Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 637
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Yoshikawa M - - 1996
Acylated polyhydroxyolean-12-ene triterpene oligoglycosides, camelliasaponins A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2, were isolated from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. The structures of six camelliasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1, and C2 were found to exhibit inhibitory activity on ethanol ...
Goel S - - 1996
Disruption in sphingolipid (SL) metabolism is a biomarker of exposure to fumonisins. The role of altered SL metabolism in the pathogenesis of fumonisin toxicoses is not understood. A 27-d feeding trial in horses compared the toxic effects of 3 strains of Fusarium moniliforme: RRC 415, cultured from corn in MS; ...
Holcomb M - - 1996
A fast, simple, and environmentally friendly method has been developed for the analysis of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in rodent feed using CE. FB1 is the major fumonisin metabolite produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme and has been implicated in human and animal diseases. FB1 was extracted from rodent feed with ...
Cusumano V - - 1996
In order to elucidate the effects upon the human immune system of aflatoxin B1 produced by the food-contaminating mould Aspergillus flavus, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, superoxide production and intrinsic antiviral activity were studied in monocytes exposed to aflatoxin B1 for different times at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 pg/ml. Phagocytosis ...
Oyelami O A - - 1996
A total of 48 samples of maize-based gruels, used as weaning food for children, were taken daily from hospital meals and from patients' mothers while their children were on admission at the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha, Nigeria. These samples were analysed for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Twelve samples (25%) were ...
Farag R S - - 1996
Microwaves were used in the present work in order to destroy pure aflatoxins (model system), and yellow corn and peanuts containing aflatoxins (food system). Pure aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were individually coated on a silica gel and exposed to microwaves at various power settings and periods. The same ...
Shephard G S - - 1996
As part of a comprehensive risk assessment study for fumonisins, reliable data on exposure of populations to these dietary toxins must be obtained. To assess the extent of worldwide exposure, the published literature on the contamination of food and feed supplies has been reviewed and supplemented with unpublished material from ...
de Sylos C M - - 1996
One hundred and fifty-two samples of pasteurized milk, powdered milk, cheese and yoghurt, marketed in Campinas, Brazil in 1989-1990, were analysed for aflatoxin M1 by the AOAC TLC method (visual quantitation) 980.21. Fifty-two pasteurized milk samples were also analysed in 1992 by the AOAC HPLC method 986.16. Aflatoxin M1 was ...
Ominski K H - - 1996
A survey of swine destined for slaughter in Manitoba was conducted to examine the incidence of ochratoxin A (OA) in swine herds from different regions of Manitoba throughout the year 1989-90. Thirty-six percent of the serum samples which were collected from 1600 pigs contained detectable levels of OA. The identity ...
Hirooka E Y - - 1996
Since animal intoxication related to corn-based feed is frequently observed in the State of Paraná, Brazil, natural contamination by fumonisins in 48 corn samples (39 from the State of Paraná, and 9 from the Brazilian tropical states, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias) harvested in 1990-1991 was investigated, along with ...
Marasas W F - - 1996
The history, toxicological effects, world-wide natural occurrence and impact of the fumonisins, food-borne carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, are reviewed from the original description of the fungus in 1881 to the present. Following the isolation and characterization of fumonisin B1 and B2 and the publication of the first 3 ...
Abouzied M M - - 1996
Polyclonal antibodies against fumonisin B1 were produced by immunizing sheep with fumonisin B1-keyhole limpet hemocyanin as an immunogen. A quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed whereby free fumonisins or sample extract containing fumonisins and enzyme-labelled fumonisin competed for binding to the solid phase-bound antibodies. The color intensity of wells, ...
Bullerman L B - - 1996
Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon occurs worldwide on corn intended for human and animal consumption. A closely related species Fusarium proliferatum also occurs frequently on corn. Yellow dent corn, white dent corn, white and yellow popcorn and sweet corn may be contaminated. Both organisms are capable of producing fumonisins, including Fumonisin B1 ...
Murphy P A - - 1996
Fumonisins (FBs) are a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, predominant corn pathogens, and are found in most corn-containing foods. The FBs are heat stable, resistant to ammoniation, and unlike most mycotoxins, are water-soluble. The levels in corn and corn-containing foods will be presented ranging from ...
Scudamore K A - - 1996
The presence of ochratoxin A in ingredients of animal feeding stuffs is unlikely to produce noticeable effects on animal health or productivity except in the unlikely event of gross contamination. Studies on ochratoxin in cereals and food products have suggested that this mycotoxin is relatively stable under a range of ...
Piñeiro M - - 1996
A pilot study for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in food and feeds was implemented by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU) with the technical assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The scope of the study was to determine the potential hazard posed by priority food-contaminant ...
Kuiper-Goodman T - - 1996
The presence of fumonisins and associated mycotoxins from Fusarium moniliforme in corn-based foods has recently become a concern in North America and elsewhere. Monitoring of various corn based foods and food commodities for fumonisins is ongoing in both the USA and Canada, and the results can be used for preliminary ...
Maragos C M - - 1996
Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin produced by certain Fusarium moulds, consists of two tricarballyic acid groups esterified to a 20-carbon backbone. Under alkaline conditions, or through metabolism, the aminopentol backbone, also known as hydrolysed Fumonisin B1 (HFB1) can be formed and is itself cytotoxic. Although the occurrence of HFB1 in corn-based ...
Miller M A - - 1996
The fumonisins are a recently discovered class of mycotoxins produced primarily by Fusarium (F.) moniliforme and F. proliferatum. Fumonisins present in mycotoxin-contaminated feed have been identified as the causative agent of equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema. To prevent these diseases, FDA has utilized informal guidance levels for fumonisins in ...
Jackson L S - - 1996
Fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme in corn, have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. F. moniliforme and the fumonisins are an area of incresing concern for corn producers and consumers. Consequently, there is interest in reducing human and animal exposure to these fungal toxins. ...
Jørgensen K - - 1996
Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated and ...
Yu S Z - - 1995
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) ...
Sanchis V - - 1995
The natural occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, incidence of Aspergillus flavus, and capacity to produce aflatoxins by A. flavus isolates, were investigated in 100 corn-based samples from Spain destined for human and animal consumption. Only one sample for animal consumption and none for human consumption were found ...
Furlong E B - - 1995
Samples of wheat harvested from 1988 to 1990 and stored in elevators in the south of Brazil (12 Brazilian, 4 Argentinian and 2 Uruguayan) were analysed in 1990 for 14 mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 and HT-2 toxins, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin ...
Dutton M F - - 1995
During the year of 1994, 417 samples of agricultural commodities, comprising: maize, compound animal feeds, oil seeds, soya bean, fish meal and forage were examined for fungi and over 20 mycotoxins using a multi-screen augmented with individual assays. Trichothecenes had the highest incidence of over 19% in all samples received, ...
Studer-Rohr I - - 1995
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic mycotoxin which is predominantly produced by the two ubiquitous fungal genera, Aspergillus and Penicillium. OA is found in foodstuffs, predominantly in cereals but also in coffee beans. Inconsistent results have been published regarding the influence of roasting on the OA content in ...
Fonseca H - - 1995
In the present work the influence of bag materials on the moisture loss and final aflatoxin content of stored moist in-shell peanuts (MIP) was studied in the rainy season of 1990, in Marília, São Paulo, and in the rainy season of 1991, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo. In each season, MIP ...
Park D L - - 1995
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic metabolites produced by moulds that grow on food and feed. Their toxicity has caused severe health and economic problems worldwide. Other mycotoxins which have been associated with human health risks include ergot alkaloids, citreoviridin, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, citrinin, tremorgenic mycotoxins and the fumonisins. Many ...
Lozada A F - - 1995
Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and identified from selected food and feed samples obtained in Metro Manila public markets, a Laguna coconut mill, and FNRI rat breeder's diet using the serial dilution and moisture chamber techniques. The majority of the isolates identified belong to the genera Aspergillus and Mucorales and a ...
Trucksess M W - - 1995
Wheat and barley from the 1993 crop year were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). A total of 630 samples were collected by the Federal Grain Inspection Service in 25 states and analyzed using a commercially available, direct competitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The limit of determination was about 0.5 micrograms/g. DON contamination ...
Muriuki Gacheri K. - - 1995
The majority of the Kenyan human population may be exposed to regular doses of a wide spectrum of highly toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, and hepatotoxic mycotoxins through the consumption of maizemeal. Maizemeal is consumed in Kenya at the rate of about 0.4kg/person/day, therefore, even the lowest amount of toxins consumed ...
Skrinjar M - - 1995
The occurrence of Fusarium spp. and zearalenone (F-2 toxin) in dairy cattle feeds was studied during a period of three years (in all seasons) in Vojvodina. Fusarium species were found to be very common in feeds. They were classified into 11 different species (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. flocciferum, F. ...
Chu Q - - 1995
An isolate of Fusarium oxysporum from corn associated with Kaschin-Beck disease in humans was tested for its ability to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and toxicity in chicks. Both leghorn and broiler chicks were fed diets in which corn was replaced with varied amounts (0% to 50%) of the F. oxysporum ...
Coker R D - - 1995
The control of the occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds requires effective surveillance and quality control procedures which facilitate the identification and control of the mycotoxin problem respectively. Surveillance and quality control procedures involve a sequence of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis steps; and the integrity of the data ...
Gilbert J - - 1995
Worldwide there are either statutory limits or in some instances advisory guidelines for the maximum levels of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. These limits which have been agreed for the protection of human health and as standards for trade are often set at surprisingly low levels in view of both ...
Marasas W F - - 1995
Fusarium moniliforme is one of the predominant fungi associated with corn intended for human and animal consumption world-wide. Fumonisins, food-borne carcinogens that occur naturally in corn, were first isolated and chemically characterized in South Africa in 1988. The major metabolite, fumonisin B1 (FB1), was subsequently shown to cause leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) ...
Visconti A - - 1995
Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium moniliforme, one of the most prevalent seed-borne fungi of maize. Strains of Fusarium moniliforme isolated from cereals in Europe produced in cultures high levels (up to 4 mg/g) of fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2). FB1 and FB2 have been found in ...
Pittet A - - 1995
As early as the mid-1960s the analysis of aflatoxins became an important part of Nestlé's quality control programme, especially since the Company's products include a wide variety of milk- and cereal-based foods intended for infants and children. At that time, dealing with this problem was hampered by the lack of ...
Boutrif E - - 1995
The article provides information on recent past and current activities carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) at national, regional, and international levels to assist member countries in overcoming the problems raised by mycotoxins in foods and feeds. It gives special emphasis to the ...
Sarr A B - - 1995
The phyllosilicate clay, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), has been shown to prevent aflatoxicosis in farm animals by reducing the bioavailability of aflatoxin. The present study was designed to determine the effects of HSCAS on the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in an aflatoxin-sensitive species. Male Fischer-344 rats were orally ...
van Egmond H P - - 1995
Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as availability ...
Maaroufi K - - 1995
Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been detected in high amounts in human blood samples collected in nephrology departments in Tunisia from nephropathy patients under dialysis, especially those categorised as having a chronic interstitial nephropathy of unknown aetiology. These represent 12-26.1% of all chronic renal failure patients. To clarify the situation, food ...
Halt M - - 1994
This paper discusses the results of investigations of contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin B1 affecting 545 samples of wheat grains, 475 samples of intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (like middlings) and 238 samples of flour. A significant contamination with moulds was detected in analyzed samples. ...
Chao T C - - 1994
Blood screening conducted on Singaporeans over 1991-1992 showed exposure to predominantly aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent G1. The extent of exposure to B1 among three groups of residents in Singapore, namely normal subjects (n = 423), hepatitis B virus carriers (n = 302) and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) ...
Boudra H - - 1994
Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AF B1) after 2, 4, 6, 8 and ...
Doko M B - - 1994
A survey has been carried out in Italy on the natural occurrence of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in corn kernels from regional distributors and corn genotypes from breeding stations as well as in commercially available corn-based food products. All corn samples were fumonisin positive at levels up to ...
Smith E E - - 1994
Lactating dairy goats were exposed to aflatoxin (100 and 200 ppb) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate at 1, 2, and 4% in two separate experiments. Naturally occurring low levels of aflatoxin M1 (.009 ppb) were found in the milk of the control diet, whereas there were no detectable levels of ...
Chu F S - - 1994
A total of 31 corn samples collected from households in the counties of Cixian and Linxian of the People's Republic of China, where high incidences of esophageal cancer have been reported, were analyzed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin, and total trichothecene mycotoxins. High levels of FB1 (18 to 155 ppm; ...
Scott P M - - 1994
Because the natural occurrence of fumonisins is so far known almost exclusively in corn, we have limited our investigations on their stability to corn-based foods. In these studies, distinction must be made between real losses, binding, and any matrix-related method problems. Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) were about 40% ...
Atawodi S E - - 1994
Human foods and animal feeds, and ingredients used for their preparation or formulation in Nigeria, were surveyed between 1988 and 1991 for the presence of the fungal metabolite and animal carcinogen aflatoxin. Groundnut and groundnut-containing materials were the most heavily contaminated, the highest value (1862 ppb) being found in a ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >