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Tadesse Getachew - - 2014
BackgroundThe globalization of the food supply and the increased movements of people, animals and goods have increased the threat of Salmonella infections in several countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in food animals in Ethiopia by using meta-analytical methods.ResultsThe prevalence of Salmonella in ...
Suto Akemi A Suto Animal - - 2014
Canine atopic-like dermatitis (ALD) is suspected to be associated with food allergies, particularly those mediated by lymphocytes. In this study, 54 cases were included as ALD dogs, based on the negative IgE test results. In the dogs, the percentage of activated cells helper-T lymphocytes were measured by flow cytometry using ...
Yani Srita S Laboratory of Animal Husbandry Resources, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, - - 2014
Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce ...
Hewagalamulage Sakda D SD Department of Physiology, Building 13F, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, - - 2014
We have identified female sheep that have either high (HR) or low (LR) cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropin. On a high energy diet, HR have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides (ARP) exert reciprocal effects on food intake ...
- - 2014
My favorite food is Mongolian-style barbeque lamb. If I won the lottery, I would go traveling.
Hassan Ammar Ali AA Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Section for Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9307 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of steam vacuum pasteurisation on carcass contamination with focus on Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count (TPC). Additionally, the effect of an additional tryptone soy agar (TSA) step for resuscitation of Enterobacteriaceae after steam vacuum pasteurisation was investigated. ...
Reed Jennifer L JL a Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Noll Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology , The Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA , - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine macronutrient intake, energy density and energy intake distribution that may be associated with low energy availability (EA) in Division I female soccer players. The energy intake, exercise energy expenditure and EA of 19 participants (18-21 years) was assessed during the pre-, mid- ...
El Bakary Neveen El Said Reda Nel - - 2014
To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical ...
Schnorr Stephanie L SL 1] Plant Foods in Hominin Dietary Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany - - 2014
Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community ...
Crespi Bernard - - 2013
I present evidence that humans have evolved convergently to social insects with regard to a large suite of social, ecological, and reproductive phenotypes. Convergences between humans and social insects include: (1) groups with genetically and environmentally defined structures; (2) extensive divisions of labor; (3) specialization of a relatively restricted set ...
Chaidez Virginia - - 2013
To explore the role of feeding practices and food purchases in toddler dietary intake and anthropometry. A convenience sample of Latino mother and toddler pairs were interviewed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Data on feeding practices, toddler dietary intake, anthropometry, and food purchases were collected using the Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire; ...
Behrenfeld Michael J - - 2013
Nutrient and light conditions control phytoplankton division rates in the surface ocean and, it is commonly believed, dictate when and where high concentrations, or blooms, of plankton occur. Yet after a century of investigation, rates of phytoplankton biomass accumulation show no correlation with cell division rates. Consequently, factors controlling plankton ...
Bradbury Phyllis Clarke - - 2013
Hyalophysa chattoni, borne as an encysted phoront on a crustacean's exoskeleton, metamorphoses to the trophont during the host's premolt. After the molt within 15min to 2h conjugants with food vacuoles appear in the exuvium, swimming along with the trophonts. Starvation in other ciliates usually precedes conjugation, but food vacuoles in ...
Cyrus Chu C Y CC Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. - - 2013
We explain how upward transfers from adult children to their elderly parents might evolve as an interrelated feature of a deepening intergenerational division of labor. Humans have a particularly long period of juvenile dependence requiring both food and care time provided mainly by younger and older adults. We suggest that ...
Shriver Lenka H - - 2013
Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 ...
Bermudez Odilia I - - 2012
Globally, there is a scarcity of national food consumption data that could help to assess food patterns and nutrient intakes of population groups. Estimates of food consumption patterns and apparent intakes of energy and nutrients could be obtained from national Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES). To use the HCES ...
Iemolo Attilio A Laboratory of Addictive Disorders, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, - - 2012
The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. ...
Micioni Di Bonaventura Maria V MV School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Unit, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy. - - 2012
The present study examined the effect of two A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, CGS 21680 and VT 7, on high-palatability food (HPF) intake in a model of binge eating in sated rats and on low-palatability food (LPF) intake in food-deprived rats. Binge eating was induced in female rats by three ...
Esselstyn Jacob A JA Biology Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. - - 2012
Rodents are important ecological components of virtually every terrestrial ecosystem. Their success is a result of their gnawing incisors, battery of grinding molars and diastema that spatially and functionally separates the incisors from the molars. Until now these traits defined all rodents. Here, we describe a new species and genus ...
Ramirez-Niño Ana M AM Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, M/C 0603, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, - - 2013
Chronic nicotine administration decreases the functioning of the cystine-glutamate antiporter system x(c)- which is hypothesized to promote nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviors. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cystine pro-drug, increases the activity of the cystine-glutamate antiporter system x(c)-. Thus, NAC could potentially reverse nicotine-induced alterations in glutamatergic transmission and decrease nicotine taking and ...
Zaru Alessandro - - 2012
Treatment with a rational combination of standardized extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus reduced food intake and glycemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of this extract combination and of each single extract in an experimental model of food craving, made up of rats ...
Rodríguez M Marlenne A - - 2012
Caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. We tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. We compared the isotopic niches of black rats (Rattus rattus) on two islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico: Farrallón ...
Kanoski Scott E SE Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2013
The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin drives higher-order feeding processes related to food reward and food seeking via central nervous system signaling at its receptor (GHSR1A). The specific nuclei mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here, we use a rat model to examine whether ghrelin signaling in the ventral subregion of ...
Pérez-Morales Marcel - - 2012
The activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons triggers synaptic retrograde signaling through the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, thereby activating the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R). CB1R is a metabotropic receptor activated by marihuana and endocannabinoids that suppresses neurotransmitter release. Also, activation of the CB1R increases rapid eye movement ...
Kerstetter Kerry A - - 2012
Cocaine-dependent women, relative to their male counterparts, report shorter cocaine-free periods and report transiting faster from first use to entering treatment for addiction. Similarly, preclinical studies indicate that female rats, particularly those in the estrus phase of their reproductive cycle, show increased operant responding for cocaine under a wide variety ...
Goebel-Stengel Miriam M CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90073, - - 2012
Various molecular forms of CCK reduce food intake in rats. Although CCK-8 is the most studied form, we reported that CCK-58 is the only detectable endocrine peptide form in rats. We investigated the dark-phase rat chow intake pattern following injection of CCK-8 and CCK-58. Ad libitum-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...
D'Cunha Tracey M - - 2012
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research with an animal model of relapse has shown that acute food deprivation will reinstate extinguished drug seeking. Recent evidence with humans, however, suggests that chronic food restriction rather than acute food deprivation is related to increases in drug taking and relapse, emphasizing a need for ...
Li Jinrong - - 2012
The intake-excitatory effects of caloric foods are mainly due to the palatable taste and the ensuing positive postingestive effects. Dietary obese individuals are inclined to overeat high caloric foods. However, it is still unclear whether the taste or postingestive reinforcement mainly contributes to the excessive intake by obese individuals. In ...
West Elizabeth A - - 2012
Basolateral amygdala (BLA) function is critical for flexible, goal-directed behavior, including performance on reinforcer devaluation tasks. Here we tested, in rats, the hypothesis that BLA is critical for conditioned reinforcer devaluation during the period when the primary reinforcer (food) is being devalued (by feeding it to satiety), but not thereafter ...
Hu Xinzhong - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Steaming and roasting treatments are widely used enzyme deactivation methods in the oat food industry in China. Whether or not the enzyme deactivation treatments affect the nutritional function of oat foods is unknown. In the current study, we examined the effects of 4-week ingestion of steamed or roasted oat ...
Watterson Lucas R LR Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, PO Box 871104, 950 S McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287, - - 2013
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive psychostimulant with severe detrimental effects to the health of users. Currently, METH addiction is treated with a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, but these traditional approaches suffer from high relapse rates. Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological treatment interventions approved by ...
Giuliano Chiara C Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Endogenous opioids, and in particular μ-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel μ-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. ...
Gao Yonglin - - 2012
Abstract XOS is sugar oligomers composed of a β-1,4-linked xylopyranosyl backbone that are obtained by either chemical or, more commonly, enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan polysaccharides extracted from plant cell wall. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of XOS in mice and rats have been evaluated, respectively. In the acute ...
Park-York Miejung - - 2012
Insulin injections into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reduce food intake, but this response is lost within 3 days of feeding a high fat diet (HFD). To investigate the signaling mechanisms that might underlie this loss of response to insulin, we subjected protein samples from amygdala and hypothalamus ...
Deshmukh Rahul R - - 2012
Stimulation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in nucleus accumbens shell has been shown to stimulate feeding and enhance positive 'liking' reactions to intraoral sucrose. This study examined the behavioural effects of noladin ether and 2-arachidonoylglycerol following infusion into accumbens shell, on chow intake and food preference in high-carbohydrate and high-fat preferring ...
Cifani Carlo - - 2012
Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic ...
Cottone Pietro P Laboratory of Addictive Disorders, Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain ...
Alvarez-Salas E - - 2012
TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVN TRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a ...
Reppucci Christina J - - 2012
Cues that predict food can stimulate appetite and feeding independent of physiological hunger. How long such effects might last is currently unknown. Here we began to characterize long-term effects in a rodent model of cue-potentiated feeding. Rats were conditioned to associate a tone with food pellets distinct from their regular ...
Lerma-Cabrera Jose M - - 2012
The melanocortin system is involved in animal models of obesity and anorexia-cachexia and MC4 receptors (MC4-R) are currently a target system for the development of drugs aimed to treat obesity and eating disorders in humans. Previous evidence suggest that feeding peptides might lack their orexigenic activity while stimulate ethanol intake. ...
Kovács Anita - - 2012
Several members of the RFamide peptide family are known to have role in the regulation of feeding. For example, neuropeptide FF and prolactin-releasing peptide cause anorexigenic, while 26RFa and QRFP result in orexigenic effects in rodents. I.c.v. microinjection of neuropeptide RFRP-1 significantly reduced food and water intake in chicks. However, ...
Carneiro Isabel - - 2012
Confusing results have been reported regarding the influence of nutritional status on myostatin levels. Some studies indicate that short-term fasting results in increased myostatin mRNA levels in skeletal muscle, evident in several species. In contrast, other studies have demonstrated either a decrease or no change in myostatin levels during fasting. ...
Mohr M A - - 2012
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a known mediator of metabolism and reproduction; however, the role GALP plays in the onset of puberty is unknown. First, we tested the hypothesis that central GALP administration could rescue puberty in food-restricted weanling rats. GALP treatment in food-restricted rats of both sexes rescued the timing ...
Chen Wenya - - 2012
We have recently reported that oral gavage of a potato extract (Potein<sup>®</sup>) suppressed the food intake in rats. The satiating effect of the potato extract was compared in the present study to other protein sources, and the involvement of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was examined. Food consumption was measured in ...
Li Fang F Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, XiangYa School of Medicine, Central South University, Tongzipo Road 172, Changsha 410013, Hunan, - - 2012
We have developed a novel laboratory rodent model to detect competitive, non-competitive and no-hurdle foraging behaviors as seen in natural environment. However, it is not clear which brain region is important for the food foraging activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lesions in the bilateral anterior ...
El-Meghawry El-Kenawy Ayman - - 2012
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food enhancer. Glutamate is used as food additive for enhancing the "meat flavor" of food and gives a particular taste named "umami". In this study, we evaluated the effect of vitamin C on monosodium glutamate induced rat liver injury. This study was divided ...
Park Mi-Kyoung - - 2012
Fenofibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator and is prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. The mechanism through which PPARα agonists reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity remains unclear. One explanation for the reduction of food intake is that fenofibrate promotes fatty acid oxidation and increases the production ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2012
γ-Aminobutyric acid-(B) (GABA(B)) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) act on an allosteric site on the GABA(B) receptor to potentiate the effects of GABA and GABA(B) receptor agonists. It has previously been demonstrated that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen increases food intake in non-deprived rats. The aim of this study was ...
Badonnel Karine - - 2012
Previous studies have demonstrated that olfactory-driven behaviors in rats are influenced by short-term caloric restriction, partly through the modulation of olfactory sensitivity by appetite-modulating hormones or peptides such as insulin and leptin. Here, we addressed the issue of a long-term modulation of their neuroendocrine status by evaluating the effect of ...
Jarvandi Soghra - - 2012
Rats can learn to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals by increasing food intake. Our previous reports have analysed group means at each trial but that does not allow for rats learning at different speeds. This paper presents instead a rat-by-rat analysis of all the raw data from previous experiments. ...
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