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Levy L - - 2000
One hundred four adults completed a multiple choice food label comprehension questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Most respondents were able to accurately rate the fat content of five different foods using only the food label information. However, some underestimated food content for some foods. Also, only 29% correctly selected ...
Farquhar J W - - 1999
Primordial prevention seeks to prevent future disease by influencing its social determinants. Henry Blackburn's writings are prime portrayals of social factors causing premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). His classic paper, Diet and Mass Hyperlipidemia, identified changes needed in professional attitudes, medical economics, food production, food labeling, and food advertising. The 1982 ...
Pearce J W - - 1999
Integrated delivery systems (IDSs) should conduct annual audits of payers' settlements under risk contracts to verify that the payer attributed the appropriate amounts of revenue and charged the appropriate claims expenses to the IDS. In particular, IDSs should verify that payers calculated revenues and expenses based on consistent member counts ...
- - 1999
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is authorizing the use, on food labels and in food labeling, of health claims on the association between soy protein and reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Based on its review of evidence submitted with comments to the proposed rule, as well as ...
Larsson I - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: The food-marking symbol the 'Green Keyhole' has been in use since 1989 in Sweden, to make it easier for consumers to select low-fat and high-fibre alternatives. OBJECTIVE: To describe knowledge of the Green Keyhole symbol in a general population of both sexes and the association between knowledge and intake ...
Król E - - 1999
The isotope dilution technique for measuring total body water (TBW), and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring energy expenditure, are both sensitive to small variations in the ratio of the hydrogen to oxygen-18 dilution space. Since the dilution space ratio varies between individuals, there has been much recent ...
Kessler H - - 1999
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identity how people with diabetes use food labels to manage their intake of specific nutrients, which information is used on the Nutrition Facts label, and the relationship between food label use and nutrition knowledge. METHODS: A total of 190 individuals participated in ...
Coussement P A - - 1999
Inulin and oligofructose are a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world's population. Daily intakes for the U.S. and Europe have been estimated at up to 10 g, specifically 1-4 g for the 97th percentile in the U.S. Because both inulin and oligofructose are macroingredients, it ...
Hamilton-Miller J M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and helpfulness of labelling on products containing probiotic bacteria. DESIGN AND SETTING: 52 such products - 44 from the UK (21 supplements, 15 fermented functional foods, eight 'health-care' products) and eight from continental Europe - have been tested for microbiological content, and results compared to ...
Ross B H - - 1999
Seven studies examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about a rich real-world category domain, foods. The representation of the category was assessed by category generation, category ratings, and item sortings. The first results indicated that the high-level category of foods was organized simultaneously by taxonomic categories for the ...
Fisher B E - - 1999
The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to ...
Miller C K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an educational intervention about the food label designed specifically for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: A pretest-posttest control group design. Participants received random group assignment. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Forty-three women aged 40 to 60 years with type 2 diabetes living in a rural community in Pennsylvania participated. ...
Zubkov MV - - 1999
> Abstract Artificial bacterial biofilms were formed by making microwave-irradiated, dual-radioisotope-labelled Vibrio bacteria adhere to 0.4 µm pore size filters with albumin. The rate of release of 3H from thymidine label in these bacteria into the surrounding seawater when protozoa were incubated with the biofilm indicated the predator's grazing rate, ...
Miller C - - 1999
Food selection is a key component in the management of diabetes. The foods selected affect the caloric and nutrient composition of the diet and blood glucose levels among people with diabetes. The nutrition information on the food label can guide decisions for food purchases. Whether senior women with diabetes use ...
Nayga R M RM - - 1999
This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally ...
Kristal A R - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study compared use of food labels before and after implementation of new Food and Drug Administration regulations in 1994. METHODS: Data were obtained by random-digit-dial surveys of Washington State residents in 1993 (n = 1001) and 1996 (n = 1450). RESULTS: After implementation of the new regulations, usual ...
MacCormick C A - - 1998
Foods produced by genetic engineering technology are now appearing on the market and many more are likely to emerge in the future. The safety aspects, regulation, and labelling of these foods are still contentious issues in most countries and recent surveys highlight consumer concerns about the safety and labelling of ...
Sarraseca A - - 1998
The effect of intake on urea production, entry into the digestive tract and return of N to the ornithine cycle was studied in four sheep. Each sheep received 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 x estimated maintenance energy intake quantities of grass pellets for 9 d. After 4 d of adjustment, N ...
Giussani A - - 1998
The metabolism and biokinetics of trace metals in humans can be successfully studied employing stable isotopes of the investigated elements as tracers. For the estimation of the bioavailability and the intestinal absorption from solid food, materials are required which have been intrinsically labelled with the chosen stable tracer, since the ...
Pennington J A - - 1997
Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first ...
McDonald J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To record the prevalence of nutrition labelling of foodstuffs with respect to sugar content in selected supermarkets in the UK in 1996 and to compare the prevalence with results reported for 1989. RESEARCH DESIGN: Examination of the labelling of foodstuffs to see whether the labelling of the nutrition content ...
Pennington J A - - 1997
In August 1996, the US Food and Drug Administration published regulations that revised the guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruits, vegetables, and fish; revised the criteria for retailers' compliance with the guidelines; and updated the nutrition labeling values for the 20 most frequently consumed raw fruits, vegetables, and ...
Ovesen L - - 1997
Functional foods and claims belong together, so that many people would define functional goods as those which are claimed to have health-promoting effects. Within the EU such claims are regulated by the Food Labelling Regulations, which prohibit food labelling or advertising to claim that a particular food has the property ...
Fukumoto M - - 1997
Accidental cigarette ingestion by children is a frequent occurrence in Japan where hundreds of cigarette brands (domestic and imported) are purchased. To evaluate the predictive value of the nicotine yield given on the label and determined by a smoking machine, we measured the actual nicotine content of tobacco in 33 ...
Miller C K - - 1997
Women on restricted diets are reportedly among the most frequent readers of nutrition information on food labels. However, the specific label information that women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) comprehend and use has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitude toward, use, and knowledge ...
Pallone T L - - 1997
Molecular sieving of small solutes by outer medullary descending vasa recta (OMDVR). Descending vasa recta (DVR) plasma equilibrates with the medullary interstitium by volume efflux (Jv), as well as by influx of solutes. Jv is driven by transmural osmotic pressure gradients due to small hydrophilic solutes (delta pi s), NaCl ...
Westcombe A - - 1997
Thirty-six normal-weight participants each tasted and rated three cheeses, three yogurts and three "koerrtas" (a novel, tofu-based food) on several hedonic, intention and sensory dimensions. Each sample was labelled as either "Higher" (than normal fat content), "Normal", or "Lower" (than normal fat content) while the actual fat content remained virtually ...
McCullum C - - 1997
Ninety adolescents (41 males and 49 females) stratified by shopping experience (44 shoppers and 46 nonshoppers) were given a list of 20 foods to select in a supermarket. An interview was conducted to determine reason(s) given for each food selection, use of nutrition information, and other variables. Reasons most often ...
Holt P R - - 1996
Fecal diacylglycerol (DAG) concentrations have been suggested as biomarkers for colonic neoplasia because of their potential to be absorbed in the colon and to stimulate epithelial cell proliferation. The interrelationships among nutrient intake, fecal and mucosal DAG, and colonic proliferative markers have not previously been studied. We designed a pilot ...
Takano K - - 1996
On April 26th 1986, an accidental explosion occurred at Chernobyl nuclear power station #4, located in the Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union. From May 1991, in order to prevent internal exposure to cesium-137 ((137)Cs) in the inhabitants of the Chechersk district of the Gomel region in the Republic of ...
Shipley M T - - 1996
The intrinsic cytoarchitecture and neurochemical organization of the nucleus locus coeruleus have been characterized extensively, but there is little information about the organization of locus coeruleus neuronal processes extending outside of the nucleus proper. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical techniques were used to investigate the distribution of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase- or tyrosine-hydroxylase-labeled ...
Vanbilloen H P - - 1996
Recently, we have shown that tetrapeptides can be efficiently labelled with technetium-99m by direct labelling at alkaline pH. Tetrapeptides can be considered derivatives of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in which the mercaptoacetyl moiety is replaced by an amino acid residue. In view of the interesting biological properties of some C-methyl substituted derivatives ...
Huffman K L - - 1996
Loin steaks were eaten by 67 consumers over a 15-wk period (n = 739 consumer observations) to determine the consumer acceptability of beef tenderness in the home and a "white table cloth" restaurant. Steaks were rated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability on an 8-point scale. The acceptability levels ...
Wiesenfeld P L - - 1995
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires the listing of all food ingredients on the label. However, until this year, nutrition labeling for most foods was not required. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, passed by the US Congress in November 1990, requires nutrition labeling (on the package or ...
Hartline D - - 1995
Throughout the development and implementation of Health Smile. Hershey Foods has been committed to quality-based health plan options for its employees that serve as the route to cost-effective care. It is known that the company will need to make a short-term investment, rather than have unrealistic expectations of immediate cost ...
McCabe E M - - 1995
Providers of primary care need to integrate accurate nutritional advice into their practice. Understanding and explaining food labels should be one aspect of the role of the primary care provider. By becoming knowledgeable of the new food label mandated by the nutrition labeling regulations set forth by the Food and ...
Miller M F - - 1995
Beef inside round subprimals were injected with a 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effects on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Alternating subprimals from the right and left sides were selected for injection of CaCl2 or not injected to serve as a control. ...
Zanger K - - 1995
Nephrocytes are cells involved in the metabolism of hemolymph components and are characterized by peripheral finger-like projections bordering a labyrinthine channel system. The antibacterial protein lysozyme was localized in anterior and pericardial nephrocytes of the harvestman, Leiobunum rotundum, by biochemical and immuno-gold postembedding-labelling techniques. Lysozyme-activity was demonstrated in experimental animals, ...
Jack D B - - 1995
The market for functional of health foods is growing steadily, and new legislation in the USA is likely to give it an enormous boost. Although the public has been aware of health foods for a long time, the latest products really merit the label 'designer foods'. There are still a ...
Legault P - - 1995
3JCP coupling constants have been measured in a 99% 13C,15N labeled lead-dependent ribozyme, known as the leadzyme. These coupling constants were determined by analysis of the intensity of individual crosspeaks in a spin-echo difference constant time HSQC experiment. This procedure permits improved measurement of the 3JC2'P and 3JC4'P coupling constants ...
Sparks P - - 1994
Although public perceptions of food-related hazards receive much media comment and debate, the research literature on such perceptions is sparse and piecemeal. In the reported study, 216 people completed a questionnaire relating to their perceptions of the "risk characteristics" of potential hazards associated with various aspects of food production and ...
Acosta P B - - 1994
A high cholesterol diet has been suggested to help prevent the poor reproductive outcomes found in heterozygote carriers of fetuses affected with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. The theory has also been presented that a high cholesterol medical food may enhance myelination of the central nervous system of the infant and ...
Wardle J - - 1994
The influence of information about the fat content of food and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention on taste ratings and food intake in a test meal was examined. Forty Ss were allocated at random to CVD information or control conditions. Ss rated 2 brands of yogurt and 2 cheese sandwiches, with ...
Tollefson L - - 1994
Food and drug law requires that the ingredients in most foods be disclosed on their labels, but until recently there was no requirement that nutrition information be provided. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), passed on November 8, 1990, mandated the Food and Drug Administration to establish ...
McNamara S H - - 1994
This article reviews long-term trends at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concerning regulation of nutrition, and considers how these trends may affect products of the food industry in the decades ahead. Among the topics discussed are the FDA's rules concerning the provision of basic, standard format nutrition information ...
Glinsmann W H - - 1993
It is increasingly appreciated that some foods and food components, including fructose, have specific health benefits and/or potential risks. This recognition is associated with varied health claims and cautionary statements that can drive dynamic changes in food manufacture, selection, consumption, and views about food safety. It is imperative that the ...
Golgher D B - - 1993
Antiserum to LPPG, a lipopeptidophosphoglycan originally described on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes of the Y strain, and antibodies to furanoic galactose (galf) were obtained in rabbits. A micromethod for the extraction and purification of LPPG from a limited amount of parasites is described. Analysis by Western blots of ...
Albertsson-Wikland K - - 1993
We describe a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (trIFMA) for human growth hormone (hGH), in which monoclonal antibody (mAb)-coated microtiter strip wells and a europium (Eu) chelate-labeled mAb are used. We compare the new trIFMA, in which two mAbs are used, with an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in which polyclonal antibodies are used. ...
Wilson L L - - 1993
The importance of extra-label drug use is discussed as this provision relates to special-fed veal production. Presently, there are 3 drugs approved and labeled for use in veal calves. Other medications and pharmaceuticals required to maintain and enhance calf health and well-being must be provided by consulting veterinarians under extra-label ...
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