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El Bakary Neveen El Said Reda Nel - - 2014
To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical ...
Schnorr Stephanie L SL 1] Plant Foods in Hominin Dietary Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany - - 2014
Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community ...
Crespi Bernard - - 2013
I present evidence that humans have evolved convergently to social insects with regard to a large suite of social, ecological, and reproductive phenotypes. Convergences between humans and social insects include: (1) groups with genetically and environmentally defined structures; (2) extensive divisions of labor; (3) specialization of a relatively restricted set ...
Chaidez Virginia - - 2013
To explore the role of feeding practices and food purchases in toddler dietary intake and anthropometry. A convenience sample of Latino mother and toddler pairs were interviewed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Data on feeding practices, toddler dietary intake, anthropometry, and food purchases were collected using the Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire; ...
Behrenfeld Michael J - - 2013
Nutrient and light conditions control phytoplankton division rates in the surface ocean and, it is commonly believed, dictate when and where high concentrations, or blooms, of plankton occur. Yet after a century of investigation, rates of phytoplankton biomass accumulation show no correlation with cell division rates. Consequently, factors controlling plankton ...
Bradbury Phyllis Clarke - - 2013
Hyalophysa chattoni, borne as an encysted phoront on a crustacean's exoskeleton, metamorphoses to the trophont during the host's premolt. After the molt within 15min to 2h conjugants with food vacuoles appear in the exuvium, swimming along with the trophonts. Starvation in other ciliates usually precedes conjugation, but food vacuoles in ...
Cyrus Chu C Y - - 2013
We explain how upward transfers from adult children to their elderly parents might evolve as an interrelated feature of a deepening intergenerational division of labor. Humans have a particularly long period of juvenile dependence requiring both food and care time provided mainly by younger and older adults. We suggest that ...
Shriver Lenka H - - 2013
Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 ...
Bermudez Odilia I - - 2012
Globally, there is a scarcity of national food consumption data that could help to assess food patterns and nutrient intakes of population groups. Estimates of food consumption patterns and apparent intakes of energy and nutrients could be obtained from national Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES). To use the HCES ...
Iemolo Attilio A Laboratory of Addictive Disorders, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, - - 2012
The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. ...
Esselstyn Jacob A JA Biology Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. - - 2012
Rodents are important ecological components of virtually every terrestrial ecosystem. Their success is a result of their gnawing incisors, battery of grinding molars and diastema that spatially and functionally separates the incisors from the molars. Until now these traits defined all rodents. Here, we describe a new species and genus ...
Ramirez-Niño Ana M AM Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, M/C 0603, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, - - 2013
Chronic nicotine administration decreases the functioning of the cystine-glutamate antiporter system x(c)- which is hypothesized to promote nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviors. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cystine pro-drug, increases the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter system x(c)-. Thus, NAC could potentially reverse nicotine-induced alterations in glutamatergic transmission and decrease nicotine taking and ...
Zaru Alessandro - - 2012
Treatment with a rational combination of standardized extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus reduced food intake and glycemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of this extract combination and of each single extract in an experimental model of food craving, made up of rats ...
Rodríguez M Marlenne A - - 2012
Caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. We tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. We compared the isotopic niches of black rats (Rattus rattus) on two islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico: Farrallón ...
Kanoski Scott E SE Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2013
The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin drives higher-order feeding processes related to food reward and food seeking via central nervous system signaling at its receptor (GHSR1A). The specific nuclei mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here, we use a rat model to examine whether ghrelin signaling in the ventral subregion of ...
Pérez-Morales Marcel - - 2012
The activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons triggers synaptic retrograde signaling through the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, thereby activating the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R). CB1R is a metabotropic receptor activated by marihuana and endocannabinoids that suppresses neurotransmitter release. Also, activation of the CB1R increases rapid eye movement ...
Kerstetter Kerry A - - 2012
Cocaine-dependent women, relative to their male counterparts, report shorter cocaine-free periods and report transiting faster from first use to entering treatment for addiction. Similarly, preclinical studies indicate that female rats, particularly those in the estrus phase of their reproductive cycle, show increased operant responding for cocaine under a wide variety ...
Goebel-Stengel Miriam M CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90073, - - 2012
Various molecular forms of CCK reduce food intake in rats. Although CCK-8 is the most studied form, we reported that CCK-58 is the only detectable endocrine peptide form in rats. We investigated the dark-phase rat chow intake pattern following injection of CCK-8 and CCK-58. Ad libitum-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...
D'Cunha Tracey M - - 2012
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research with an animal model of relapse has shown that acute food deprivation will reinstate extinguished drug seeking. Recent evidence with humans, however, suggests that chronic food restriction rather than acute food deprivation is related to increases in drug taking and relapse, emphasizing a need for ...
Li Jinrong - - 2012
The intake-excitatory effects of caloric foods are mainly due to the palatable taste and the ensuing positive postingestive effects. Dietary obese individuals are inclined to overeat high caloric foods. However, it is still unclear whether the taste or postingestive reinforcement mainly contributes to the excessive intake by obese individuals. In ...
West Elizabeth A - - 2012
Basolateral amygdala (BLA) function is critical for flexible, goal-directed behavior, including performance on reinforcer devaluation tasks. Here we tested, in rats, the hypothesis that BLA is critical for conditioned reinforcer devaluation during the period when the primary reinforcer (food) is being devalued (by feeding it to satiety), but not thereafter ...
Hu Xinzhong - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Steaming and roasting treatments are widely used enzyme deactivation methods in the oat food industry in China. Whether or not the enzyme deactivation treatments affect the nutritional function of oat foods is unknown. In the current study, we examined the effects of 4-week ingestion of steamed or roasted oat ...
Watterson Lucas R LR Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, PO Box 871104, 950 S McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287, - - 2013
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive psychostimulant with severe detrimental effects to the health of users. Currently, METH addiction is treated with a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, but these traditional approaches suffer from high relapse rates. Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological treatment interventions approved by ...
Giuliano Chiara C Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Endogenous opioids, and in particular μ-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel μ-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. ...
Gao Yonglin - - 2012
Abstract XOS is sugar oligomers composed of a β-1,4-linked xylopyranosyl backbone that are obtained by either chemical or, more commonly, enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan polysaccharides extracted from plant cell wall. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of XOS in mice and rats have been evaluated, respectively. In the acute ...
Micioni Di Bonaventura Maria V - - 2012
The present study examined the effect of two A2A adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, CGS 21680 and VT 7, on high-palatability food (HPF) intake in a model of binge eating in sated rats and on low-palatability food (LPF) intake in food-deprived rats. Binge eating was induced in female rats by three ...
Park-York Miejung - - 2012
Insulin injections into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reduce food intake, but this response is lost within 3 days of feeding a high fat diet (HFD). To investigate the signaling mechanisms that might underlie this loss of response to insulin, we subjected protein samples from amygdala and hypothalamus ...
Deshmukh Rahul R - - 2012
Stimulation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in nucleus accumbens shell has been shown to stimulate feeding and enhance positive 'liking' reactions to intraoral sucrose. This study examined the behavioural effects of noladin ether and 2-arachidonoylglycerol following infusion into accumbens shell, on chow intake and food preference in high-carbohydrate and high-fat preferring ...
Cifani Carlo - - 2012
Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic ...
Cottone Pietro - - 2012
Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain ...
Alvarez-Salas E - - 2012
TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVN TRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a ...
Reppucci Christina J - - 2012
Cues that predict food can stimulate appetite and feeding independent of physiological hunger. How long such effects might last is currently unknown. Here we began to characterize long-term effects in a rodent model of cue-potentiated feeding. Rats were conditioned to associate a tone with food pellets distinct from their regular ...
Lerma-Cabrera Jose M - - 2012
The melanocortin system is involved in animal models of obesity and anorexia-cachexia and MC4 receptors (MC4-R) are currently a target system for the development of drugs aimed to treat obesity and eating disorders in humans. Previous evidence suggest that feeding peptides might lack their orexigenic activity while stimulate ethanol intake. ...
Kovács Anita - - 2012
Several members of the RFamide peptide family are known to have role in the regulation of feeding. For example, neuropeptide FF and prolactin-releasing peptide cause anorexigenic, while 26RFa and QRFP result in orexigenic effects in rodents. I.c.v. microinjection of neuropeptide RFRP-1 significantly reduced food and water intake in chicks. However, ...
Carneiro Isabel - - 2012
Confusing results have been reported regarding the influence of nutritional status on myostatin levels. Some studies indicate that short-term fasting results in increased myostatin mRNA levels in skeletal muscle, evident in several species. In contrast, other studies have demonstrated either a decrease or no change in myostatin levels during fasting. ...
Mohr M A - - 2012
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a known mediator of metabolism and reproduction; however, the role GALP plays in the onset of puberty is unknown. First, we tested the hypothesis that central GALP administration could rescue puberty in food-restricted weanling rats. GALP treatment in food-restricted rats of both sexes rescued the timing ...
Chen Wenya - - 2012
We have recently reported that oral gavage of a potato extract (Potein<sup>®</sup>) suppressed the food intake in rats. The satiating effect of the potato extract was compared in the present study to other protein sources, and the involvement of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was examined. Food consumption was measured in ...
Li Fang F Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, XiangYa School of Medicine, Central South University, Tongzipo Road 172, Changsha 410013, Hunan, - - 2012
We have developed a novel laboratory rodent model to detect competitive, non-competitive and no-hurdle foraging behaviors as seen in natural environment. However, it is not clear which brain region is important for the food foraging activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lesions in the bilateral anterior ...
El-Meghawry El-Kenawy Ayman - - 2012
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food enhancer. Glutamate is used as food additive for enhancing the "meat flavor" of food and gives a particular taste named "umami". In this study, we evaluated the effect of vitamin C on monosodium glutamate induced rat liver injury. This study was divided ...
Park Mi-Kyoung - - 2012
Fenofibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator and is prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. The mechanism through which PPARα agonists reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity remains unclear. One explanation for the reduction of food intake is that fenofibrate promotes fatty acid oxidation and increases the production ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2012
γ-Aminobutyric acid-(B) (GABA(B)) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) act on an allosteric site on the GABA(B) receptor to potentiate the effects of GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists. It has previously been demonstrated that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived rats. The aim of this study was ...
Badonnel Karine - - 2012
Previous studies have demonstrated that olfactory-driven behaviors in rats are influenced by short-term caloric restriction, partly through the modulation of olfactory sensitivity by appetite-modulating hormones or peptides such as insulin and leptin. Here, we addressed the issue of a long-term modulation of their neuroendocrine status by evaluating the effect of ...
Jarvandi Soghra - - 2012
Rats can learn to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals by increasing food intake. Our previous reports have analysed group means at each trial but that does not allow for rats learning at different speeds. This paper presents instead a rat-by-rat analysis of all the raw data from previous experiments. ...
Sakkas Panagiotis - - 2012
Lactating rats reinfected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis fed low-crude protein (CP) foods show reduced lactational performance and less resistance to parasites compared with their high-CP counterparts. Here, we hypothesised that feeding high-CP foods deficient in specific essential amino acids (AA) would result in similar penalties. Second-parity lactating rats, immunised with 1600 ...
Piccoli Laura - - 2012
Orexins (OX) and their receptors (OXR) modulate feeding, arousal, stress, and drug abuse. Neural systems that motivate and reinforce drug abuse may also underlie compulsive food seeking and intake. Therefore, the effects of GSK1059865 (5-bromo-N-[(2S,5S)-1-(3-fluoro-2-methoxybenzoyl)-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl]methyl-pyridin-2-amine), a selective OX(1)R antagonist, JNJ-10397049 (N-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-N'-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea), a selective OX(2)R antagonist, and SB-649868 (N-[((2S)-1-{[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]carbonyl}-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1-benzofuran-4-carboxamide), a dual ...
Loi Barbara - - 2012
Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered ...
Chen Xi - - 2012
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered neuropeptide that has been shown to decrease food intake after lateral, third, or fourth brain ventricle, cisterna magna administration, or PVN injection in ad libitum fed rats. With regards to the understanding of nesfatin-1 brain sites of action, additional microinjection studies will be necessary to ...
Bøgh K L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Allergen epitope characterization provides valuable information useful for the understanding of proteins as food allergens. It is believed that IgE epitopes in general are conformational, nevertheless, for food allergens known to sensitize through the gastrointestinal tract linear epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim ...
Farrimond Jonathan A - - 2012
RATIONALE: Increased food consumption following ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced cannabinoid type 1 receptor agonism is well documented. However, possible non-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoid-induced feeding effects have yet to be fully investigated. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of the individual phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol, cannabidiol and cannabinol, upon feeding behaviors. METHODS: Adult male rats were treated (p.o.) ...
Hwang Youn-Hwan - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Samul-tang (Si-Wu-tang in Chinese, Shimotsu-to in Japanese), widely used in eastern Asia, is composed of Angelica gigas (Angelicae Gigantis Radix), Cnidium officinale (Cnidii Rhizoma), Paeonia lactiflora (Paeonia Radix) and Rehmannia glutinosa (Rehmanniae Radix Preparata). Paeoniflorin, one of active components in Samul-tang has anti-platelet, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties. ...
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