Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 637
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Whitaker Thomas B - - 2007
About 100 nations have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely from one country to another, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, working through the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants, has initiated work to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for almonds, pistachios, ...
Lee S E - - 2007
The effects of four alkaloids on the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB) and citrinin were examined on four OTA-producing aspergilli: Aspergillus auricomus, A. sclerotiorum and two isolates of A. alliaceus. Piperine and piperlongumine, natural alkaloids of Piper longum, significantly inhibited OTA production at 0.001% (w/v) for all ...
Magnoli Carina E - - 2007
Cereals and cereal- derived products constitute the base of human and animal feeding in South American countries. This review attempts to give an overview of the ochratoxin A (OTA) occurrence and potential sources of OTA contamination in those products. The environmental conditions as humidity and temperature in the colonization of ...
Rasmussen Peter Have - - 2007
The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in Danish wheat flour was studied during the period 1998-2003 by either capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrophotometer. A total of 151 samples were collected from mills and the retail market in Denmark. Contamination ...
Robertson-Hoyt Leilani A - - 2007
ABSTRACT Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus cause ear rots of maize and contaminate the grain with mycotoxins (fumonisin or aflatoxin). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between resistance to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination. Based on a previous study ...
Ilic Z - - 2007
Vietnamese coffee beans were investigated for the presence of ochratoxigenic Aspergilli. Ninety-three percent of the coffee samples studied were positive for A. niger. No other ochratoxigenic species were present. HPLC analysis determined that 8.7% of the A. niger strains were positive for ochratoxin A (OA) production. There was no significant ...
Cerveró María Carmen - - 2007
Among the main Spanish commercially available trademarks, we have selected a total of 25 samples of corn-based foods, which have the highest consume rate, to carry out the analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA) and zearalenols (ZOL). The contents of mycotoxins were determined by gas chromatography with flame ...
Pronk MEJ
To assess the potential health effects of the xyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NeoSol) and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON), toxicology data available on these compounds were reviewed to derive, where possible, tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). Also, their occurrence in cereal grains, animal feed and human foodstuffs was investigated. The six trichothecenes ...
Bakker M
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin present on several food products. In this report the toxicity of ochratoxin A is summarized. The intake of ochratoxin A in the Dutch population is estimated in a probabilistic exposure assessment. Cereals contribute mainly (55%) to the total ochratoxin A intake. Since the 99th percentile ...
Keller K M - - 2007
Feed contamination can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. The purposes of this study were to investigate the mycobiota in equine mixed feeds and to determine natural contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Fungal enumeration of equine feed samples was done. ...
Sun Guiju - - 2007
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is reportedly the causative agent of several animal mycotoxicoses and has etiologically been linked to human oesophageal and liver cancer in certain areas of South Africa and China. To study a possible relationship between exposure to FB1 and human cancer risk, the current status of FB1 contamination ...
Sabater-Vilar Monica - - 2007
The high prevalence of the Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in animal feeds in mild climatic zones of Europe and North America results in considerable economic losses, as these toxins affect health and productivity particularly of pigs from all age groups. The use of mycotoxin adsorbents as feed ...
Gunterus A A Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2007
The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 ...
Zinedine A - - 2007
Fifty eight (58) samples of cereals for human consumption (20 corn flour, 17 wheat flour) and poultry feeds (n=21) purchased from popular markets of Rabat in Morocco were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) by HPLC with immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and fluorimetric detection. The incidence of AF in corn, wheat flour ...
Pohanka Miroslav - - 2007
Toxic fungal metabolites - mycotoxins - cause poisonings after consumption of contaminated food commodities. The most probable intoxications are connected with eating poorly stored food or inhaling of moldy dust. One of the effective ways to protect people against mycotoxins is timely detection. Several methods such as affinity chromatography and ...
Bryden Wayne L - - 2007
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that can be produced in crops and other food commodities both pre- and post-harvest. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health globally. Reduced growth ...
de Oliveira Giovanna P R - - 2007
Widely consumed by populations of all socioeconomic classes worldwide, corn is one of the few food sources of lutein and zeaxanthin. However, data on these carotenoids in processed corn and corn as eaten are lacking. Thus, the major carotenoids in the principal brands of processed corn (canned corn, corn meal, ...
Leung Maxwell C K - - 2006
Mycotoxins contaminate cereal grains worldwide, and their presence in pet food has been a potential health threat to companion animals. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and Fusarium mycotoxins have been found in both raw ingredients and final products of pet food around the globe. Aflatoxin, a hepatotoxin and carcinogen, has caused several ...
Brasnu Emmanuelle - - 2007
Fungal keratitis is a major blinding eye disease found throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. Given the recent increase in Fusarium keratitis infections in contact lens wearers owing to contact lens solutions, a warning was recently issued by the Food and Drug Administration, making it a public health concern ...
Boone Michelle D - - 2006
We examined the single and interactive effects of an insecticide, an herbicide, and a fertilizer on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Tadpoles were reared in mesocosms from hatching through metamorphosis and were exposed to the presence or absence of as many as three contaminants. Tadpoles did not appear to be ...
Fadel H H M - - 2008
A mixture of roasted chicory roots and wheat germ (1:1 w/w) was subjected to extrusion processing for preparation of coffee substitute. Comparative studies concerning sensory characteristics and headspace volatiles were carried out between genuine coffee and a freshly prepared coffee substitute. The sensory evaluation revealed similarities between the two samples. ...
Gresham A - - 2006
One thousand condemned pigs' kidneys were collected in February 2002 from two pig abattoirs in England to assess the possible contribution of ochratoxicosis to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS); 250 of the kidneys with macroscopic lesions consistent with nephrosis/nephritis (pale or white cortical ...
Samapundo S - - 2007
This paper is the second in a series of two that describe the effect of modified atmospheres on the growth and mycotoxin production of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on corn. In this part, the effect of initial headspace (IH) oxygen concentration and its interaction with water activity (a(w)) on ...
Melki Ben Fredj S - - 2007
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi detected in food, such are grapes. OTA was evaluated in ten handle musts from different Tunisian vineyard. This mycotoxin was found at levels 1.1 mug/L to 4.3 mug/L. A survey was conducted to assess the contamination of the Tunisian vineyard with pathogenic ...
Seeling K - - 2006
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal and duodenal fistulated ...
Kusumaningtyas E - - 2006
Aflatoxin B1 is a toxigenic and carcinogenic compound produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. An approach to prevent aflatoxin contamination in feed was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Rhizopus oligosporus (Ro). Aspergillus flavus was cultured together with Sc, Ro and their combination (ScRo) in chicken feed. ...
Takahata Yoh - - 2006
A groundwater plume contaminated with gasoline constituents [mainly benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX)] had been treated by pumping and aeration for approximately 10 years, and the treatment strategy was recently changed to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To gain information on the feasibility of using MNA to control the spread of ...
Asam Stefan - - 2006
The first stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the simultaneous quantitation of the most abundant type A trichothecenes in foods and feeds was developed. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled T2-toxin, HT2-toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and monoacetoxyscirpenol was accomplished by [13C2]-acetylation of T2-triol and scirpentriol, respectively. Scirpentriol was prepared from diacetoxyscirpenol by complete alkaline hydrolysis ...
Brenier-Pinchart M P - - 2006
Since 1992, we have established a protocol of food management (restrictive diet, food distribution protocol and fungal surveillance) for allogeneic stem-cell transplant (SCT) recipients hospitalised in protected ward. This study analyses the results of 10-year surveillance of fungal contamination of this diet. Among the 456 types of foods tested filamentous ...
Anselme M - - 2006
Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity ...
Magan Naresh - - 2006
This paper reviews the early detection and prevention strategies which have been employed in Europe for the control of mycotoxin contamination of food in the context of a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) framework. The critical control points (CCPs) in the whole food chain where mycotoxins such as trichothecenes ...
Zinedine Abdellah - - 2007
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium in foods and feeds. It is frequently implicated in reproductive disorders of farm animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. There is evidence that ZEA and its metabolites possess oestrogenic activity in pigs, cattle and ...
Bretz Michael - - 2006
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by molds of the Fusarium genus, which are able to infect cereal crops in the field. Concerning its rate of occurrence and mean concentration, DON is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal commodities. Its toxic effects range from causing diarrhea, ...
Afolabi Clement G - - 2006
Fumonisin mycotoxins are commonly found on maize and pose a health risk to humans and domesticated animals. Visible sorting of grain has been suggested as a simple technique that can be used to reduce exposure to fumonisins. We collected maize samples in 2003 from different farms in the Kaduna state ...
Quan Ying - - 2006
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on polyclonal antibody with enhanced chemiluminescent (ECL) detection of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in food samples has been developed. Assay conditions, including concentrations of antibody and enzyme conjugate, competition time and so on, were optimized. The effects of pH and two different organic solvents were ...
Muñoz Katherine - - 2006
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of OTA in human blood has been reported in many studies, especially in Europe, however none have been done in South America. In this study, 88 blood samples from healthy donors from two ...
Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko - - 2006
We conducted a survey of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination in various foods on the retail market in Japan in 2004 and 2005. The mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxins were ...
Toteja G S - - 2006
In a multicenter study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 1,646 samples of wheat grain collected from rural and urban areas of 10 states representing different geographical regions of India were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 concentrations of > or = 5 microg kg(-1) were recorded in ...
Ohta Toshiko - - 2006
Cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils that come into contact with food were morphologically investigated. The most common contaminants, C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, were detected on the samples. The morphological changes of the Cladosporium species were investigated by using stereoscopic, optical light, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopes. Microscopically the ...
Chulze S N - - 2006
Grape and wine production in South America represents about 6.6% and 10% respectively of the world grape and wine production. The available information on the ochratoxigenic mycoflora and ochratoxin A (OTA) presence in wine grapes, wines, grape juices and dried vine fruits is limited. Surveys have been carried out in ...
Battilani P - - 2006
European wine production represents about 70% of world production and thus is an important export commodity. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was first detected as a wine contaminant in 1996 and the role of Aspergillus section Nigri and A. carbonarius in OTA production discovered in Europe in 1999. Subsequently Europe-wide surveys have ...
Bellí N - - 2006
Grapes from three different regions with a long winemaking tradition in Spain were analysed at different growth stages in order to identify the ochratoxigenic mycobiota during three consecutive seasons. The correlation between meteorological parameters and ochratoxigenic fungi was studied and revealed a significant positive correlation between black aspergilli infection and ...
Zhu X - - 2006
The genetic manipulation of the biosynthesis of fungal reduced polyketides has been challenging due to the lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanism, the difficulties in the detection of the acyclic, non-aromatic metabolites, and the complexity in genetically manipulating filamentous fungi. Fumonisins are a group of economically important mycotoxins that ...
Malir Frantisek - - 2006
Testing of the presence of toxigenic microfungi and mycotoxins in foodstuffs in the food chain is an important part of the food safety strategy in The Czech Republic. At the national level, control of their presence in the entire food chain is assured by Public Health Protection Agencies, by the ...
Clark Heather A - - 2006
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin known to contaminate a variety of foods and beverages. The cancer risk posed by OA was reviewed as relevant to human exposure, regulatory activities, and risk management efforts occurring worldwide, particularly in Europe. OA moves through the food chain and has been ...
Castegnaro Marcel - - 2006
A number of countries are setting legislations on mycotoxins. In order to reduce dispute between importing and exporting countries, the analytical data should be as comparable as possible, especially when levels are close to the regulatory limits. The present trend in the analysis of mycotoxins is to use immunoaffinity column ...
Castells Miren - - 2006
The objective of this work was to determine the effects of extrusion cooking on the stability of ochratoxin A (OTA) in an artificially contaminated hulled barley meal (0.73-mm grain diameter) using a single screw extruder. The extrusion cooking parameters were temperature (140, 160, and 180 degrees C), initial moisture content ...
Castegnaro Marcel - - 2006
Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)). In Bulgaria, much higher prevalence of ochratoxin A (OTA), exceeding 2 microg/L, was observed in the blood of affected population. OTA is found more often in the urine of people living in BEN-endemic ...
Jolly Pauline - - 2006
Aflatoxins are among the most potent of carcinogens found in staple foods such as groundnuts, maize and other oil seeds. This study was conducted to measure the levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) albumin adducts in blood and aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) metabolite in urine of people in a heavy peanut and ...
Adányi N - - 2007
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a number of different fungi, and can be present in a wide range of food and feed commodities including cereal grains, oil seeds, dried fruits, apple juice, wine and meat products from animals fed contaminated meal. Many mycotoxins are highly resistant, and survive ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >