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Aoyama Koji - - 2010
Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). A total of 1,358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins. The limits of ...
Kuiper-Goodman T - - 2010
In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such ...
Kitya D - - 2010
Prolonged exposure to aflatoxins by humans and animals leads to adverse effects to the various body systems of affected individuals including death. Studies have linked aflatoxins to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Uganda, HCC is observed to be on increase in communities of South-Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted ...
Duarte S C - - 2010
Ochratoxin A (OTA) continues to grab global attention and concern for the hazard and impact that embody for both human and animals, based on its toxicity and occurrence. Despite OTA has been described in a myriad of foodstuffs, cereal and its derivatives remain the major contributors to OTA exposure. For ...
Flajs Dubravka - - 2009
Citrinin (CTN) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by several fungal strains belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus. It contaminates various commodities of plant origin, cereals in particular, and is usually found together with another nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). These two mycotoxins are believed to be involved in ...
Klari? Maja Segvi? - - 2009
Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species frequently contaminate crops. For this reason mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEA) are found in food and feed in a wide range of concentrations, depending on environmental and storage conditions. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed has been ...
Massart F - - 2010
Since the 1970s, there has been a worldwide scientific discussion on the potential health consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupters: many environmentally persistent compounds are oestrogen agonists and/or androgen antagonists. Thus, they can dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis potentially affecting human puberty timing. Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin produced ...
Lackner Gerald - - 2009
Mycotoxins are compounds of fungal origin that can adversely affect human, animal and plant health through food spoilage or infection, even to the point of epidemics such as turkey X disease and ergotism. The biosynthetic pathways of various mycotoxins (such as aflatoxin and fumonisins) are generally well understood. However, two ...
Santini Antonello - - 2009
In recent years consumers and the scientific community have become increasingly interested in food safety, making it a major focus among the objectives of the international institutions responsible for food safety monitoring, e.g. the European Union or the EFSA. Aspects attracting much attention are the colonization of food by microscopic ...
Nielsen Kristian Fog - - 2009
Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its ...
Coronel M B - - 2009
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) of 279 blood donors of nine localities of the province of Lleida (Spain) was assessed. OTA levels were detected in the blood plasma of the participants by HPLC-fluorescence detection with previous clean-up of the samples by immunoaffinity columns. Limit of detection was 0.075 ng/mL. Participants ...
Kabak Bulent - - 2009
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that if ingested can cause a variety of adverse effects on both humans and animals, ranging from allergic responses to death. Therefore, exposure to mycotoxins should be minimized. A variety of physical, chemical, and biological methods have been developed for decontamination and/or detoxification of mycotoxins ...
Njobeh Patrick Berka - - 2009
In a mycological study, a total of 95 human food samples were investigated to evaluate the incidence of fungal contamination in Cameroon by conventional identification method and partly confirmed by DNA sequencing. The isolated fungal spp. were further studied to determine their toxigenic potentials. The investigation revealed the predominance of ...
Berthiller Franz - - 2009
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi poisonous for humans or animals which can be found on a great variety of food and feed commodities. Food is not necessarily safe just because the presence of well-known mycotoxins has been ruled out, as they might still be there in disguise. Mycotoxins may ...
Vendl O - - 2009
Cereals and cereal-based food have often been found to be contaminated with the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON), after infection of the grain with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium. Both the pathogen and the infected plants can chemically modify DON and ZON, including acetylation, glucosidation, and sulfation. Analytical strategies for ...
Senyuva Hamide Z - - 2009
The effectiveness of an affinity column cleanup procedure followed by LC with fluorescence detection was established for the determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods. Traditional foods, such as baklava (finely layered pastry filled with nuts and steeped in syrup), halvah (containing sesame paste and pistachios), ...
Edlayne Gonçalez - - 2009
Mycotoxins are metabolites and toxic substances produced by certain filamentous fungi that frequently contaminate food and agriculture commodities, which cause disease in animals or man. The toxigenic fungi belong to mainly three genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Examples of mycotoxins of greatest public health and agroeconomic significance include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, ...
Kabak Bulent - - 2009
In the present study, we aimed at determining the release of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from different food products in the gastro-intestinal tract in the absence and presence of probiotics, a possible adsorbent. The average bioaccessibility of AFB(1) and OTA without probiotics was about 90%, and 30%, ...
Herrera M - - 2009
Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analyzed from 44 liquorice confectionery samples using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Liquorice confectionery samples were purchased from different retail outlets and supermarkets in Spain during 2007-2008, 16 of hard candies and 28 ...
Ghali Ridha - - 2009
A survey for fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2, respectively) was performed on 180 samples of high-consumption food commodities and 15 feed samples randomly collected from various regions of Tunisia. The determination of fumonisin level was performed by an in-house validated high-performance liquid chromatography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
Ghazani Mohammad Hosein Movassagh - - 2009
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of food contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. The role of milk in human nutrition is well-known. The aim of this study was to evaluate Aflatoxin M1 contamination in pasteurized milk samples in Tabriz city (Iran) by ...
Gündinç U - - 2009
In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) technique was used for detection of aflatoxin M1 in UHT milk sold in Bursa-TURKEY for consumption. A total of 50 samples of commercial UHT (Ultra High Temperature) whole milk were analyzed. Aflatoxin M1 residues were detected in all samples (100%) studied in ...
Reiter Elisabeth - - 2009
Mycotoxins are of toxicological relevance and consequently important contaminants in food and feed. The most common mycotoxins with the highest toxicity are the aflatoxins (AFs), which cause liver cirrhosis or primary liver carcinomas and have been shown to be the immunosuppressive. The European Union has set the maximum levels as ...
Castells M - - 2009
The objective was to determine the effect of added sodium chloride, barley malt and sucrose on the stability of fumonisin B1 (FB1) present in corn flour. Two levels of both sodium chloride (0.4% and 2%) and barley malt (0.8% and 5%) were added to the unextruded corn flour, and six ...
Dall'Asta Chiara - - 2009
In this work a multiresidual LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous detection of free and bound fumonisins is described, which allowed for a very low LOD and a very good recovery for all the analytes. The method was applied to the determination of free and bound fumonisins in several gluten-free products ...
Pinton Philippe - - 2009
'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using ...
Passone María A - - 2009
The effect of a formulation containing butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl paraben (PP) on total mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in natural and inoculated stored peanuts was evaluated. A survey of 480 peanut samples was carried out from July to December 2006. Two experimental units (silos ...
Oh Keum Soon - - 2009
Following previous observations of apparent instability of fumonisin B1 in corn starch and corn meal, immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, of the type used in the analysis of commercial starch-containing corn foods for fumonisins, was investigated. Foods analyzed for naturally occurring fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 included corn flour (3 different ...
Soubra L - - 2009
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly present in food and constituting a potential threat to food safety. Total aflatoxins (AFT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are among the most widespread mycotoxins. We assessed the occurrence of AFT, OTA and DON in some foodstuffs available on the Lebanese market and evaluated ...
Trucksess Mary W - - 2009
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is studying the need to monitor dietary supplements for mycotoxins such as total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. An effective mycotoxin-monitoring program requires knowledge of the sampling and analytical variability associated with the determination of total aflatoxins (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dietary supplements. ...
Varriale Antonio - - 2009
In this work, we present an advanced fluorescence assay for the detection of traces of ocratoxin A and neomycin in food. The described assay is based on measurement of the fluctuations of the fluorescein-labeled analytes by a focused laser beam in the absence and in the presence of the specific ...
Ok Hyun Ee - - 2009
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin. DON contamination in agricultural food staples such as wheat, barley, and maize due to Fusarium colonization is an increasing problem. In order to provide risk managers with better guidance for regulatory measures, the concentration of DON in cereal-based foods (n = 689), collected from ...
Sudhakar P - - 2009
Methyleugenol is naturally occurring substance in oils and fruits and in various foods as flavoring agent. Effect of this methyleugenol in inhibiting A. flavus colonization and aflatoxin production on peanut pods and kernels has been studied. Spray of methyleugenol (0.5%) on peanut pods and kernels checked the colonization of A. ...
Foroud Nora A - - 2009
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based ...
Mahdavi R - - 2010
The aim of this study was to examine the exposure of lactating mothers to aflatoxins using aflatoxin M(1) in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure and to detect its determining factors and possible effects on child growth. A 9% sample of 2022 lactating women who exclusively breastfed their infants, ...
Cho Sook Ja - - 2008
House dust samples were collected up to six times over a 1-year period to explore seasonal variability of individual fungal genera in inner-city households in Minneapolis, Minnesota. General linear mixed-effects models were used to explore the variability of 13 fungal genera (Cladosporium, yeasts, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Epicoccum, Mucor, Rhodotorula, Aspergillus, ...
Cozzini Pietro - - 2008
As in a cops and robbers play we discover new mycotoxins and metabolites everyday and we are forced to develop new molecules quickly as chemo- or biosensors or to modify existing molecules able to recognize these new hazardous compounds. This will result in an enormous cost saving to agro-food industry ...
Kabak Bulent - - 2009
Eighty-three samples of cereal-derived products including 24 breakfast cereals, 24 cereal-based baby foods and 35 beers purchased from supermarkets and small shops of Adana in Turkey were analysed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The ...
Kimanya M E - - 2008
This study determined maize-user practices that influence the presence of fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of maize in food consumed in the rural areas of Tanzania. Samples of the 2005 maize harvest in Tanzania were collected from 120 households and examined for fumonisins and aflatoxins. Information on whether the maize was ...
Kushiro Masayo - - 2008
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the ...
Yazar Selma - - 2008
Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon) and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC) mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal genera, especially Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella and ...
Shephard Gordon S - - 2008
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, occur widely on many staple foods and cause a broad range of detrimental health effects in animals and humans. As a consequence, maximum tolerated levels (MTLs) have been legislated in many countries. However, in developing countries where food ...
Cornes Michael P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To study the detection and prevalence of spurious hyperkalaemia due to potassium ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (kEDTA) contamination. METHODS: In a one-month prospective study, serum EDTA, zinc, calcium, magnesium concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured in samples with serum potassium >or=6.0 mmol/L. RESULTS: Twenty-eight out of 117 hyperkalaemic samples were ...
Dvorak Natalia J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a sample of locally available corn-based foods for fumonisin contamination. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 38 corn tortilla and masa flour samples from Los Angeles, San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico,for fumonisin contamination. Retail sources were diverse and not limited to Hispanic neighborhoods. RESULTS: Fumonisins were found in all ...
Yabe K - - 2008
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The contamination of crops, feeds, and foods with aflatoxins can have serious effects on the health of humans and animals. Although many studies have been done to develop aflatoxin-control strategies, most are limited in their effectiveness. ...
Kumagai S - - 2008
A survey was undertaken of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2) (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)), G(2) (AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), B(2) (FB(2)) and B(3) (FB(3)) contamination of various retail foods in Japan during 2004-05. The mycotoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or high-performance ...
Gong Hui-Zhi - - 2009
Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the most abundant of the fumonisin mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. A total of 282 corn samples harvested in 2005 from six provinces, the main corn-producing areas of China, were analyzed for FB(1) using high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples except ...
Turner Paul C - - 2008
Mycotoxins are common dietary contaminants in most regions of the world. The frequency of exposure to the various families of mycotoxins is often dependent on geographic location, national wealth and related agricultural and regulatory infrastructure, combined with diversity of diet and degree of food sufficiency. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium ...
Girish C K - - 2008
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat, corn, ...
Campos S G - - 2008
Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify ...
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