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Jarvis Bruce B - - 2005
Fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) that pose a health hazard to humans and animals have long been known to be associated with mold-contaminated food and feed. In recent times, concerns have been raised about exposures to mycotoxin-producing fungi in indoor environments, e.g., damp homes and buildings. The principal mycotoxins that contaminate food ...
Melchert H U - - 2004
Highly toxic mycotoxins like the trichothecenes can be found as contaminants from the metabolism of fungi in food and food preparations. They can be identified and quantified with great accuracy by GC/MS-measurements. Reliable analytical methods are urgently needed because such mycotoxins are not only toxic substances occurring in nature but ...
Sarter Samira - - 2004
Mycotoxin contamination of food and feedstuffs is among the top priorities for human and animal safety. The currently used techniques for mycotoxin determination, either chromatography or ELISA, are unsuitable for routine in-field assessment. There is an urgent need for other accurate, simple and cost-effective techniques that can be used as ...
Solfrizzo M - - 2004
The increased sphinganine/sphingosine (SA/SO) ratio has previously been shown as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure in experimental animals and has been proposed as a tool to assess human exposure to fumonisin mainly occurring through the dietary consumption of fumonisin contaminated maize-based foods. Sphinganine and sphingosine were measured in urines of ...
Mellon Jay E - - 2004
A mixture of diferuloylputrescine/p-coumaroylferuloylputrescine (85:15, w/w) demonstrated inhibitory activity against aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus isolate AF13. Inhibition was concentration dependent, with a 50% effective dose of 30 microg of diferuloylputrescine/p-coumaroylferuloylputrescine per milliliter of medium. Aflatoxin inhibition levels of up to 93% were achieved using this conjugated polyamine material. ...
Schothorst Ronald C - - 2004
In 2001 the SCOOP (SCOOP: Scientific Co-operation on Questions relating to Food) task 3.2.10 "Collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU Member States" was established. The task was divided in three subtasks (zearalenone, fumonisins and trichothecenes). Results of ...
Aldred David - - 2004
Contamination of cereal commodities with mycotoxins represents a significant hazard to consumer health and has thus received increasing attention from food safety authorities and legislators. For trichothecenes, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in particular, the imminent implementation of legislative limits has focused attention on ways to prevent entry of such mycotoxin contaminants ...
Speijers G J A - - 2004
It is known for many years that several food items, derived from plants infected by fungi in the field during growing of the plant or during harvest and storage of the food item, can contain concomitantly different mycotoxins. As these combined mycotoxins occur simultaneously in the food item, consumption of ...
Schlatter Josef - - 2004
The present paper summarizes toxicity data relevant for hazard characterization for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 and HT-2 from recent opinions prepared by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Details on immunotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity and ...
Schneider Elisabeth - - 2004
Method development for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes in recent years was driven by the analytical necessities arising from its widespread (and increasing) occurrence in foods and feeds. This has resulted in the establishment of guideline levels for animal feed, tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for humans, and most importantly, ...
Champeil Agnes - - 2004
Fusarium mycotoxins are increasingly studied agronomically, chemically, and pathologically in the context of food safety, as a means of preventing new major health crises. Reliable mycotoxin techniques and sampling procedures are required for assessment of the effects of different sources of variation on grain mycotoxin content in agronomic experiments. Analyses ...
Tewari Devansu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To measure the depth of sampling of the uterine ectocervix with the use of a stiff-bristled, spiral-shaped brush (SpiraBrush Cx; Trylon Corporation, Torrance, CA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible hysterectomy specimens were identified. The ectocervix was brushed with an inked SpiraBrush Cx in four quadrants with either light (gentle) or ...
Assaf Hind - - 2004
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin which contaminates food such as cereals, beer, coffee, wine and products of animal origin. OTA is known for its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The prevalence of OTA in human blood and foodstuffs has been investigated in many countries. In this study, exposure ...
Humpf Hans-Ulrich - - 2004
Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods. They are toxic to animals and at least one analogue, fumonisin B1, is carcinogenic to rodents. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer and possibly neural tube defects in ...
Hsia Chu Chieh - - 2004
This is the first report that a Fusarium toxin nivalenol (NIV) naturally existing at high levels in dietary food in high-risk areas of cancer of esophagus and gastric cardia in China induced benign and malignant tumors in mice. The levels of two Fusarium toxins, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON) were quantitated ...
Méndez-Albores J A - - 2004
To determine whether pozol, a nixtamalized maize-based food was contaminated with aflatoxins, samples of non-fermented pozol were collected during the period November 2002 to April 2003 from local markets at Comitan in Chiapas, Mexico. The samples were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Nineteen out of one hundred and eleven ...
de Castro M F P M - - 2004
A survey of 196 samples of corn-based infant foods from 13 cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, was carried out to investigate the fumonisin contamination in the products. Based on their ingredients, the products were divided into seven groups: infant cereal designated as types A-D, corn meal, corn starch and ...
Krska Rudolf - - 2004
The contamination of maize by fungi, especially by Fusarium species, is a worldwide problem. One of the most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxins frequently found on European maize is zearalenone (ZON), which has been implicated in a range of human and animal diseases. It shows remarkable estrogenic properties and can cause severe ...
Fandohan, P.
Fusarium is one of the major fungal genera associated with maize in Africa. This genus comprises several toxigenic species including F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which are the most prolific producers of fumonisins. The fumonisins are a group of economically important mycotoxins and very common contaminants of maize-based foods and ...
González Regino - - 2004
The alkaline cooking of corn in a solution of Ca(OH)2 to produce corn-based foods is oriented to make corn proteins available, to incorporate Ca to the cooked grains, and also to remove the corn hull. This process (nixtamalization) is known in Mexico and Guatemala from prehispanic times; however, the effect ...
Biffi R - - 2004
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus ochraceus. Although typically considered a cereal contaminant, it has also been detected in dried fruit, nuts, meat and derivatives. To estimate the quantity of ochratoxin A that might be ingested by Italian consumers from these foods, 211 cereal ...
Tolin David F - - 2004
We examined whether patients with contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are characterized by sympathetic magic beliefs (i.e., an irrational understanding of how contagion is transmitted). We asked OCD patients (OCs), non-anxious control participants (NACs), and anxious control participants (ACs) to identify a "contaminated" object and rate its degree of contamination on ...
Somashekar D - - 2004
Contamination of food and feedstuffs by Aspergillus species and their toxic metabolites is a serious problem as they have adverse effects on human and animal health. Hence, food contamination monitoring is an important activity, which gives information on the level and type of contamination. A PCR-based method of detection of ...
Kosiak Barbara - - 2004
The occurrence and geographic distribution of species belonging to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium in grains of reduced and of acceptable quality were studied post-harvest in 1997 and 1998. A total of 260 grain samples of wheat, barley and oats was analysed. The distribution of Alternaria and Fusarium spp. varied ...
Gloria Carrión
Fungi associated with the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), are determined and galleries in coffee fruit, Coffea arabica L., are described. In total, 13 fungus species were found to be associated with the coffee berry borer and its galleries. These fungi were divided into four functional groups: 1) saprobic ...
Zarnowski Robert - - 2004
The resorcinolic lipid content and homologue composition of winter barley grains harvested at two field locations were evaluated. Depending on the crop location, the predominant alkylresorcinols identified were 1,3-dihydroxy-5-n-heneicosylbenzene or 1,3-dihydroxy-5-n-pentacosylbenzene. Both resorcinol concentration and their homologue profiles were diverse in samples harvested at different fields indicating a prevailing role ...
Scudamore K A - - 2004
Ochratoxin A in cereal foods and some other products is controlled in the European Community by recent legislation with the objective of minimizing consumer exposure to this mycotoxin. Few studies have examined losses during processing. The stability of ochratoxin A during extrusion of contaminated wholemeal wheat flour was examined using ...
Avantaggiato Giuseppina - - 2004
In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 micromol and 8.8 micromol DON and NIV/g adsorbent, ...
Vrabcheva Terry - - 2004
In the 1950s, a series of publications from Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Romania locally described a kidney disease called Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). In Bulgaria, the exposure of populations to ochratoxin A (OTA) was supported by analysis of individual food items demonstrating a higher prevalence and higher levels of OTA in ...
Blumenthal Cynthia Z - - 2004
Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Trichoderma reesei are three important production organisms used in industrial fermentations. Several of the fungal secondary metabolites produced by selected strains of these three fungi are capable of eliciting toxicity in animals. Among those toxic substances are the well-known mycotoxins 3-nitropropionic acid and ochratoxin A. ...
Hammond Bruce G - - 2004
Fumonisins were monitored in corn grain collected from Bt hybrids grown in 107 locations across the United States in 2000-2002. Bt corn hybrids contain the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that controls European corn borers and other stalk-boring pests. Fumonisin levels were frequently lower in grain from Bt hybrids grown ...
Fandohan, P; Programme on ...
Fusarium is one of the major fungal genera associated with maize in Africa. This genus comprises several toxigenic species including F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which are the most prolific producers of fumonisins. The fumonisins are a group of economically important mycotoxins and very common contaminants of maize-based foods and ...
Rundberget Thomas - - 2004
A total of 97 samples (48 summer and 49 winter) of food waste from private households were investigated for Penicillium and for mycotoxins. Twenty-five Penicillium species were isolated and Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium spinulosum, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium solitum ...
Saberi-Riseh R - - 2004
Wheat is an economic and important crop that provides approximately 20% of food calorie in the world. It is first crop in Iran and cultivated in the most areas of this country. Store-pit fungi make undesirable changes in quality and appearance of wheat grains. Even, some fungi produce different mycotoxins ...
Park J W - - 2004
A survey for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) was conducted on 88 food-grade rice samples randomly collected during July and August 2002 in Seoul, Korea. The presence of AFB(1) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the positive samples from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides this, from ...
Trinidad Trinidad P - - 2004
This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, ...
Golinski P K - - 2004
In Poland, occurrence of toxigenic fungi in cereals, foods, feeds and their components as well as mycotoxins accumulation in such material has been studied by numerous teams including our research group for over thirty years since 1969. Mostly cereal kernels and feeds have been examined for presence of toxigenic fungi, ...
Bueno Dante Javier - - 2004
Some molds produce desirable changes in food, but most are merely esthetically undesirable. There has also been an increasing awareness that certain metabolic products of some molds commonly found on foods and feed are dangerous to humans and animals. These toxin substances, mycotoxins, are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi, ...
Lindblad M - - 2004
AIMS: To model the probability of exceeding the European legislative limit of 5 microg ochratoxin A (OTA) per kilogram grain in relation to Penicillium verrucosum levels and storage conditions, and to evaluate the possibilities of using P. verrucosum colony counts for predicting noncompliant OTA levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cereal samples ...
Zmudzki J - - 2004
Mycotoxins are natural contaminants whose presence in food- and feedstuffs cannot be completely avoided. Since several mycotoxins have been associated with and implicated in human and animal diseases there is a need to establish maximum levels, guidelines or action levels for them in some kinds of commodities. International and government ...
Bueno Dante Javier - - 2004
Humans have now been growing and storing enough food for a long enough time that some rapidly evolving organisms, such as fungi, are moving into niches created by the exploitation of certain plants as food. Food is expected to be nutritious. The most important of the physicochemical conditions that affects ...
Pal Arindam - - 2004
A simple analytical device has been developed for performing noninstrumental immunofiltration-based assay on a batch of samples. The device consists of membrane strips, with antibody-immobilized zones, attached to a polyethylene card. A moist filter paper placed between the membrane and the polyethylene card acts as the absorbent body. The device ...
Takino M - - 2004
A comparison between electrospray ionization (ESI) and the recent introduced atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) technique is described for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in food. For the optimization of APPI, several APPI ion source parameters were examined. Furthermore, the chemical noise and ...
Zwierzchowski W - - 2004
Weather anomalies are the cause of the more and more frequent occurrence of the rezorcycyklic acid derivatives--zearalenone--in the fodders of the animal origin. This mycotoxine induces in the organism of gilts an oestrus-like condition. According to the latest reports the zearalenone derivatives were found in the human food-stuffs in the ...
Bankole S A - - 2004
Seventy-six samples of dried yam chips locally called elubo isu were purchased in 2000 from markets in Ogun and Oyo States of southwestern Nigeria. The samples were assessed for pH, moisture content, associated fungi and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The pH of samples ranged from 5.6 to 6.1,while the moisture contents ...
Cirillo Teresa - - 2003
Two lots of human foodstuffs from conventional and organic brand foods were purchased from supermarkets and analyzed for three Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol, by GC-ECD, and fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1)-FB(2)), by LC-MS. The occurrence of deoxynivalenol contamination was higher than 80% in both organic and conventional foods; fumonisin B(1) was ...
Spencer Joseph L - - 2003
Use of ingested transgenic corn tissue as a marker for measuring movement of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; western corn rootworm) was investigated. Laboratory observations of beetles feeding on corn foliage, pollen, silks, or soybean foliage provided background on feeding patterns. The interval between food consumption and its ...
Krska R - - 2003
Within the certification process of a reference material for the determination of the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON) in maize, short- and long-time stability tests of naturally contaminated maize have been performed. The short-term stability of ZON in the maize was evaluated under four different conditions (4, 25, 40 and 70 degrees ...
Overy David P - - 2003
A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured from nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium ...
Bouhet Sandrine - - 2004
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme), a fungus that commonly contaminates maize. FB1 causes toxicological effects in laboratory and domestic animals including pigs. Because the gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier met by exogenous food compounds, the purpose of this study was to ...
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