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Badonnel Karine - - 2012
Previous studies have demonstrated that olfactory-driven behaviors in rats are influenced by short-term caloric restriction, partly through the modulation of olfactory sensitivity by appetite-modulating hormones or peptides such as insulin and leptin. Here, we addressed the issue of a long-term modulation of their neuroendocrine status by evaluating the effect of ...
Jarvandi Soghra - - 2012
Rats can learn to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals by increasing food intake. Our previous reports have analysed group means at each trial but that does not allow for rats learning at different speeds. This paper presents instead a rat-by-rat analysis of all the raw data from previous experiments. ...
Piccoli Laura - - 2012
Orexins (OX) and their receptors (OXR) modulate feeding, arousal, stress, and drug abuse. Neural systems that motivate and reinforce drug abuse may also underlie compulsive food seeking and intake. Therefore, the effects of GSK1059865 (5-bromo-N-[(2S,5S)-1-(3-fluoro-2-methoxybenzoyl)-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl]methyl-pyridin-2-amine), a selective OX(1)R antagonist, JNJ-10397049 (N-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-N'-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea), a selective OX(2)R antagonist, and SB-649868 (N-[((2S)-1-{[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]carbonyl}-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1-benzofuran-4-carboxamide), a dual ...
Sakkas Panagiotis P Animal Health, SAC, Roslin Institute Building, Easter Bush, Edinburgh, - - 2013
Lactating rats reinfected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis fed low-crude protein (CP) foods show reduced lactational performance and less resistance to parasites compared with their high-CP counterparts. Here, we hypothesised that feeding high-CP foods deficient in specific essential amino acids (AA) would result in similar penalties. Second-parity lactating rats, immunised with 1600 ...
Loi Barbara - - 2012
Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered ...
Chen Xi - - 2012
Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered neuropeptide that has been shown to decrease food intake after lateral, third, or fourth brain ventricle, cisterna magna administration, or PVN injection in ad libitum fed rats. With regards to the understanding of nesfatin-1 brain sites of action, additional microinjection studies will be necessary to ...
Bøgh K L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Allergen epitope characterization provides valuable information useful for the understanding of proteins as food allergens. It is believed that IgE epitopes in general are conformational, nevertheless, for food allergens known to sensitize through the gastrointestinal tract linear epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim ...
Farrimond Jonathan A - - 2012
RATIONALE: Increased food consumption following ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced cannabinoid type 1 receptor agonism is well documented. However, possible non-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoid-induced feeding effects have yet to be fully investigated. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of the individual phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol, cannabidiol and cannabinol, upon feeding behaviors. METHODS: Adult male rats were treated (p.o.) ...
Hwang Youn-Hwan - - 2012
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Samul-tang (Si-Wu-tang in Chinese, Shimotsu-to in Japanese), widely used in eastern Asia, is composed of Angelica gigas (Angelicae Gigantis Radix), Cnidium officinale (Cnidii Rhizoma), Paeonia lactiflora (Paeonia Radix) and Rehmannia glutinosa (Rehmanniae Radix Preparata). Paeoniflorin, one of active components in Samul-tang has anti-platelet, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties. ...
de Jong Johannes W - - 2012
The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities ...
Dolan Laurie C - - 2012
Fibermalt is a new soluble fiber food ingredient produced with the use of an alternansucrase enzyme from Leuconostoc mesenteroides expressed in a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. Fibermalt is predominantly composed of indigestible maltose alternan oligosaccharides (⩾80%). Fibermalt was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test. In a 13-week dietary ...
da Silva Bezerra Guerra Kátia Suênia - - 2012
Context: Mentha x villosa Hudson (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic herb employed as a food spice. In folk medicine, it leaves are used as a tranquilizer and anti-hypertensive, even by pregnant women. Objective: There are no reports about its effects in gestation and exposed fetuses, the aim of this study. Materials ...
Okada Shinji - - 2012
Nutritional status influences feeding behaviors, food preferences, and taste sensations. For example, zinc-deficient rats have been reported to show reduced and cyclic food intake patterns with increased preferences for NaCl. Although some impairments of the central nervous and endocrine systems have been speculated to be involved in these phenomena, the ...
Szabo Nancy J - - 2012
Microalgae such as Chlorella spp. have a long history of use in human food. A high lipid Whole Algalin Flour (WAF) composed of dried milled Chlorella protothecoides was evaluated for subchronic toxicity and genotoxic potential. Likelihood of food allergy potential was also evaluated by human repeat-insult patch test. In the ...
Baker Tyson W - - 2012
A common feature of reinforcer devaluation studies is that new learning induces the devaluation. The present study used extinction to induce new learning about the conditioned reinforcer in a heterogeneous chain schedule. Rats pressed a lever in a heterogeneous chain schedule to produce a conditioned reinforcer (light) associated with the ...
Marco Asaf A Life Sciences Faculty, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel; Gonda (Goldschmied) Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. - - 2012
Given that food is a natural reinforcement, deficits in the reward system can lead to disordered eating behavior, inducing or worsening an already existing pre-obese phenotype. In order to evaluate developmental, food-reward-related measures we used the OLETF rat, an animal model of early-onset overeating-induced obesity, and a natural CCK-1 receptor ...
Pratt Wayne E WE Department of Psychology Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, USA. - - 2012
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) serves important functions in regulating movement, cognition, and motivation and is connected with cortical and basal ganglia circuits that process reward and reinforcement. In order to further examine the role of the STN on motivation toward food in non-deprived rats, these experiments studied the effects of ...
Levy Annemarie - - 2012
Several lines of evidence suggest that there may be a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentive stimuli. Non-food restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) underwent place conditioning with Oreos, and were subsequently tested on cocaine self-administration (SA) on fixed and progressive ratios, as well as extinction and reinstatement ...
Ahn Soyon - - 2012
The relationship between food restriction and subsequent dysregulation of food intake is complex, variable and long-lasting. The present study investigated in rats whether repeated cycles of food restriction and binge feeding opportunities may alter regulation of food intake by employing a test for sensory-specific satiety. Rats that experienced repeated food ...
Grimm Jeffrey W JW Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9172, USA. - - 2012
Associations between nicotine in cigarettes and food consumption may alter the incentive value of food such that food cue-reactivity is exaggerated during abstinence from smoking. This effect may contribute to the weight gain associated with cessation of smoking. We examined the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base subcutaneous) paired (NPD) ...
Stratford Thomas R TR Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, M/C 285, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1007 W. Harrison St., Chicago, IL 60607–7137, United States. - - 2012
Previous studies have shown that large increases in food intake in nondeprived animals can be induced by injections of both the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), while injections of the catecholamine agonist amphetamine have little effect. In the current study we ...
Wilson-Pérez H E HE Department of Internal Medicine, Metabolic Diseases Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, - - 2013
Diets high in fat are implicated in the development and maintenance of obesity, and obese individuals display greater preferences for high-fat foods than do their lean counterparts. Weight-reduction bariatric surgery is associated with changes in food choice. In particular, after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), humans and rodents select or prefer ...
Kulkarni Praveen - - 2012
Rodents routinely forge and rely on hippocampal-dependent spatial memory to guide them to sources of caloric rich food in their environment. Has evolution affected the olfactory system and its connections to the hippocampus and limbic cortex, so rodents have an innate sensitivity to energy rich food and their location? To ...
Garcia Martins Regina Helena - - 2012
Aim: To study in rats the effects of exposure to tobacco and alcohol on the mucosa of the tongue and pharynx. Material and methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were allocated into four groups of 10 animals each: GI (control), food and water "ad libitum"; GII (alcohol), 30% of ethanol diluted ...
Caquineau Céline - - 2012
As feeding and mating are mutually-exclusive goal-orientated behaviours, we investigated whether brief food deprivation would impair the display of sexual behaviour of male rats. Analysis of performance in a sexual incentive motivation test revealed that, like fed males, food-deprived males preferred spending time in the vicinity of receptive females rather ...
Merkestein Myrte - - 2012
Food anticipatory activity (FAA) is displayed in rats when access to food is restricted to a specific time frame of their circadian phase, a behavior thought to reflect both hunger and the motivation to eat. Rats also display FAA in a feeding schedule with ad libitum access to normal chow, ...
Roth Jonathan D - - 2012
Aims. Amylinergic and melanocortinergic systems have each been implicated in energy balance regulation. We examined the interactive effects of both systems using gene knockout and pharmacological approaches. Methods. Acute food consumption studies in overnight fasted male wild-type (WT) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) deficient rats and in male and female WT ...
Rittmueller Stacey E - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare dietary intake and quality among adult Inuit by smoking status. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using data from a validated quantitative FFQ. SETTING: Three isolated communities in Nunavut, Canada. SUBJECTS: Adult Inuit (n 208), aged between 19 and 79 years, from randomly selected households. RESULTS: Average energy intake ...
Friedlander Justin I - - 2012
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy ...
Poulaert Marie - - 2012
Among various factors influencing β-carotene (Bc) bioavailability, information on interactions between carotenoids or other micronutrients such as flavonoids during a meal that contains different plant-derived foods is quite limited. Because orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is an important Bc-rich staple food, a source of vitamin A in developing countries, this study ...
Adeyi Akindele O - - 2012
Based on the hypothesis that consistent hyperglycemia can result in insulin resistance, we explored the induction of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using diet of high glycemic/low fat index and compared the effects on the physiology and histology of the rats. The rats were divided into 3 groups. DM was ...
Coupé Bérengère - - 2012
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2012
Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one 'continuously consulted' clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval ...
van der Plasse Geoffrey - - 2012
Following the successful application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and promising results in clinical trials for obsessive compulsive disorder and major depression, DBS is currently being tested in small patient-populations with eating disorders and addiction. However, in spite of its potential use in a ...
Luby Matthew D - - 2012
When rodents are fed in a limited amount during the daytime, they rapidly redistribute some of their nocturnal activity to the time preceding the delivery of food. In rats, anticipation of a daily meal has been interpreted as a circadian rhythm controlled by a food-entrained oscillator (FEO) with circadian limits ...
Di Sebastiano Andrea R AR Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2012
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important for mediation of arousal and sleep as well as feeding and energy homeostasis. Recent studies have indicated that orexin also plays a key role regulating motivation and reward associated with food intake and with drugs of abuse. Based on those ...
Pulman Kim G T KG School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, United - - 2012
Stimulation of either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors within the nucleus accumbens shell strongly enhances food intake in rats. However the effects of subtype-selective stimulation of GABA receptors on instrumental responses for food reward are less well characterized. Here we contrast the effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and GABA(B) ...
Thuesen B - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar radiation during ...
Liang Jiang - - 2012
Due to the increased consumption of marine collagen peptides preparation (MCP) as ingredients in functional foods and pharmaceuticals, it was necessary to carry out safety requirements in the form of an oral chronic toxicity assessment. In order to define the oral chronic toxicity of MCP, a 24-month feeding study of ...
Faber Mieke - - 2011
Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables were assessed in peri-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Caregivers of 400 randomly selected grade 6 and 7 learners were interviewed using a questionnaire that included unquantified food frequency questions. Using a repeated 24-h dietary recall, dietary intake was quantified for learners, ...
Clark Julia - - 2011
Associations have been reported between suboptimal maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy and childhood asthma. This pilot study conducted in 2008/2009 investigated the feasibility and acceptability of a food-based randomized controlled trial in pregnant women to optimize dietary vitamin E intake to 15 mg/day. A food-based intervention using "food exchanges" ...
Semba Richard D - - 2011
Multiple micronutrient nutrition is an idea that originated in the 1940s and exemplifies the iterative nutritional paradigm. In the first four decades of the 20th century, scientists sought to separate and characterize the vitamins that were responsible for xerophthalmia, rickets, pellagra, scurvy, and beriberi. The dietary requirements of the different ...
Amagloh Francis K - - 2011
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy ...
Erkkilä Arja T - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To validate an eighty-nine-item semi-quantitative FFQ for measurement of nutrient intakes in elderly women. DESIGN: FFQ and 3 d food records were filled in by women participating in the Kuopio Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). Data on intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre, Ca, Fe, P, K, Mg, folic ...
Lohse Barbara - - 2011
Women participants of two federally administered nutrition education programs (n=149, 56% white, 64% food secure, 86% 18-50years of age,) completed telephone interviews that included three 24-hour dietary recalls and the Satter Eating Competence Inventory. Eating competence is delineated by an Inventory score⩾32. Competent eaters had significantly greater intakes of fiber, ...
Pérez-López Faustino R - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: There is emerging evidence on the widespread tissue effects of vitamin D. AIMS: To formulate a position statement on the role of vitamin D in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological and prospective studies have related vitamin D deficiency ...
Catauro Patricia M PM Lockheed Martin Information Systems & Global Solutions, Houston, TX 77058-8487, - - 2012
To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight, a series of 36-mo accelerated shelf life studies were performed on 13 representative retort pouch products. Combined sensory evaluations, physical properties assessments, and nutritional analyses were employed to determine shelf life endpoints for these foods, which were either ...
Macdonald Lauren E - - 2011
Pasteurization of milk ensures safety for human consumption by reducing the number of viable pathogenic bacteria. Although the public health benefits of pasteurization are well established, pro-raw milk advocate organizations continue to promote raw milk as "nature's perfect food." Advocacy groups' claims include statements that pasteurization destroys important vitamins and ...
Ueta Kazumi - - 2011
Vitamin B(12) was assayed and characterized in the broth of canned clams (boiled plain). The broth contained considerable amounts of vitamin B(12) (2.7-14.1 μg/100 g, 1.3-6.7 μg/can). HPLC and LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms demonstrated that the clam broth contained true vitamin B(12). Gel filtration experiments indicated that most (72%) of the vitamin ...
Mullins Raymond James - - 2011
Vitamin D is widely known for its role in bone metabolism, but this sterol hormone also has important immunomodulatory properties. Vitamin D is produced by the conversion of D3 in the skin following UVB exposure, or after ingestion of D2 or D3. At the extremes of latitude, there is insufficient ...
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