999
Agar cultures of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 were exposed to phosphine (PH3), in levels ranging from 0 to 2000 ppm (vol/vol). It was found that with PH3 concentrations of 400 ppm or higher the growth of the fungus was totally arrested. When PH3 was vented and the agar plates ...
Dragacci S - - 1999
Ochratoxin A is a carcinogen and nephrotoxin which can enter the food chain resulting in human exposure. As pig herds are exposed to ochratoxin A through their feed, their kidneys, livers and pork meat are considered as a possible route of exposure for humans. France, an important producer of pork ...
Siame B A - - 1998
Sorghum and maize form the main dietary staple foods in Botswana. Other products such as peanuts, peanut butter, phane (an edible larval stage of an emperor moth Imbrasia belina Westwood), and pulses (cowpeas and beans) are also widely used as food and for the manufacture of feeds. These important food ...
Vasanthi S - - 1998
Mycotoxins of importance in India include aflatoxin, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ergot alkaloids and ochratoxins. The ICMR multicentric study on the occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in risk commodities namely, maize and groundnut showed that 21 per cent of groundnut samples and 26 per cent of maize samples analysed exceeded Indian tolerance limits ...
Castelo M M - - 1998
Little is known about the stability of fumonisins in corn-based foods during heating. This study investigated the effects of canning, baking, and roasting (dry heating) processes on the stability of fumonisins in artificially contaminated and naturally contaminated corn-based foods. All samples were analyzed for fumonisin levels by both a commercial ...
de Nijs M - - 1998
Fumonisin B1 is currently regarded as the most significant mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has carcinogenic properties and may play a role in the etiology of human esophageal cancer. The human population is exposed to fumonisin B1 primarily by intake of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize. Maize consumed in the Netherlands ...
Jørgensen K - - 1998
Surveys have been carried out to estimate the levels of ochratoxin A in pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses. A total of 286 samples were analysed. The results show that compared with cereals and cereal products the contribution from the foods surveyed to the total intake of ochratoxin A by ...
Liu D L - - 1998
Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by Armillariella tabescens multienzyme, which was isolated from mycelium pellets of A. tabescens, was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and rat assay. The results of toxicology and pathology studies showed that toxicity of AFB1 was minimized after treatment with A. tabescens multienzyme. The result of ...
Castelo M M - - 1998
Corn-based food products obtained from commercial outlets in three different parts of the U.S., Maryland, Nebraska, and Arizona were analyzed for total fumonisins by a commercial competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) and for fumonisin B1 (FB1) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest fumonisin concentrations were found in samples ...
de Nijs M - - 1998
Sixty-two samples of maize imported in The Netherlands and intended for human consumption were screened for the presence and concentration of fumonisin B1. Sixty-one of those samples contained fumonisin B1 with concentrations ranging from 30 to 3350 micrograms kg-1, 11 maize samples contained > 1000 micrograms kg-1. The average fumonisin ...
de Nijs M - - 1998
Seventy-eight maize-containing foods obtained from retail stores in The Netherlands were analysed for fumonisin B1 contamination. Thirty-six per cent of the samples were contaminated with fumonisin B1 in the range of 8 micrograms kg-1 (limit of detection) to 1430 micrograms/kg-1. Forty-six per cent of the minimally treated maize samples (n ...
Höhler D - - 1998
Ochratoxins, of which ochratoxin A (OA) is the most prevalent, are secondary fungal metabolites of some toxigenic species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OA has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. The natural occurrence of OA in food and feed stuffs is widespread, especially in temperate areas ...
Ostrý V - - 1998
The fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, are known to occur worldwide as natural contaminants of corn. They are associated with several animal diseases and are a potential threat to human health. A total of 127 samples of corn-based foods (gluten-free diet) in the Czech Republic were analysed by Ridascreen ...
Scudamore K A - - 1998
Methods used previously for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxins A and B, cyclopiazonic acid, zearalenone, sterigmatocystin, and moniliformin in maize were applied successfully to rice bran. However, recovery of deoxynivalenol and other trichothecene mycotoxins spiked into samples was lower than expected and no citrinin could ...
Abdullah N - - 1998
In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous ...
Fung F - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Stachybotrys as a fungus has been implicated as a source of mycotoxins. While the toxicity of several well-known mycotoxins (aflatoxins) is well documented, recent studies on Stachybotrys have raised the question that mycotoxins produced by this fungus may be responsible for the health effects of occupants in water-damaged buildings. ...
González H H - - 1999
A mycological survey was carried out on durum wheat (Triticum durum) samples from the main production area of Argentina. The isolation frequency and relative density of species of dematiaceous fungi, and genus Fusarium were calculated. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium graminearum were the predominant fungal species. An analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) ...
Chan H M - - 1998
The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food on indigenous peoples in Northern Canada have been a growing concern. We have conducted an extensive literature review on contaminant levels in Northern Canada through searches of commercial, private, and government databases for the years 1986-1995, including MEDLine, Agricola, Biological ...
Rumbeiha W K - - 1997
Fumonisins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a common corn contaminant world wide. Presently 6 different fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3, FB4, FA1 and FA2) have been identified and characterized. In veterinary medicine fumonisins cause equine leucoencephalomalacia and swine pulmonary edema. In addition, fumonisins have been shown to ...
Tonon S A - - 1997
Thirty samples of paddy rice and twenty-five of milled rice were obtained from processing centers located in two northern Provinces of Argentina and one southern Province of Paraguay. Contaminating fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar and oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract agar before and after ...
Soni K B - - 1997
Food additives such as turmeric (Curcuma longa), and active ingredient curcumin (diferuloyl methane), asafoetida (flavouring agent), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ellagic acid were found to inhibit the mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.5 microg/plate) in Salmonella tester strains TA 98 and TA 100. Turmeric and curcumin, ...
Scott P M - - 1997
Monitoring of Canadian grain crops and foods by the Health Protection Branch for deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) has been undertaken every year since 1980, when it was found in Ontario soft wheat for the first time (in the 1979 and 1980 crops). Contamination of this wheat crop has varied, with 22-100% ...
Radić B - - 1997
Ochratoxin A (OA) is nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxin porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease called endemic nephropathy (EN). In this paper we presented results obtained over a 10-year period in the hyperendemic village Kaniza, and in ...
vd Stegen G - - 1997
Samples (633) of final coffee products were drawn from the markets of different European countries relative to the market share of each product type and brand. These samples were analysed in a cooperative action with nine different laboratories. With low limits of detection (mean detection limit approximately 0.5 ng/g) no ...
Patel S - - 1997
A survey has been carried out to determine the levels of fumonisins in a variety of maize-based foods and cereals available in the UK. The fate of fumonisins during commercial processing of maize was also assessed at each stage of the process. Fumonisins were not detected in samples of barley, ...
Scudamore K A - - 1997
A technique referred to as 'linked-column immunoassay clean-up', was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in a range of dry cereal-based pet foods and wild bird food. In addition a method also based on clean-up using immunoaffinity columns was used for the determination of fumonisin mycotoxins ...
Dalcero A - - 1997
In Argentina, there is rather little information about the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The aim of this work was to determine the fungal flora and natural incidence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in poultry feeds from 5 factories of Río Cuarto, Córdoba. Three hundred ...
Solti L - - 1997
A sensitive, monoclonal antibody-based ELISA test was developed and used for quantitative determination of ochratoxin A (OA) in human sera. The measuring range of this test (without sample dilution) was 0.2-2.0 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 0.2 ng/mL. The OA concentrations of 355 sera samples varied from < 0.2 ...
Scholten J M - - 1996
A method was developed for accurate measurement of aflatoxin B1 in the edible portion of pistachio nuts. Twenty-nine samples of kernels with and without their shells were slurried with a Mega Ultra Turrax. A subsample of the homogenate was extracted with water-methanol, defatted with petroleum ether, purified with a silica ...
Filtenborg O - - 1996
There is an increasing knowledge and understanding of the role played by moulds in food spoilage. Especially the discovery of mycotoxin production in foods has highlighted the importance of moulds in food quality. It is, however, only within the last 5-10 years that major progresses have been made towards the ...
Sydenham E W - - 1996
Fusarium toxins are a major group of secondary metabolites, produced by several species, that may contaminate food cereals and animal feeds. We describe results of a study in which a number of physicochemical constants for 12 Important Fusarium mycotoxins (zearalenone, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol monoacetate, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin ...
Patel S - - 1996
A survey has been carried out in the UK to determine the levels of mycotoxins in a range of ethnic foods. The survey involved analysis of 121 samples of ethnic foods, purchased from specialist shops, for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and the Fusarium mycotoxins (fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). The samples were ...
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