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Zlotkin Stanley H - - 2004
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is more common in South Asian countries including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan than anywhere else in the world. During infancy and early childhood, IDA is associated with impaired psycho-motor development and cognitive function that may be irreversible. As a consequence, there is a growing awareness that ...
Bagchi K - - 2004
Anaemia has remained a widespread public health problem in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Prevalence figures vary from a low of 17% to a high of over 70% among preschool children; from 14% to 42% among adolescents and from 11% to over 40% among women of childbearing age. Although ...
Bothwell Thomas H - - 2004
Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a hexadentate chelator, which can combine with virtually every metal in the periodic table. CaNa2EDTA and Na2EDTA (ADI 2.5 mg EDTA/kg body weight/day) are widely used as sequestering agents in canned products, while NaFeEDTA is a promising iron fortificant. Binding of EDTA with iron ...
Zimmermann Michael B - - 2004
Iron (Fe) encapsulation has the potential to help overcome several major challenges in Fe fortification of foods. It may decrease unwanted sensory changes in fortified products and reduce interactions of Fe with food components that lower Fe bioavailability. However, the effect of encapsulation per se on Fe bioavailability is a ...
Fairweather-Tait Susan J - - 2004
Fe homeostasis is considered in the context of the UK diet, using information on Fe intake and status from the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys. The importance of assessing Fe availability rather than total Fe intake is discussed. Dietary and host-related factors that determine Fe bioavailability (Fe utilised for Hb ...
Hertrampf Eva - - 2004
Iron amino acid chelates, such as iron glycinate chelates, have been developed to be used as food fortificants and therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Ferrous bis-glycine chelate (FeBC), ferric tris-glycine chelate, ferric glycinate, and ferrous bis-glycinate hydrochloride are available commercially. FeBC is the most ...
Teucher Birgit - - 2004
Ascorbic acid (AA), with its reducing and chelating properties, is the most efficient enhancer of non-heme iron absorption when its stability in the food vehicle is ensured. The number of studies investigating the effect of AA on ferrous sulfate absorption far outweighs that of other iron fortificants. The promotion of ...
Bhatnagar Shinjini - - 2004
Zinc deficiency is common in children from developing countries due to lack of intake of animal foods, high dietary phytate content, inadequate food intake and increased fecal losses during diarrhea. Zinc has a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, with profound effects on the immune system and the intestinal mucosa. Zinc ...
Etcheverry P - - 2004
Adding human milk fortifiers (HMF) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits found in the latter. In this study, the bioavailabilities of calcium, zinc, and iron in S-26/SMA HMF added to HM were compared with those in HM fortified with various bovine milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin, ...
Pathak Priyali - - 2004
Deficiencies of micronutrients (zinc, iron, folic acid and iodine) during pregnancy are known causes of Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies have documented status of one or two micronutrients amongst pregnant women (PW). However, no attempt has been made to concurrently assess the prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and the factors ...
Hurrell Richard F - - 2004
Phytic acid is a potent inhibitor of native and fortification iron absorption and low absorption of iron from cereal- and/or legume-based complementary foods is a major factor in the etiology of iron deficiency in infants. Dephytinization of complementary foods or soy-based infant formulas is technically possible but, as phytic acid ...
O'Hara B A - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fortified breakfast cereals (FBCs) are an important source of iron in the UK diet. In order to quantify their contribution to iron nutrition, food composition data for these products must be accurate. The very large amount of products available, together with inter-brand differences in iron content mean that discrepancies ...
Chai Weiwen - - 2004
PURPOSE: Oxalate bioavailability is an important determinant of whether the consumption of a particular food is a high risk in individuals predisposed to kidney stones. We estimated and compared oxalate absorption from a high oxalate containing legume (black beans) and a high oxalate containing nut (almonds). We also compared an ...
Matthys C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative validity of a newly developed iron intake assessment tool, designed specifically to assess iron, calcium and vitamin C intake. DESIGN: Estimates of iron, calcium and vitamin C intake from a computerised iron intake assessment tool compared with those from 11-day estimated dietary records. SETTING: Region ...
Mosha Theobald C E - - 2004
Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) ...
Kordas Katarzyna - - 2004
Because combined iron-zinc supplementation regimens are employed with increasing frequency in field trials to combat co-occurring iron and zinc deficiencies, there is a growing concern for potential antagonisms between these 2 metals. Several supplementation trials hinted at such a competition, and the intestinal divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) has often been ...
Groenen Pascal M W - - 2004
Evidence about the preventive effects of nutrients other than folate on the occurrence of spina bifida is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the role of maternal nutritional intake and the risk of spina bifida in the offspring. In 106 cases and 181 controls, the mothers' ...
Mamiro Peter S - - 2004
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from March 2001 to March 2002 involving 309 infants who received either a processed complementary food (CF) or an unprocessed placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. The study took place in Kilosa district, Tanzania. ...
Narimatsu Masahiro - - 2004
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral bacterium, might play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of adult periodontitis. In this study, we isolated from P. gingivalis a putative glycosyltransferase gene, designated gtfA, which had a consensus domain for glycosyltransferase in its N terminus. GtfA consisted of 248 amino acids and its ...
Van Wyck David - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Evidence of iron-mediated oxidative stress, neutrophil dysfunction and enhanced bacterial growth after intravenous (IV) iron administration has been ascribed to a labile or bioactive iron fraction present in all IV iron agents. METHODS: To quantify and compare the size of the labile fraction in several classes of IV iron ...
Torrejón Claudia S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Chilean infants are at risk for isolated zinc and iron deficiencies because of a low consumption of animal products in low socioeconomic sectors. In 1999, the National Complementary Food Program of Chile manufactured a new milk (2 kg of powdered milk/mo) fortified with iron (Fe; 10 mg/L), zinc (Zn; ...
Nelson M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aims of this review are (1) to evaluate the literature on the likely impact of tea drinking on the iron status of different groups within the UK population and (2) to formulate targeted and evidence based advice on tea drinking in the context of iron nutrition in different ...
Walter Tomas - - 2004
The most sustainable way to eradicate iron deficiency is through food fortification. Elemental iron powders are commonly utilized as fortificants due to their low cost and few sensory problems. However, their bioavailability is unknown. Our goals were to measure the bioavailability of elemental iron in Mexican style corn masa flour ...
Mendoza Concepcion - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Iron, zinc, and calcium can interact with each other in a way that inhibits their respective absorption. On the other hand, mineral fortification has been used to improve simultaneous iron and zinc absorption from food supplements. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of a novel fortificant mixture consisting of NaFeEDTA, ...
Rabkin Robert A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic duodenal switch with gastric reduction (LapDS) is a minimally invasive hybrid operation combining moderate intake restriction with moderate malabsorption for treatment of morbid obesity. In LapDS, both the quantity of food ingested and the efficiency of digestion are reduced. METHODS: A cohort of 589 sequential LapDS patients had ...
Theil Elizabeth C - - 2004
Ferritin, a major form of endogenous iron in food legumes such as soybeans, is a novel and natural alternative for iron supplementation strategies where effectiveness is limited by acceptability, cost, or undesirable side effects. A member of the nonheme iron group of dietary iron sources, ferritin is a complex with ...
Etcheverry Paz - - 2004
The iron bioavailability of human milk (HM) is substantially greater than that of cow's milk (CM), but the factor responsible for this high bioavailability is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of various HM and CM fractions on iron bioavailability. Milk was separated into fat, casein and whey fractions by ...
Ivanov V - - 2004
The combination of microbial reduction and further microbial oxidation of iron was applied to the treatment of food-processing wastewater and recovery of ammonium. Fe2+ ions were formed by iron-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Ammonium was recovered by co-precipitation with negatively charged iron hydroxides produced during oxidation of Fe2+ by iron-oxidizing ...
Fidler Meredith C - - 2004
Ferric pyrophosphate is a water-insoluble Fe compound used to fortify infant cereals and chocolate-drink powders as it causes no organoleptic changes to the food vehicle. However, it is only of low absorption in man. Recently, an innovative ferric pyrophosphate has been developed (Sunactive Fe trade mark ) based on small-particle-size ...
Prinsen Geerligs P D - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had ...
Jaeger Ph - - 2004
The factors affecting the urinary excretion of oxalate are critical to the risk of forming calcium oxalate stones. This article reviews the role of dietary and intestinal oxalate in determining the level of oxalate excreted in urine. The amount of oxalate available for absorption throughout the intestine is highly dependent ...
Stuetz R M - - 2004
Iron biofouling of wells can significantly impact the performance of a groundwater extraction system. A subsurface drainage scheme (Wakool, Australia) designed to reduce waterlogging was used to identify some of the relationships between aquifer properties and well biofouling. Piezometers drilled radially one metre from two biofouled wells showed that during ...
Mainguy Jean-Pierre - - 2004
The Keck Microarray Database (KMD) is a port of the ArrayExpress database from Oracle to the MySQL environment. The requirements for a locally available, open-source microarray database solution based on ArrayExpress are analysed in this article. The differences between the Oracle and MySQL environments are identified and the method to ...
Bwibo Nimrod O - - 2003
Food intake and dietary patterns in Kenyan households have been studied since the 1920s. Reports on breastfeeding, nutrient intake, micronutrient deficiencies and the impacts of malaria and intestinal parasites on nutritional status are reviewed. Diets are mainly cereal-based, with tubers and a variety of vegetables and fruits when available. White ...
Bell L S - - 2003
The remediation of nitroaromatic contaminated groundwater is sometimes difficult because nitroaromatic compounds are resistant to biodegradation and, when they do transform, the degradation of the products may also be incomplete. A simple nitroaromatic compound, nitrobenzene, was chosen to assess the feasibility of an in situ multi-zone treatment system at the ...
Yokoi Katsuhiko - - 2003
The estimation of iron requirements is crucial for nutrition and food policy. The traditional methods for estimating iron requirements are balance methods based on iron intakes and excretions and factorial methods based on estimated iron absorption rates and estimated iron losses from body compartments. As an alternative, numerical methods for ...
Guillemant Josette A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: N- and C-terminal fragments of type I collagen such as NTX, CTX and ICTP are released into circulation during bone resorption and can be quantified in serum. Their respective sensitivity as indices of osteoclastic activity was compared after a short-term inhibition of resorption induced by repeated drinking of calcium-fortified ...
Creed-Kanashiro Hilary M - - 2003
Formative research was conducted with 26 women and 16 adolescent girls to develop an education intervention through community kitchens (CK) in Lima, to increase their dietary iron intake and improve their iron status. A combination of qualitative research methods was used to explore perceptions about foods, nutrition, health, anemia and ...
Lynch Sean R - - 2003
An adequate supply of dietary iron during the 1st 24 mo of life is essential for preventing iron deficiency with its attendant negative effects on mental, motor and emotional development as well as later cognitive performance. Iron reserves and the small amount of highly bioavailable iron in human milk are ...
Beinner Mark Anthony - - 2003
Iron-deficiency-anemia affects 30% of the world population. Women of reproductive age and children are the most affected. Iron supplementation in the form of tablets and syrups has not been successful in developing countries, and iron deficiency is still the most important deficiency related to malnutrition. Iron-deficiency anemia affects physical and ...
Sekine Yasuko - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the dietary factors affecting change in calcaneous bone mass during the predelivery and postpartum periods in healthy Japanese women. METHODS: The calcaneous bone mass was measured as the osteo sono-assessment index (OSI) using the quantitative ultrasound method in 76 Japanese women who were pregnant between February and ...
López de Romaña Daniel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Several chemical forms of zinc have been proposed for food fortification, but information is needed on their absorption from common cereals having varied phytate content. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to measure zinc absorption from wheat products fortified with iron sulfate and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide. DESIGN: Adult ...
Geerligs P D Prinsen - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To complete a systematic review of the effect of preparing food cooked in iron pots on haemoglobin concentrations and to assess compliance with pot use. DESIGN AND SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, The Cochrane Controlled trials Register, ...
Fidler Meredith C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fish sauce and soy sauce have been suggested as food vehicles for iron fortification in Asia. NaFeEDTA is a potentially useful fortificant because it can be added to these condiments without causing precipitation during storage. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate iron absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified fish sauce and soy ...
Padhye Umesh - - 2003
Autism is a profoundly and poorly understood developmental disorder that impairs a person's social and communication abilities. I propose a hypothesis that the excessive dietary iron consumed by today's infants is the root cause of increased cases of Autism, allergies and other childhood diseases. Iron is a powerful immune system ...
Massey Linda K - - 2003
Calcium oxalate is the most common constituent of kidney stones. Increases in urinary oxalate increase risk of calcium oxalate supersaturation more than increases in urinary calcium, as the physiological level of oxalate is about one-fifth to one-tenth that of urinary calcium. Urinary oxalate derives from two sources: endogenous synthesis and ...
Weinberg Eugene D - - 2003
Lactoferrin (Lf), a natural defence iron-binding protein, is present in exocrine secretions that are commonly exposed to normal flora: milk, tears, nasal exudate, saliva, bronchial mucus, gastrointestinal fluids, cervicovaginal mucus and seminal fluid. Additionally, Lf is produced in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and is deposited by these circulating cells in septic sites. ...
Davidsson Lena - - 2003
The importance of trace element bioavailability in the etiology of nutritional deficiencies, for example in the etiology of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, can be expected to be most pronounced in individuals with high requirements. Of special concern is the situation in poor communities where infants and young children ...
Huy Nguyen Tien - - 2003
Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) has been suggested to be an initiator of the polymerization of heme, which is produced as by-product on the digestion of hemoglobin, and a promoter of the H(2)O(2)-induced degradation of heme in food vacuoles of the malarial parasite. In this work, we have designed ...
Mellican Renée I - - 2003
Iron deficiency affects over two billion people worldwide (Lotfi, M.; Venkatesh Mannar, M. G.; Merx, R. J.; Naber-van den Heuvel, P. Micronutrient Fortification of Foods: Current Practices, Research,and Opportunities; Micronutrient Initiative: Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1996). However, fortifying foods with highly bioavailable iron is technically challenging because of off-color and off-flavor ...
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