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Campos S G - - 2008
Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify ...
González-Salgado Amaia - - 2008
Aspergillus flavus is frequently found in food, producing a wide variety of toxins, aflatoxins being the most relevant in food safety. A specific PCR-based protocol for this species is described which allowed discrimination from other closely related species having different profiles of secondary metabolites from the Aspergillus Section Flavi, particularly ...
Marin-Kuan Maricel - - 2008
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin occurring in a wide range of food products. Because of the limitation of human epidemiological data, the safety significance of OTA in food has to rely on animal data, with renal toxicity and carcinogenicity being considered the pivotal effects. The elucidation of the mechanism ...
Burns T D - - 2008
The toxic potential of nixtamalized foods can be underestimated if, during cooking, reversible fumonisin-food matrix interactions reduce the amount of mycotoxin that is detected but not the amount that is bioavailable. Fusarium verticillioides culture material (CM) was nixtamalized as is (NCM) or after mixing with ground corn (NCMC). Additional portions ...
Cabañas R - - 2008
In Spain, low ochratoxin A (OTA) levels have been detected in wheat and different wheat products but no information has been published about the fungi involved in this OTA contamination. Some species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus are known to form OTA but few of them are known to ...
Völkel Wolfgang - - 2008
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed and exhibits weak estrogenic activity. In contrast to BPA, the corresponding glucuronide metabolite is not estrogenic. Therefore, free and total BPA were determined in human urine samples to assess the significance of free BPA for risk assessment. In only 10% of 474 samples from ...
Wanigasuriya Kamani P - - 2008
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin with nephrotoxic properties that can contaminate plant food products. OA concentrations were assessed in commonly consumed food items in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka, where chronic kidney disease is diagnosed at epidemic proportions. Ninety-eight randomly selected food samples were analysed. ...
Galvano Fabio - - 2008
During 2006, 82 samples of human mature milk were collected at Italian hospitals and checked for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) by immunoaffinity column extraction and HPLC. AFM1 was detected in four (5%) of milk samples (ranging from < 7 ng/L to 140 ng/L; mean level: 55.35 ng/L); ...
Stoev Stoycho D - - 2008
Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of ...
Peraica Maja - - 2008
Despite many efforts of scientists and epidemiologists, the aetiology of endemic nephropathy (EN) is still unknown. This disease occurs in the rural population of geographically limited areas of Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, and a number of theories have been proposed about its aetiology. The mycotoxin theory ...
Cervino Christian - - 2008
Aflatoxins are a group of very carcinogenic mycotoxins that can be found on a wide range of food commodities including nuts, cereals, and spices. In this study, the first LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the determination of aflatoxins in foods was developed. The development of this method was ...
Favilla Mara - - 2008
Fusapyrone (FP), an antifungal natural compound, was tested against the three main ochratoxigenic species of the Aspergillus section Nigri. The MICs at 24 h were 6.0, 11.6, and 9.9 mug/ml for Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Strong inhibition of growth and morphological changes were still observed at ...
Holmes Robert A - - 2008
Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, ...
Visconti Angelo - - 2008
The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, ...
Sefidgar S A A - - 2008
In this study, raw cow milk samples were collected from milk churns at 40 traditional and semi-industrial cattle farms located in Babol (Northern Iran) in winter 2006. In total, 120 raw milk samples were tested for Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination by competitive ELISA. In 68 out of 120 samples (56.7%) ...
Wagacha J M - - 2008
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. ...
Rodrigues, P.
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of the well known carcinogenic aflatoxins. The presence of this fungus and aflatoxins is of huge concern in terms of food safety. The identification of A. flavus is not straightforward due to similarities with closely related species (e.g. A. parasiticus and A. nomius). Also, ...
W.A. Awad
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is prevalent worldwide in crops used for food and feed production. The presence of mycotoxins in poultry feeds is a significant factor for financial losses to animal industries. Although DON is one of the least acutely toxic trichothecenes, it should be treated as an important food ...
Thieu Nguyen Quang - - 2008
A survey ofaflatoxins and zearalenone (ZEA) in 120 samples, including cassava chip (12), maize (12), rice bran (24), broken rice (24), and complete feeds for growing pigs (24) and sows (24) was carried out in southern Vietnam. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) were determined by ...
Peraica Maja - - 2008
Endemic nephropathy is a human kidney disease that still escapes scientific explanation. It is accompanied by a high incidence of urothelial tumors in rural populations in endemic areas, which suggests that a natural nephrotoxic and carcinogenic compound may be involved in the etiology. The most imputed causative agent of endemic ...
Jestoi Marika - - 2008
The contamination of foods and feed with mycotoxins is a commonly known problem. Intense investigations have been conducted to study the occurrence, toxicity, and recently also the prevention and detoxification strategies of mycotoxins in human and animal food chains. Most of the studies have emphasized on "traditional" mycotoxins, such as ...
Sugiyama Kei-ichi - - 2008
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. ...
Clouvel Pascal - - 2008
Since 2006, a new EC regulation has imposed 2.0 microg/l as the upper limit for OTA concentration in wines (CR 1881/2006). OTA production results from a harmful combination of skin lesions and favourable conditions for A. carbonarius growth, namely the air temperature and humidity, and the berry sugar content. The ...
Castells Miren - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fumonisins (B(1) B(2,) and B(3)) and total aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) in various corn processed fractions. 92 batches of whole corn and derived dry-milled fractions (animal feed flour, flaking grits, corn flour and corn meal) and cooked ...
Khosravi Ali Reza - - 2007
The natural occurrence of fungal contamination was evaluated in stored maize in three different agro-ecological zones (Iran, Brazil and China). A total of 45 samples were analyzed and 685 fungal isolates were identified. The most frequent isolated fungi from maize originated from Iran, Brazil and China were Fusarium sp. (17.3, ...
Scudamore K A - - 2007
The commercial processing of oats is different from that of other cereals, such as wheat and maize. In northwest Europe, oats also appear to be more susceptible to contamination with HT-2 and T-2 toxins than other cereals. Mycotoxins, such as deoxynivanol and zearalenone, in cereals are already controlled by EU ...
Ok Hyun Ee - - 2007
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable food contaminant. To evaluate the potential health risk of AFB1 to Koreans posed by food consumption, we determined the natural occurrence of AFB1 in food and estimated the excess risk for liver cancer through dietary exposure to AFB1. A total of 694 food samples ...
Wang Jun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the contamination of total aflatoxins (AFs) in different kinds of foods including corn, peanut, rice, walnut, and pine nut in six provinces and two municipalities in China. METHODS: A total of 283 samples of corn, peanut, rice, walnut and pine nut were randomly collected from local markets ...
Napolitano Aurora - - 2007
Ochratoxin A is an important mycotoxin that can enter the human food chain in cereals, wine, coffee, spices, beer, cocoa, dried fruits, and pork meats. Coffee is one of the most common beverages and, consequently, it has a potential risk factor for human health related to ochratoxin A exposure. In ...
Xu Yingying - - 2008
Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and ...
Kang'ethe E K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. DESIGN: Cross sectional household study. SETTING: Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. RESULTS: The prevalence of AFM1 ...
Prandini A - - 2009
Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat AFB(1)-feedstuffs, they metabolise the toxin and excrete AFM(1) in milk. To control AFM(1) in foods it is necessary to reduce AFB(1) contamination of feeds for dairy cattle by preventing fungal growth and AFB(1) formation in agricultural commodities ...
Frisvad Jens C - - 2007
The carcinogenic mycotoxin fumonisin B2 was detected for the first time in the industrially important Aspergillus niger. Fumonisin B2, known from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, was detected in cultures of three full genome sequenced strains of A. niger, in the ex type culture and in a culture of F. ...
De Mello Fernanda Robert - - 2007
External characteristics of in-shell Brazil nuts were evaluated for dimensions (length and face width), weight, chromaticity, and shell thickness. The internal characteristics evaluated were moisture content (mc), aflatoxin contamination (analyzed by LC-MS/MS), and shell/nut ratio. According to their length, Brazil nuts were classified in three groups: I, II, and III, ...
Sahgal N - - 2007
There has been interest in the development of techniques for the rapid early detection of mycotoxigenic moulds in the food production chain. The development of sensor arrays that respond to the presence of different volatiles produced by such moulds has been examined as a potential method for the development of ...
Seiferlein Michaela - - 2007
Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) are the most abundant members of the fumonisins--mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium verticillioides and are natural inhibitors of ceramide synthase. Their hydrolyzed forms, HFB1 and HFB2 (also called AP1 and AP2) are found in some foods, and they are not only inhibitors ...
Caldas Eloisa D - - 2007
Samples from 10 different corn-based food products commercially sold in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed for fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) using HPLC/fluorescence following naphthalene-2,3 dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) derivatization (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.020 mg/kg). Samples were also analyzed for aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) on a thin-layer ...
Boermans Herman J - - 2007
Mycotoxin contamination in pet food poses a serious health threat to pets, causing an emotional and economical concern to the pet owners. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and fusaric acid have been found in the ingredients and final products of pet food, resulting in both acute toxicity and chronic health ...
Magnoli Carina - - 2007
Peanut is an important food commodity in Argentina. Last year Córdoba Province accounted for approximately 96% of the total Argentinian production. Few surveys of peanuts for the natural occurrence of ochratoxins and ochratoxin-producing fungi have been reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Aspergillus section ...
Bouhet Sandrine - - 2007
Fumonisins constitute a family of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme), a common fungal contaminant of corn. Contamination with fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is of concern as this mycotoxin causes various animal diseases. The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against ingested chemicals, food contaminants, and ...
Niessen Ludwig - - 2007
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi which have toxicologically relevant effects on vertebrates when administered in small doses via a natural route. In order to improve food safety and to protect consumers from harmful contaminants, presence of fungi with the potential to produce such compounds must be checked ...
Chang Perng-Kuang - - 2007
Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce ...
Mateo Rufino - - 2007
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by several fungal species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic to animals and has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. OTA occurs in a variety of foods, including ...
Bullerman Lloyd B - - 2007
The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on ...
Beyer Marco - - 2007
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cultivars Ritmo and Dekan) grain was sampled in Northern Germany between 2001 and 2006. Kernels damaged by fungi of the genus Fusarium were separated from sound grain by visual assessment. Samples containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of Fusarium-damaged kernels were compiled and ...
D'Ovidio K L - - 2007
Fumonisins are metabolites produced in corn primarily by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and are toxic to humans and animals. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the primary fumonisin produced and is found frequently in corn kernels, some of which may be used as food or food ingredients. A three-part study ...
González-Osnaya L - - 2007
Ochratoxin A (OTA) was extracted from 100 bread samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Bread samples were bought from different bakeries and supermarkets, 74 of non-organic and 26 of organic bread. ...
Mally A - - 2007
Various reports suggest that chronic dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin frequently detected in various food items may be linked to the pathogenesis of endemic nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial kidney disease which occurs in geographically limited areas of the Balkan region. OTA is a potent nephrotoxin and renal ...
van Egmond Hans P - - 2007
Regulations relating to mycotoxins have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of these compounds. Different factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors, for example the availability of toxicological data and occurrence data, detailed ...
Martena Martijn J - - 2007
In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs ...
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