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Results 201 - 250 of 634
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Brinkmeyer Ute - - 2006
The Fusarium head blight (FHB)-susceptible winter wheat cv. Ritmo was inoculated with spores of Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of full blossom. Samples of whole wheat plants were taken once weekly from anthesis until harvest and subsequently fractionated into straw, glumes and spindles, which were examined for deoxynivalenol (DON) and ...
Sangare-Tigori Béatrice - - 2006
Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera contaminates a diversity of foods including cereals; cereals-derived foods; dry fruits; beans; cocoa; coffee; beer; wine; and foodstuffs of animal origin mainly poultry, eggs, pork and milk, including human breast milk. OTA is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far ...
Ghitakou Stavroula - - 2006
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is classified as "possible carcinogen" and it is a metabolite of Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. Fungi contaminate natural and processed olives which support AFB1 and OTA production. The aim of this study was to ...
McKean Christopher - - 2006
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and T-2 toxin (T-2) are important food-borne mycotoxins that have been implicated in human health and as potential biochemical weapons threats. In this study the acute and combinative toxicity of AFB1 and T-2 were tested in F-344 rats, mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), immortalized human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and ...
Kim Jong H - - 2006
The antioxidative stress-response system is essential to fungi for tolerating exposure to phenolic compounds. We show how this system can be targeted to improve fungal control by using compounds that inhibit the fungal mitochondrial respiratory chain. Targeting mitochondrial superoxide dismutase with selected phenolic acid derivatives (e.g., vanillyl acetone) resulted in ...
McKean C - - 2006
Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) are important food-borne mycotoxins. The co-contamination of food stuffs with these two mycotoxins is well known and has been possibly implicated in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk regions around the world. In this study the acute and combinative toxicity ...
Paterson, R. R. M.
The goal is to provide an objective and practical identification scheme for Penicillium by using patulin as an example. The taxonomy of penicillia is unstable particularly in the important antibiotic and mycotoxin-producing subgenus Penicillium. Nonspecialists especially encounter difficulty with assigning names. Name changes of important fungi have occurred frequently and ...
K.E. Akande
Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in various foods and are estimated to affect as much as 25% of the world`s crop each year. Most of these mytocoxins belong to the three genera of fungi: <I>Aspergillus, Penicillium </I>and <I>Fusarium. </I>Although over 300 mytocoxins are known, those of most concern ...
Lugauskas Albinas - - 2006
In 2003-2005 micromycetes were isolated and identified from wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat grain brought into mills or from processing enterprises. Contamination of the produced flour with micromycete propagules (cfu g(-1)), changes in micromycete diversity and abundance in the course of flour storage, preparation and baking of bread, production of groats ...
Blesa J - - 2006
Ochratoxin A (OTA) are synthesized mainly by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium being its human toxicological effects reflected in different countries due to the consumption of different foods and beverages such as red, white, rose, and special wines. This review presents an overview of the direct (meteorological conditions, grape ...
Anand S - - 2006
AIMS: The work was carried out to develop an immunoassay for estimation of Aspergillus ochraceus biomass on solid substrate. METHODS AND RESULTS: An indirect noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for determination of fungal biomass in food commodities using antibody raised against A. ochraceus mycelial antigen. The sensitivity of ...
SzymaƄska Jolanta - - 2006
The concentration and composition of fungal flora in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) were evaluated. For this purpose, water samples from unit reservoirs and high-speed handpieces, and biofilm samples from the waterline walls from units were collected. Subsequently, analogous samples from DUWL were taken before and after disinfection using agent containing ...
Kabak Bulent - - 2006
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that have been associated with severe toxic effects to vertebrates produced by many important phytopathogenic and food spoilage fungi including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria species. The contamination of foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. We reviewed various control strategies to ...
Reinhard Hans - - 2006
In recent years there has been growing interest in replacing (genetically modified) soya by lupin. Lupin seeds, flours and lupin containing food have been analyzed in order to assess the relevance of a potential health hazard given by mycotoxins and/or naturally occurring alkaloids. Since not all important alkaloids used for ...
Domijan Ana-Marija - - 2005
Maize grain samples (n=15) collected during the autumn of 2002 were analyzed for the presence of moulds and mycotoxins fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), zearalenone (ZEA), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Mycological analysis showed that all samples were contaminated with Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp., while Aspergillus spp. were found ...
Shephard Gordon S - - 2005
The production and consumption of home-brewed Xhosa maize beer is a widespread traditional practice in the former Transkei region of South Africa. HPLC determination of fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2), and B3 (FB3) in maize beer samples collected in two magisterial areas, Centane and Bizana, showed a wide range of ...
Huang Shihshieh - - 2005
Corn is one of the major crops in the world, but its low lysine content is often problematic for animal consumption. While exogenous lysine supplementation is still the most common solution for today's feed corn, high-lysine corn has been developed through genetic research and biotechnology. Reducing the lysine-poor seed storage ...
Kensler Thomas W - - 2005
Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods, and are exposed to high levels of phenanthrene, a sentinel of hydrocarbon air toxics. Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, contain anticarcinogens. Glucoraphanin, the principal glucosinolate in ...
Meyvaci K B - - 2005
A method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in sultanas from Turkey using extraction with a sodium bicarbonate solution (2% NaHCO3) followed by immunoaffinity clean-up and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used to assess the frequency of occurrence and level of OTA. In-house validation was carried out with ...
Sergent Thérèse - - 2005
The effect of polyphenols (PPs) on the absorption of ochratoxin A (OTA), a food-borne mycotoxin, was investigated in an in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier based on Caco-2 cells cultivated in a bicameral system. Two intraluminal concentrations of OTA approaching physiological levels were chosen (0.75 nM and 7.5 ...
Schroeder Jared B - - 2005
The cultural practice of rotating corn, Zea mays L., with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to manage larval injury by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was used extensively throughout east central Illinois and northern Indiana until the mid-1990s. The effectiveness of this management tactic diminished due to ...
Park Je Won - - 2005
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin widespread in cereals, occurs in polished rice that is consumed as cooked rice after washing and steaming. Cooking decreases OTA levels in food to varying extents, but little is known about how cooking changes the biological activity of this mycotoxin. We therefore evaluated the fate ...
Irvin, T. Rick (Thomas ...
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, 1983.
Yao Dong-Sheng - - 2006
Sterigmatocystin, ST, is carcinogenic mycotoxin with toxicity second to aflatoxins, contaminated in foods- and feeds-stuff widely. A three-electrode system was employed to examine the response character of the covalently united ADTZ-MWNTs electrode to ST, and the results indicated that an oxidation peak of ST was observed at about +400 mv, ...
Koirala P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There are many contaminants like aflatoxin present in food products. Aflatoxin in comparison to many other contaminants is very toxic and also carcinogenic. There are reports of outbreak of aflatoxin toxicity in many parts of the world. AIM: To find out the level of aflatoxin in common food and ...
Leblanc J-C - - 2005
This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in ...
Park Je Won - - 2005
The fate of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin known to occur in polished rice, during rice cooking was evaluated to determine reduction in AFB1 residues and mutagenic potentials. The amounts of AFB1 in three lots of naturally contaminated polished rice from Korea were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after washing ...
Bailly J D - - 2005
Toxinogenic fungal species can be isolated from dry cured meat products, raising the problem of the direct contamination of these foods by mycotoxins known to be carcinogenic or potent carcinogens. Because the contamination of a food by mycotoxins can be considered a balance between production and degradation, the stability of ...
Yazdanpanah Hassan - - 2005
With increasing knowledge and awareness of aflatoxins (AFs) as potent sources of health hazards to both human and animals, a great deal of effort has been made to completely eliminate the toxin or reduce its content in foods. Although prevention is the most effective intervention, heat has been used to ...
Guzmán-de-Peña Doralinda - - 2005
Aflatoxins are potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, and A. parasiticus that are commonly present in the environment. Human populations, particularly those whose basic diet includes grains, are in risk to exposure to aflatoxins. It is thus necessary to monitor and control ...
Stark Avishay-Abraham - - 2005
Mycotoxins are impractical as tactical weapons, butthey can be used by small poor terrorist organizations to poison food and water sources or can be released in crowded, confined areas. Crude concentrated or dried extracts of readily grown fungal cultures can be used as weapons. The production of fungal weapons does ...
Jyoti J L - - 2005
In spring 2003, several outbreaks of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), were reported in fields of supposedly resistant wheat cultivars ('Stanton', 'Halt', and 'Prairie Red') in eastern Colorado. We conducted two laboratory experiments to compare the biological performance of this new biotype 2 (B2) to that of two ...
Park Je Won - - 2005
To evaluate the exposure of Koreans to ochratoxin A, we conducted a survey in 2003 for ochratoxin A in various domestic food commodities: 60 polished rices, 22 barleys, 35 wheat flours, 46 beers, and 14 unstrained rice wine (makkolli) samples. They were analyzed for ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column and ...
Berthiller Franz - - 2005
Conjugated mycotoxins, in which the toxin is usually bound to a more polar substance like glucose, are referred to as masked mycotoxins, as these substances escape routine detection methods but can release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of a glucoside of ...
Pérez De Obanos A - - 2005
A study of the effect of coffee processing in the ochratoxin A (OTA) level has been carried out from the green beans to the drinking form. The analysis of OTA has been carried out by an in-house validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection were 0.04 microg/kg ...
Elmholt S - - 2005
This study addresses the relationship between the ochratoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and ochratoxin A (OTA) contents in organically cultivated grain. It included 37 combined, non-dried grain samples from farmers with no drying facilities as well as 19 non-dried and 22 dried samples from six farms with on-farm drying facilities ...
Waldemarson A Halldén - - 2005
Twenty-one batches of fixed-formula rodent diets from three feed manufacturers were tested for the presence of five mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and ochratoxin A (OTA). Five batches were also tested for the presence of zearalenone (ZEN) and six batches for aflatoxins. Detectable levels of DON ...
Martínez-Girón Rafael - - 2005
Several types of contaminants have been reported in cytopathology. The purpose of this study was to show unusual contaminants in cytological smears, such as freshwater microorganisms and other arthropods. In different routine Papanicolaou smears (sputum, cervicovaginal, and voided urine) we mainly found fragments of mites and insects, caused by an ...
Fandohan P - - 2005
The fate of aflatoxins and fumonisins, two mycotoxins that cooccur in maize, was studied through the traditional processing of naturally contaminated maize in mawe, makume, ogi, akassa, and owo, maize-based foods common in Benin, West Africa. Levels of total aflatoxin and fumonisin were measured at the main unit operations of ...
Castells M - - 2005
Extrusion cooking is one of the fastest growing food-processing operations in recent years due to several advantages over traditional methods. Apart from its main goal of improving the quality of intermediate and final processed products, it may incidentally also improve safety because of the potential to reduce mycotoxin levels in ...
Walker Ron - - 2005
Ochratoxin A (OTA) causes nephropathy in all species tested with large sex and species differences in potency, pigs being most sensitive. It has been linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in humans. Embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, and immunotoxicity occur only at doses higher than those causing nephrotoxicity. OTA has long serum half-lives ...
Versantvoort Carolien H M - - 2005
Food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants. Only the fraction of the contaminant that is released from the food (bioaccessibility) and is bioavailable can exert toxic effects. Insufficient knowledge on the bioavailability may hamper an accurate risk assessment of ingested contaminants in humans. This paper describes ...
Scudamore Keith A - - 2005
Whenever possible, preventing the formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in susceptible food commodities such as cereals, grapes and coffee beans should be the primary aim. Each product tends to host a specific OTA-producing mould so that the environmental conditions and factors that encourage the subsequent formation of OTA need to ...
Varga J - - 2005
Mycotoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses serious health hazard to animals and humans. For lowering mycotoxin contamination of feeds and foods, several strategies have been investigated that can be divided into ...
J?rgensen Kevin - - 2005
A brief review on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food on the European market (meat and meat products, cereal and cereal products, spices, beer, cocoa and derived products, coffee, wine, dried vine fruits, grape juice) is given in an historical perspective based on two EU project ...
Hubert J - - 2004
Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut ...
Dänicke S - - 2004
The concentrations of the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) of a heavily contaminated wheat grain batch were followed over a period of 1 year by taking samples 15 times every 28 days. The air temperature and relative humidity at the top of the wheat batch ranged between 7 ...
Park J W - - 2004
Thirty retail samples of heat-processed corn foods, i.e. corn flakes, corn-based breakfast cereals, tortilla chips and corn chips, were analysed for fumonisins--fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and hydrolysed FB1 (HFB1)--as well as for protein- and total-bound FB1. Bound (hidden) fumonisins cannot be detected by conventional analysis. Improved methods for ...
Jarvis Bruce B - - 2005
Fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) that pose a health hazard to humans and animals have long been known to be associated with mold-contaminated food and feed. In recent times, concerns have been raised about exposures to mycotoxin-producing fungi in indoor environments, e.g., damp homes and buildings. The principal mycotoxins that contaminate food ...
Melchert H U - - 2004
Highly toxic mycotoxins like the trichothecenes can be found as contaminants from the metabolism of fungi in food and food preparations. They can be identified and quantified with great accuracy by GC/MS-measurements. Reliable analytical methods are urgently needed because such mycotoxins are not only toxic substances occurring in nature but ...
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