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Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these changes in feeding behavior were due to overhydration resulting from drinking hyposmotic saccharin solution. Consistent with this possibility, the short-term food ...
Birch L L - - 1989
In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these effects are mediated by cephalic-phase metabolic reflexes. The results show that the cephalic-phase insulin response could be dissociated from food intake ...
Yost D A - - 1989
Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener commonly used in soft drinks and many foods. Even with high doses, the metabolites of this sweetener do not accumulate in toxic amounts. To date, no definite symptom complex has been connected with aspartame, and it is considered safe for use in all populations, including ...
Price J - - 1989
The influence of a number of variables on the diets of 65 steady drinkers from alcohol rehabilitation units on Merseyside, United Kingdom was investigated. All drank principally beer or spirits. Social variables studied included age, sex, living alone or with others, employment status and socio-economic status. Alcohol-related variables included quantity ...
Newlin D B - - 1989
Previous studies on "craving" for alcohol after exposure to olfactory stimuli for alcohol may be criticized on the grounds that the control stimuli were not really appropriate. We included exposure to a preferred nonalcoholic beverage and to a sweet food item as additional control stimuli in order to better compare ...
Zamboni S - - 1989
Two hundred and nineteen psoriatic in-patients and 747 non-psoriatic subjects were asked to report in a semiquantitative, self-administered questionnaire on the frequency of consumption of different foodstuffs and cooking and seasoning fats and the daily intake of alcohol (glasses/day) and coffee (cups/day). According to this a definite score was assigned ...
Sorvari R - - 1989
A sport drink mixture, pH 3.2, containing 6% sucrose, was given to Osborne-Mendel rats, either as such or supplemented with 15 ppm fluoride, 38.5 ppm magnesium or both. Distilled water was given to the control groups. The rats were fed either a slightly cariogenic, powdered food containing 15% sucrose, or ...
Thiele M C - - 1989
Soft drink intake among Yup'ik Eskimo teenagers was assessed as part of a monitoring system for a nutrition education intervention project. Soft drink intakes were found to be three to four times greater than in the general US teenage population. Over half of the soft drinks consumed were in the ...
Gill K - - 1989
Previous research demonstrated that serotonin uptake blockers (e.g., zimeldine, sertraline, fluoxetine) reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and humans. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is not well understood. It has been suggested, for example, that serotonin uptake blockade interferes with the processes that mediate the reinforcement derived ...
Strolin Benedetti M M Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Research and Development, Erbamont Group, Milan, - - 1989
Salsolinol is present in human fluids and tissues as well as in foods and beverages. It was shown previously that the R enantiomer of salsolinol predominates in human urine, whereas the S enantiomer predominates in Port wine. An R/S ratio very near to 1 was found in dried banana, a ...
Pfeifer R W - - 1988
Multiple dosage regimens for therapeutic agents are commonly comprised of a constant dosing interval and a constant dose size. This is not true for the ingestion of a pharmacologically active agent that is a component in a dietary source. Caffeine is contained in foods and beverages that are regular components ...
O'Hanlon J F - - 1988
The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, ...
Couzy F - - 1988
This article is based on data on food consumption gathered from 10,000 households. The daily energetic intake of 2,000 to 2,500 kcal (8,360 to 10,450 kJ) (beverages excluded) provides adults with less than 80% of the recommended amount of several essential minerals and trace elements. For women, beverages contribute only ...
Ho A - - 1988
Individual differences in the amount of alcohol consumed in a choice situation are found in highly inbred C57BL/6J mice. The extent to which environmental stress can modify alcohol preference was studied by coupling acute episodes of poisoning with restricted fluid availability, and recovery with free choice of drinking fluids. Addition ...
Engell D - - 1988
The temporal and quantitative relationship between food and water intake and the effect of fluid restriction on voluntary food intake were studied in 20 male subjects over two 48-h periods. Food intake was limited to specific mealtimes, but subjects could eat as much as they wanted during these times. Drinking ...
Sjöberg A M - - 1988
The dietary intake of saccharin and cyclamate was investigated during the period 1979-1985 in order to find out about the use as sweeteners in the food industry and hospitals and to obtain intake data for the toxicological evaluation of sweeteners in the Finnish diet. Eighty-nine samples of desserts served in ...
Stavric B - - 1988
Five surveys, using a previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography procedure to measure caffeine concentrations, indicated great variations in the concentrations of caffeine in tea and coffee. In the study of beverages prepared at home, data on caffeine concentrations in 58 samples of tea and coffee, volumes of cups, and numbers ...
Heller R F - - 1988
In examining genetic influences on biological variables using twins, it may be important to examine the distribution between and within twin pairs of demographic and lifestyle factors that may themselves affect the biological variable being studied. We explored the distribution of demographic and lifestyle factors that may affect blood lipid ...
de Castro J M - - 1988
The characteristics of fluid intake in humans were investigated using a diary self-report method. Thirty-six adult humans were paid to record in a diary, for 7 consecutive days, everything that they either ate or drank, the time that they ingested it, and how thirsty and hungry they were on seven ...
Ferro-Luzzi A - - 1988
The interrelationship between habitual alcohol consumption, dietary intakes and vitamin status was examined in 393 elderly subjects (188 men, 205 women, age range 65-90 years) resident in seven retirement homes throughout Italy. Individual food intake was assessed by the 7-day precise weighing method. Fasting blood was tested for riboflavin (erythrocyte ...
Single E W - - 1987
The alcoholic beverage industry has undergone marked changes in its structure over the past several decades, and these changes have important implications to drinking and driving problems. In Canada and elsewhere, the industry has been generally transformed from a large set of small firms owned by entrepreneurs to a very ...
Gill K - - 1987
Previous research has demonstrated that the serotonin uptake blocker, zimeldine, reduced voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and humans. It has been suggested that zimeldine interfered with the processes that mediate the reinforcement derived from ethanol ingestion. However, there are considerable data which suggest that serotonergic pharmacological agents may produce a ...
Hurst M R - - 1987
Airborne levels of isopropyl alcohol when used as a disinfectant in a horizontal laminar-airflow hood were measured during a 10-day period to determine whether levels conformed to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines. An infrared vapor analyzer was positioned in the airflow of the six-foot horizontal laminar-airflow hood ...
Reid A K - - 1987
As a control for the effects of session duration and hunger on the relation between food magnitude and induced drinking, four food-deprived rats were exposed to a variable-time 50-s schedule of food delivery in which the size of each food delivery varied randomly within sessions. Food-related behavior and schedule-induced drinking ...
Pall H S - - 1987
A well-nourished alcoholic patient developed a subacute myopathy which responded rapidly to correction of severe hypomagnesaemia. The finding of profound hypocalcaemia prompted the measurement of serum magnesium. Magnesium deficiency should be looked for in any alcoholic patient with a myopathy as the prognosis seems better than in many other forms ...
Muñoz N - - 1987
Thermal injury resulting from drinking very hot beverages has been incriminated as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, although no information is available on the lesions caused by this injury in human or experimental animals. The drinking of hot maté tea is very common in areas of moderately high incidence ...
Barbancho M - - 1987
The suggestion of Oakeshott et al. (1984) that selection at the Adh locus, as a response to ethanol, is restricted to D. melanogaster laboratory-adapted populations, is tested in this paper with the "Lagar de los Reyes" (LR) lines. For this purpose, homozygous lines for the AdhF and the AdhS alleles ...
Wagstaff D J - - 1987
Patterns of food intake and cause-specific death rates were compared for population groups of the United States for 1965, the first year for which national files are available. Aging was a much more important determinant of death rates than type of food eaten. There were no strong patterns of rank ...
Sjöberg A M - - 1987
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyclamate was collaboratively studied in 9 laboratories. Ethyl acetate is added to extract cyclamate from acidic aqueous solution into water, and the cyclamate is then quantitatively converted to N,N-dichlorocyclohexylamine by adding excess hypochlorite. N,N-Dichlorocyclohexylamine is determined by measuring its UV absorption at 314 ...
Wiebold J L - - 1987
In Exp. 1A, hybrid mice (N = 10) were provided with food and 25% (v/v) ethanol as the only source of liquid for 72 h, beginning at the detection of the copulatory plug (08:00 h, Day 1). Control mice received food and tap water. Food consumption (P less than 0.001) ...
Lee Y H - - 1987
Corn stover was pretreated for compositional fractionation and structural modification for maximum conversion of carbohydrate to soluble sugars. The process scheme consisted of three steps: (1) mild prehydrolysis in dilute sulfuric acid, (2) delignification with various organosolv solvents, and (3) enzymatic hydrolysis in an agitated bead reactor. Prehydrolysis of corn ...
van der Westhuyzen J - - 1987
Some indices of nutrition have been examined in hostel- and non-hostel-dwelling groups of industrially employed black males. Hostel-dwellers in the large metropolitan areas have to prepare their own food and many are accustomed to excessive alcohol intake, especially of sorghum beer. In the two groups studied, blood levels of vitamin ...
Crowley T J - - 1987
We have developed two protocols for inducing sustained, high-dose, alcohol-reinforced, oral alcohol drinking among some members of Macaca nemestrina social groups. Both protocols initially co-present alcohol and the entire daily food supply in a 2-h daily drinking session, with a later return to continuous availability of food. One protocol presents ...
Sirota P - - 1987
It has been proposed by Amit, Brown and colleagues that the reduction in voluntary alcohol intake observed after the administration of FLA-57 in rats can be attributed to decreased NE levels produced by FLA-57. Our studies investigated whether a conditioned taste aversion could better explain this phenomenon. In the key ...
Curry S - - 1987
A seven-item Drinking Restraint Scale (DRS) has been developed which indicates that a style of alcohol consumption, equivalent in a number of ways to the style of food consumption termed eating restraint, may exist. Several hypothesized relationships between DRS scores and other drinking-related measures were confirmed. A restrained drinking style ...
Hines G - - 1986
Rats receiving chronic administration of lithium chloride (20 mEq/l) in their drinking water were tested for adjunctive alcohol (10% v/v) consumption in which temporally scheduled, noncontingent shock delivery was added following the establishment of food delivery-based adjunctive alcohol intake. The addition of shock to the eliciting schedule produced an initial ...
Milligan J R - - 1986
To test the hypothesis that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and possibly other nitrosamines are synthesized naturally in the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary excretion of nitrosamines has been measured in people whose first pass clearance and metabolism of nitrosamines had been inhibited by administration of ethanol. Five fasted volunteers consumed 350 mg of ...
Snow R W - - 1986
In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high ...
Smart R G - - 1986
The effect of happy hour discounts on alcohol consumption has become an important policy concern. Few studies, however, have examined this relationship. To examine the impact of banning happy hours in Ontario, an observational study of patron alcohol consumption was conducted in five taverns before and after the ban. Aggregate ...
Guenther P M - - 1986
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beverages, particularly soft drinks, in the diets of American teenagers by analyzing data collected in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Interviewers obtained 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and respondents completed diet records for the following 2 days. Variation ...
Henry C J - - 1986
Since the time of Lavoisier it has been known that the ingestion of food in animals and man produces an increase in oxygen consumption. This increase in metabolic rate was originally called 'specific dynamic action' (SDA) and is now widely referred to as the thermic effect (TE) of food or ...
Han A M - - 1986
A study was conducted in a rural community in Burma, to determine how people perceive the importance of food, water and defecation in the causation of diarrhoea and to determine whether people wash hands or use soap after defecation or before preparing and eating food. 90% of mothers with under-five ...
McFarlane A - - 1986
To determine the mechanism, whereby food lowers blood alcohol concentrations, gastric emptying and blood alcohol profiles were measured in six healthy male volunteers after they had drunk a 200 ml solution of vodka and orange juice containing 0.5 g/kg alcohol. Subjects were studied on two separate occasions during infusion of ...
Darret G - - 1986
The total average amount of beverages absorbed daily (1,378 ml) is split up as follows: tap water (650 ml where from 170 ml are used for the preparation of coffee and tea); bottled water (190 ml); alcoholic drinks (481 ml) and soft drinks (57 ml). Under these conditions, the intake ...
Schaefer O - - 1986
Eskimos and to a slightly lesser degree Northern Indians are extremely rapid acetylators as tested with isoniazid. They also tend to clear phenytoin rapidly as proven in Greenland Eskimos and supported by clinical observations in Canadian Eskimos. Most "silent gene" cholinesterase cases found in Canada came from the tiny minorities ...
Stall R - - 1986
Despite obvious theoretical and treatment implications, the study of how individuals end the "compulsive" use of substances without formal treatment ("spontaneous remission") remains a relatively neglected topic. This paper reviews the literature germane to spontaneous remission from four substances (opiates, alcohol, food/obesity, and tobacco) selected for their widely variant meanings ...
Mello N K - - 1986
Female Macaque monkeys were trained to self-administer food (1 g banana pellet) and alcohol (0.12 g/kg/inj IV) in an operant paradigm. Alcohol and food-maintained responding were controlled by a second order schedule of reinforcement FR 4 (VR 16:S) that required an average of 64 responses for delivery of one food ...
Neuman C - - 1985
On the aggregate level, physical availability of alcohol is related to per capita consumption, prompting the question whether high availability can increase consumption net of social norms which enhance drinking. This issue is investigated using individual-level data in a high-availability urban environment. Effortless, efficient purchase of alcoholic beverages explains a ...
Douglass J M - - 1985
We examined responses to cooked and uncooked food in 32 outpatients with essential hypertension; 28 were also overweight. By varying cooked and uncooked food percentages and salt intake, patients acted as their own control subjects in this unblinded study. After a mean duration of 6.7 months, average intake of uncooked ...
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