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Annibale B - - 2003
Iron deficiency anaemia is generally considered a sign of occult bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and standard care therefore includes evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract to rule out possible bleeding sites. However, it is often overlooked that iron deficiency anaemia may be the result of an imbalance between iron loss ...
Delgado-Vasallo O - - 2003
We report here on the use of the photoacoustic technique for the determination of low concentrations of total iron in corn meal samples. The determination of this element in food is of considerable interest because several foods are currently enriched with it at proper levels in order to increase the ...
Taylor Maida - - 2003
In the search for alternatives to HRT--a search motivated by the yearning for "natural" treatments and, more recently, by bad news from HRT trials--herbs and botanicals, and some foods, have received much attention and wide acceptance. This acceptance is, however, based on little more than advertising and consumers' desire to ...
Moldovan Brett J - - 2003
Arsenic-rich uranium mine tailings from the Rabbit Lake in-pit tailings management facility (RLITMF) in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, were investigated to determine the mineralogy and long-term stability of secondary arsenic precipitates formed from iron-rich hydrometallurgical solutions. Total arsenic and iron concentrations in six iron-rich samples of the mine tailings ranged from ...
Schauer Claudia - - 2003
Despite global goals set by United Nations' agencies over the past decade for significant reductions in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), it remains a largely unaddressed public health problem affecting more than two billion people, one-third of the world's population. The negative impact of IDA on health and human potential are ...
Templeton Douglas M - - 2003
According to IUPAC terminology, trace element speciation reflects differences in chemical composition at multiple levels from nuclear and electronic structure to macromolecular complexation. In the medical sciences, all levels of composition are important in various circumstances, and each can affect the bioavailability, distribution, physiological function, toxicity, diagnostic utility, and therapeutic ...
Ronca G - - 2003
The traditional combination of wines and dishes is highly complex, elaborated and refined. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the chemical composition of wines and dishes that determines their combination. We determined the content of total polyphenols in 56 wines. The content of total ...
Brogren Madelene - - 2003
Leafy vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are known to contain moderate amounts of soluble and insoluble oxalates. Frozen commercially available spinach in New Zealand contains 736.6+/-20.4 mg/100g wet matter (WM) soluble oxalate and 220.1+/-96.5mg/100g WM insoluble oxalate. The frozen spinach contained 90mg total calcium/100g WM, 76.7%of this calcium was ...
Bovell-Benjamin Adelia C - - 2003
Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of ...
Ruf Afruj Ali - - 2003
Thalassaemia is a heterogeneous group of inherited anaemias, characterised by a reduction or total absence of one or more of the globin chains of haemoglobin. Individuals with thalassaemia major require regular blood transfusions in order to maintain their haemoglobin concentration at an appropriate level. An essential treatment in parallel with ...
Asplin John R - - 2002
Hyperoxaluria leads to increased calcium oxalate supersaturation and calcium oxalate stone formation. Excess oxalate can arise from endogenous overproduction as in primary hyperoxaluria or from dietary sources. In the last 15 years great strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperoxaluria. However options still seem limited ...
Fairweather-Tait Susan J - - 2002
Bioavailability is a key consideration when developing strategies for preventing mineral deficiencies through improved dietary supply. Factors that affect the bioavailability of iron and calcium, forms used for fortification and supplementation, and methods used to assess bioavailability are described. Illustrations of the impact of introducing iron-fortified foods in developing and ...
Yu Cailan - - 2002
Hypocrellin B (HB) is a natural pigment with a promising application in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for anticancer treatment. The photobleaching of HB in non-polar organic solvents and in liposomes in aqueous solution were investigated by the measurements of absorption spectra, quenching experiments and determination of photoproducts. Control experiments indicated ...
Leske K - - 2002
Presently, phosphorus requirements are based on consumption of nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), which does not account for the fact that NPP may not be completely available and that phytate phosphorus can be partially utilized to fulfill phosphorus requirements. Phosphorus retention values for feed ingredients, accounting for NPP and phytate phosphorus, and ...
Wojtczak M - - 2002
White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and ...
Herman Susilowati - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a major nutritional concern in developing countries, and food fortification is a common strategy to treat it. In Indonesia wheat flour is fortified with 60 mg Fe/kg, but because of increasing concerns about marginal zinc status in at-risk populations, consideration is being given to cofortifying flour ...
Harris Susan S - - 2002
Recent increases in recommended calcium intakes recognize the important role of calcium in skeletal health, but many Americans, especially women, consume far less than recommended amounts. A potential drawback to encouraging increased calcium intake is suggested by the extensive literature showing an adverse effect of high calcium intake on dietary ...
Liyanage Chandrani - - 2002
To improve the iron status of infants an effort was made to increase the iron content of complementary foods by adding 12.5 mg of elemental iron to the meal in the form of micro-encapsulated ferrous fumarate coated with a lipid. The contents of the packet were sprinkled directly on to ...
Trinidad Trinidad Palad - - 2002
Iron absorption from rice fortified with different iron fortificants, e.g., ferrous sulfate (FeS04), sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate (FeFum), and ferrous bisglycinate (FeBis) was determined using an in vitro enzymatic digestion method simulating conditions in the small intestine and an in vivo method using radioisotope techniques. The in vitro ...
Bilal Rakhshanda - - 2002
Bioavailability refers to that fraction of nutrients which is utilized by the body out of the total indigested amount. Various direct and indirect methods for the determination of bioavailability are available. We determined the bioavailability of iron from fortified wheat flour using both in vitro and in vivo methods. The ...
Pizarro Fernando - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The enterocytic absorption pathway of the food fortificant iron bis-glycine chelate has been the subject of controversy because it is not clear whether that substance uses the classic nonheme-iron absorption pathway or a pathway similar to that of heme absorption. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the absorption pathway ...
Roughead Zamzam K Fariba - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Quantitative data on the mucosal uptake and serosal transfer of nonheme-iron absorption in humans and the effects of calcium on these components are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to measure the initial mucosal uptake and the subsequent serosal transfer of nonheme iron and to determine the effects of adding ...
Hurrell Richard F - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to compare Fe absorption from industrially-manufactured and home-cooked cereal foods. Fe absorption was measured using the radiolabelled Fe extrinsic tag technique in thirty-nine adult human subjects from cereal porridges manufactured by extrusion cooking or roller-drying, and from the same cereal flours after home ...
Winkelmann G - - 2002
Microbial iron chelates, called siderophores, are synthesized by bacteria and fungi in response to low iron availability in the environment. The present review summarizes structural details of siderophore ligands with respect to their transport properties. This presentation is largely centred on the occurrence and function of siderophores in the various ...
Hess Sonja Y - - 2002
Studies in animals and humans have shown that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) impairs thyroid metabolism. However, the mechanism is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether iron (Fe) deficiency lowers thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity. TPO is a heme-containing enzyme catalyzing the two initial steps in ...
Backstrand Jeffrey R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican ...
Glahn Raymond P - - 2002
An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model was used to compare iron bioavailability from 15 selected Fe-dense and normal genotypes of unpolished rice from the International Rice Research Institute. Iron uptake was determined using Caco-2 cell ferritin formation in response to exposure to a digest of the cooked rice. Iron bioavailabilities from ...
Vijayaraghavan K - - 2002
Micronutrient deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and iodine continue to be of public health significance in India. The government of India initiated national programs to prevent, control and combat these deficiencies and their serious consequences. The interventions involved (1) distribution of iodized salt in the endemic areas, (2) administration of ...
Ahluwalia Namanjeet - - 2002
Despite advances in scientific knowledge regarding multiple etiology, treatment, and potential strategies for combating iron deficiency and deficiencies of other micronutrients, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency remain significant public health challenges for growing children and adolescents. The short-term efficient supplementation approach, although technically feasible, has not ...
Ito Atsuo - - 2002
Using zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) as the zinc carrier for zinc-releasing calcium phosphate ceramic implants promoted bone formation around the implants. Because no quantitative information was available on the equilibrium solubility and resorbability of ZnTCP, in vitro equilibrium solubility and in vivo resorbability of ZnTCP were determined and compared quantitatively ...
Sugawara Tatsuya - - 2002
The metabolic fate in mammals of dietary fucoxanthin, a major carotenoid in brown algae, is not known. We investigated the absorption and metabolism of fucoxanthin in differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells, a useful model for studying the absorption of dietary compounds by intestinal cells. Fucoxanthin was taken up by Caco-2 ...
Leclerc Nathalie - - 2002
The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the ...
Nantel Guy - - 2002
The need for combined and integrated strategies to address iron deficiency is widely recognized, utilizing targeted supplementation, as well as food based strategies including both fortified and nonfortified foods. The challenge is not so much knowing "what" to do as is understanding "how" to implement effective and sustainable interventions. Because ...
Trowbridge Frederick - - 2002
The strengthening of global efforts to prevent and control iron deficiency requires priority setting and action steps in several key areas, including research, partnership formation, policy setting and the integration of intervention strategies. Research priorities include the development of improved assessment tools, evaluation of fortification strategies, improvement in interventions for ...
Zimmermann Michael B - - 2002
Recent understanding of plant metabolism has made it possible to increase the iron, zinc and beta-carotene (provitamin A) content in staple foods by both conventional plant breeding and genetic engineering. Improving the micronutrient composition of plant foods may become a sustainable strategy to combat deficiencies in human populations, replacing or ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2002
Iron fortification of food is a methodology utilized worldwide to address iron deficiency. A critical problem in some food fortification programs is the lack of bioavailability of iron compounds. This article reviews presentations on iron fortification programs in the Americas and the technical and practical barriers faced by the programs. ...
Yeung David L - - 2002
Industrialized nations have been successful in reducing incidences of iron deficiency through utilization of multifaceted strategies that build on the capabilities of successful alliances between the public and private sectors. In comparison to developing nations, which have an estimated prevalence of iron deficiency of approximately 40%, the prevalence in industrialized ...
Hunt Joseph M - - 2002
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) depresses human productivity, but policymakers do not generally view this effect as an impediment to sustained economic growth. Economic logic should be enfolded in public advocacy for increased investment in the prevention and control of IDA. This paper argues that integrated strategies are required, with each ...
Mehansho Haile - - 2002
Delivering iron fortified foods that provide meaningful levels of bioavailable iron without altering the accepted appearance and taste of the product presents multiple challenges. Issues relating to food technology, product formulation, acceptance and efficacy evaluation, marketing and quality control must all be addressed. Procter & Gamble Company has developed a ...
Hurrell Richard F - - 2002
The main barriers to successful iron fortification are the following: 1) finding an iron compound that is adequately absorbed but causes no sensory changes to the food vehicle; and 2) overcoming the inhibitory effect on iron absorption of dietary components such as phytic acid, phenolic compounds and calcium. These barriers ...
Yip Ray - - 2002
Compared with the industrialized nations, the challenges of combating iron (Fe) deficiency in developing countries include the far greater magnitude of the problem, the more limited resources and the more complex nature of the setting. The two groups most affected by Fe deficiency are young children and women of reproductive ...
Akhter Perveen - - 2002
Zinc concentration was determined in the Pakistani diet with the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. It varied from 12.94 to 37.77 microg/g, with an average value of 22.94 +/- 5.54 microg/g, indicating a daily intake of 13.59 +/- 3.31 mg/d for a reference Pakistani man weighing 63.9 kg. These ...
Davidsson Lena - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Corn masa flour is widely consumed in Central America and is therefore a potentially useful vehicle for iron fortification. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to evaluate the bioavailability of iron from meals based on corn tortillas and black bean paste that were fortified with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, or NaFeEDTA ...
Holm Preben B - - 2002
Modern genetic and molecular technologies provide a number of tools that can be utilized for the development of staple foods with a higher iron and zinc content and improved bioavailability of these minerals. This article summarizes current strategies aimed at increasing the iron-sequestering capacity of the endosperm and improving mineral ...
van Anholt R D - - 2002
Adult water fleas, Daphnia magna Straus, and the early life stages of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were exposed to river water near an iron sulfate dosage installation to determine the effects of phosphate precipitation with iron(II)sulfate. Tests were conducted during two consecutive dosage periods of 3,000 and 5,000 kg/day iron ...
Appleby Paul N - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the mortality of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians. DESIGN: Analysis of original data from two prospective studies each including a large proportion of vegetarians--the Oxford Vegetarian Study and the Health Food Shoppers Study. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) compared with the population of England and Wales were calculated from ...
Sloan Nancy L - - 2002
Prenatal iron supplementation has been the standard recommendation for reducing maternal anemia in developing countries for the past 30 years. This article reviews the efficacy of iron supplementation on hemoglobin levels in pregnant women in developing countries. Data from randomized controlled trials published between 1966 and 1998 were pooled. Meta-analyses ...
Tessier Dominique - - 2002
In the last 30 years, the prevalence of low dietary iron intake has increased, partly because North Americans have been encouraged to choose lower fat foods, including leaner meats. As a result, there has been a decrease in red meat consumption. The objective of this study was to estimate absorbable ...
Sohail Shaukat - - 2002
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out at Peshawar about the food habits of daily wages labourers working in the urban area. METHODS: One to one interview was conducted with 50 randomly selected daily wages labourers, using structured questionnaire. At the same time specimen of capillary blood was obtained from their ...
Jalla Sanju - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare the absorption efficiency of zinc from rice cereal and meat, with and without human milk, in 7-month-old breast-fed infants and to compare the size of exchangeable zinc pools in the infants according to the assigned complementary food. METHODS: Fractional absorption of ...
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