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Schisler David A - - 2002
Efforts to reduce mycotoxin contamination in food logically start with minimizing plant infection by mycotoxin producing pathogens. Fusarium graminearum (perfect state, Gibberella zeae) infects wheat heads at flowering, causing the disease Fusarium head blight (FHB) and losses of over 2.6 billion dollars in the U.S. during the last 10 years. ...
Beretta B - - 2002
Ochratoxin A is a typical cereal contaminant with strong nephrotoxic activity. To estimate the quantity of ochratoxin A that can be taken in by a child in the weaning period, several samples of cereal-based baby foods were analysed. Although most samples analysed contained ochratoxin A in undetectable amounts or below ...
van Egmond Hans P - - 2002
Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as ...
Fazekas B - - 2002
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by mould fungi belonging to several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It is formed during the storage of cereal grains and other plant-derived products. OTA ingested by humans and animals with the food or feed may exert deleterious ...
Park Douglas L - - 2002
Naturally occurring toxicant contamination of foods with mycotoxins is unavoidable and unpredictable and poses a unique challenge to food safety. Aflatoxins are toxic mold metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Primary commodities susceptible to aflatoxin contamination include corn, peanuts and cottonseed and animal-derived foods such as milk when ...
Bhatnagar Deepak - - 2002
Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate ...
Etcheverry M - - 2002
AIMS: To examine the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), trihydroxybutyrophenone and propylparaben (PP) (at concentrations of 1-20 mmol l(-1)) on growth of and fumonisin production by Argentinian strains of Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies on lag phases prior to growth, relative growth rates ...
Ahmad R - - 2002
AIMS: To analyse and compare, for the first time, fungal and bacterial populations and hydrolytic enzyme production in four monsooned and non-monsooned Arabica and Robusta coffee types. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, using serial dilution, the populations of bacteria (approximately 10(8) cfu g(-1)) were highest in monsooned coffees of both varieties. ...
Bullerman Lloyd B - - 2002
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (moniliforme) and Fusarium proliferatum that are found in corn and processed corn-based food products. Although generally heat stable, fumonisin concentrations appear to decline as processing temperatures increase. At processing temperatures of 125 degrees C or lower, losses of fumonisin are low (25-30%), whereas ...
Hun T E - - 2001
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), causes economic damage to corn, Zea mays L., throughout the Corn Belt. Because this insect has become the primary target of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic corn, current efforts addressing the management of O. nubilalis resistance to Bt corn require information on adult ...
Thuvander A - - 2001
Blood levels of ochratoxin A were determined in 406 Scandinavian blood donors (206 from Oslo, Norway, and 200 from Visby on the island of Gotland, Sweden), using an HPLC method. In connection with the blood collection, the subjects were asked to fill in a food questionnaire to obtain individual dietary ...
Egner P A - - 2001
Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an ...
van der Stegen G H - - 2001
A commercial lot of green coffee, naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), was roasted under various conditions, and the effects on its final OTA content were determined. Precautions were taken in sampling the coffee to cope with OTA inhomogeneity. The roasting conditions were kept within the range of commercial practice. ...
Boyd M L - - 2001
ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. in section Flavi were frequently associated with desert tree legumes in uncultivated areas of the Sonoran Desert. Of 270 samples of debris and fruits of mesquite (Prosopis spp.), ironwood (Olneya tesota), acacia (Acacia spp.), and palo verde (Cercidium and Parkinsonia spp.), 87% were positive for A. flavus ...
Razzazi E - - 2001
The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in canned (26 samples) as well as dry pet foods (17 samples) for cats and dogs was investigated. In addition, 26 feline kidney samples with or without kidney alterations were surveyed for OTA-residues. The separation and detection of OTA was carried out by an ...
Thuvander A - - 2001
To estimate the intake of some mycotoxins from food in Sweden, approximately 600 samples were collected and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes. Intakes were calculated for average and high consumers among adults and children and compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the respective toxin. Mycotoxin ...
Ono E Y - - 2001
The natural co-occurrence of fumonisins and aflatoxins was investigated in freshly harvested corn kernels (150 samples, 62 hybrids), acquired from the Central-Southern (27 samples, 21 hybrids), Central-Western (86 samples, 51 hybrids) and Northern (37 samples, 18 hybrids) regions of the State of Paraná, Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fumonisins ...
Li F Q - - 2001
A comparative study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins was conducted with corn samples from high- and low-incidence areas for human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) in Guangxi, China. In samples from the high-risk area, aflatoxin B(1) was the predominant toxin detected in terms of quantity and frequency, ...
Oberheu D G - - 2001
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by varous species of fungi. Aflatoxin (AF), a particular type of mycotoxin, can negatively impact many wildlife species in the laboratory; however, the magnitude of the problem in the field environment is unclear. Wild birds generally consume a combination of native foods and agricultural grains. ...
Schweitzer S H - - 2001
Samples of corn available as wildlife feed from retailers throughout Georgia (USA) were collected during April 1997 and analyzed for aflatoxin to determine if levels harmful to wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were present. Three of 31 (10%) samples collected from a 40-country area were positive. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay qualitatively ...
Sohár J - - 2001
This report gives a short survey of the situation concerning chemical contamination of foods in Hungary. It starts with a legal background and lists the institutions partaking in control and monitoring of food contamination. The report gives the most important food contaminants analysed in Hungary, and in some cases provides ...
Torres P - - 2001
Naturally aflatoxin-contaminated corn (Zea mays L.) was made into tortillas, tortilla chips, and corn chips by the traditional and commercial alkaline cooking processes. The traditional nixtamalization (alkaline-cooking) process involved cooking and steeping the corn, whereas the commercial nixtamalization process only steeps the corn in a hot alkaline solution (initially boiling). ...
Rizov M - - 2001
The ban of organochlorine pesticides in Bulgaria (1969) has led to their significant drop below the maximum residue limits. The climate and the imperfect storage facilities benefit the production of Fusarium toxins desoxynivalenol (folytoxin), zearalenon (F-2), T-2, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in grain products, M1 in milk products, and patulin ...
Abarca M L - - 2001
Ochratoxin A (OA) is receiving attention worldwide because of the hazard it poses to human and animal health. OA contamination of commodities, such as cereals or pork and poultry meat, is well recognized. Nevertheless, there is an increasing number of articles reporting OA contamination in other food commodities, such as ...
Otteneder H - - 2001
The evaluation process involved data collected by Official Food Control Laboratories during the period 1995 until 1999. A total of 613 samples analysed for ochratoxin A and complying with a detection limit lower than 0.6 microg/kg were evaluated. With the assistance of statistical process analysis the median concentrations for green ...
Seefelder W - - 2001
It is well-known that fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) in corn meal decreases during baking, frying, and cooking, but it is still not exactly clear how heating affects the formation of N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1) (NCM-FB(1)), the reaction product of FB(1) and reducing sugars. In model experiments corn grits were spiked with FB(1) (2 ...
Saunders D S - - 2001
Of about 10 billion bushels of corn that are grown each year in the United States, less than 2% is processed directly into food products, and about 18% is processed into intermediates such as high-fructose corn syrup, ethanol, and cornstarch. The vast majority of the annual crop is used domestically ...
De Girolamo A - - 2001
The stability of fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 during processing of corn flakes was investigated with three different methods for analysis of the naturally contaminated raw material (corn flour), intermediate product (extruded, but not roasted corn flakes), and final product (roasted corn flakes). Only one method, using immunoaffinity column clean-up, ...
Bueno D J - - 2001
This article reports on the identification of mycoflora of 21 dry pet foods (12 belonging to dogs and 9 to cats) that corresponded to 8 commercial brands made in Argentina and imported. The isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera are compared too. Ten genera and fungi ...
Midio A F - - 2001
Samples of cooked components of regular meals served at fast food outlets of the city of São Paulo, Brazil were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The 322 samples were composed of prepared traditional Brazilian and ethnic foods in which aflatoxins might be present. Thin-layer chromatography was used ...
Petersen A - - 2001
Experts from the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland) have carried out an evaluation of fumonisins. The working group members concluded that, at that time point, it was not possible to carry out a complete risk assessment. However, it was recommended that the human daily' intake of fumonisins ...
Urías-López M A - - 2001
Two field experiments were conducted in 1995-1996 to determine if there are common yield responses among maize hybrids to larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte injury. Three yellow dent hybrids, five white food grade dent hybrids, and a popcorn hybrid were included in the study. The minimum level ...
Kim E K - - 2001
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was found in 35 of 60 (58.3%) meju samples with an average concentration of 7.3 ng/g by ELISA. Contamination of AFB1 was confirmed in 25 of 60 samples (41.6%) using HPLC, with an average concentration of 6.9 ng/g. Mean recoveries from meju ranged from 107% to 170% ...
Omer R E - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in the world. In Sudan the incidence is thought to be high and increasing. This study aims to assess the association between peanut butter intake, as a source of aflatoxins, and the GSTM1 genotype in the etiology of HCC. METHOD: ...
Galvano F - - 2001
We reviewed various dietary strategies to contain the toxic effects of mycotoxins using antioxidant compounds (selenium, vitamins, provitamins), food components (phenolic compounds, coumarin, chlorophyll and its derivatives, fructose, aspartame), medicinal herbs and plant extracts, and mineral and biological binding agents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, bentonites, zeolites, activated carbons, bacteria, and ...
Skrzypczak C - - 2001
Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking ...
Kaiser J - - 2000
This fall, genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption was found in taco shells in the United States. Last week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) convened a scientific panel to review evidence on whether this StarLink corn could harm sensitive people by causing allergic reactions. ...
Gutema T - - 2000
Food-grade corn and corn-based food products intended for human consumption were analyzed for the incidence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), moniliformin, and Fusarium molds. A total of 100 food-grade commercial corn samples were obtained from two corn processing companies at five different locations in the United ...
Mátrai T - - 2000
Invertase production of grain storage moulds was studied. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were grown in a sucrose based liquid medium, at 37 degrees C. The A. flavus group (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. oryzae) and A. fumigatus showed a fast growth and intense invertase activity, while other ...
Dombrink-Kurtzman M A - - 2000
Studies were undertaken to determine the fate of the mycotoxins, fumonisins, during the process of alkaline cooking (nixtamalization), using normal-appearing corn that was naturally contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) at 8.79 ppm. Corn was processed into tortillas, starting with raw corn that was cooked with lime and allowed to steep ...
Machinski Júnior M - - 2000
Eighty-one samples of corn products were acquired from markets and supermarkets in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil, and were analysed for fumonsins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2). Forty samples (49%) were positive for FB1 (0.03-4.93 (micrograms/g) and 44 samples (54%) for FB2 (0.02-1.38 (micrograms/g). The samples, in order ...
Rafai P - - 2000
In the period between December 5, 1991 and September 17, 1998, 760 maize, 367 wheat, 119 soybean, 222 barley, 85 bran, 32 triticale, 60 oat, 14 rye and 22 sunflower samples were investigated for the presence and concentration of seven fusariotoxins (T-2 toxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, fusarenone-X) ...
Otteneder H - - 2000
The results of more than 450 samples taken from the literature and 400 samples tested by our own investigations have been taken into account to quite extensively describe the situation of OTA contamination of wine. According to these data OTA is much more commonly detected in red wines than in ...
Otta K H - - 2000
Legislative measures for monitoring and control of aflatoxin levels in foods and foodstuffs have been introduced in many countries. The aim of the present work was to make developments in the field of aflatoxin analysis, focusing upon the use of overpressured-layer chromatography (OPLC) for quantitative determination. OPLC methods have been ...
Vrabcheva T - - 2000
Cereal samples were collected in 1998 from Bulgarian villages without [control village (C), n = 20] or with [endemic villages (E); E1, n = 21; E2, n = 30; E3, n = 23] a history of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Sampling included foods (wheat, corn) and feeds (barley, oats, wheat ...
Beretta B - - 2000
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity ...
Bucheli P - - 2000
The occurrence and formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Robusta coffee was studied for three consecutive seasons under tropical conditions in Thailand. Sun drying of coffee cherries consistently led to OTA formation in the pulp and parchment (husks) of the cherries. In replicated trials, dried coffee beans (green coffee) were ...
Pitt J I JI Food Science Australia, North Ryde, NSW, Australia. - - 2000
Mycotoxins and the fungi that produce them are of increasing importance as causes of human illness, but the diseases produced remain poorly understood at the clinical level. This paper explores four aspects: the increase of interest in ochratoxin A, factors affecting mycotoxin production, toxicology of the major mycotoxins, and the ...
Kuhnlein H V - - 2000
Traditional food resources of indigenous peoples are now recognized as containing a variety of environmental contaminants which reach food species through local or long-range transport avenues. In this chapter we review the published reports of contaminants contained in traditional food in northern North America and Europe as organochlorines, heavy metals, ...
Simpanya M F - - 2000
Phane worm (an edible larval stage of the emperor moth Imbrasia belina Westwood) is an important food source, and its harvesting is an economic activity in rural Botswana. When the larva is feeding on leaves and later during processing, phane gets contaminated with fungi from the leaves and soil. We ...
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