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Results 401 - 450 of 527
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Toth P - - 1990
The present study investigated a possible role for neural signals sent from the liver and stomach to the brain in the regulation of alcohol intake. Experiment 1 showed that gastric vagotomy (GVX) reduced the intake of 3% alcohol and 6% alcohol, while water intake was increased. This effect was not ...
Kelbaek H - - 1990
Alcohol and food intake induce changes in LV performance which can be evaluated by radionuclide cardiographic methods. Alcohol probably exerts its effects by a direct action of ethanol in the blood on the myocardium, while the postprandial hemodynamic changes are related to the effects of food in the intestine. Alcohol ...
Kärkkäinen P - - 1990
The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected ...
Perkins K A - - 1990
Smoking cessation may have significant effects on consumption of certain foods and other substances which may influence health. This study of seven young female smokers examined consumption of alcohol, coffee, soda, and sweets (sweet, high-fat foods) across 3 weeks, involving baseline ad lib smoking (week 1), complete cessation (week 2), ...
Klein H - - 1990
Based on a national probability sample of 2,401 Americans age 21 and over (1,069 of whom were deemed "drinkers" on the basis of having consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the past 7 days), this study develops profiles of the drinker and heavier drinking prototypes for beer, distilled spirits, ...
Johnson J A - - 1990
Alternative accepted methods of aggregating prices and quantities of beer, spirits and wine could yield different conclusions for intertemporal comparisons. In this study Fisher's index is used to measure changes in per capita consumption and price of alcoholic beverages in Canada, 1957-83. The results are typically very close to those ...
Szlyk P C - - 1990
The effects of exercise, water temperature, and food consumption on patterns of ad libitum drinking were studied in 33 men during 6 consecutive cycles of 30 min walking (4.8 km.h-1, 5% grade) and 30 min rest in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C, 40% relative humidity). On two nonconsecutive days, ...
Bensley L S - - 1990
Intentional self-restraint may play an important role in the control of potentially addictive behavior. Unfortunately, for some individuals, efforts to reduce substance use may prove not only temporary but to increase the likelihood of a later "binge." An experimental study examined the relationship between prior self-restraint efforts and drinking. Results ...
Jeffery R W - - 1990
We report the results of a survey conducted in upper-midwestern communities to assess public attitudes toward policy level interventions to moderate the use of alcohol, tobacco, and high-fat food. Four hundred thirty-eight women and 383 men were asked to indicate how much they favored or did not favor 29 policy ...
Yeomans M R - - 1989
Fowls were given a dilute quinine solution as their sole source of fluid, and effects on normal ingestion and on drinking responses to dipsogenic stimuli were examined. Compared to controls with water, daily fluid intakes were depressed by 25% with quinine. There was no significant effect of quinine on food ...
Weydert-Huijghebaert S - - 1989
The bile alcohol glucuronides in urine of 12 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 10 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and 6 healthy volunteers were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all subjects studied, the major urinary bile alcohol was found to be 27-nor-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,25-pentol ...
Clabots C R - - 1989
Direct inoculation to cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar and broth was compared with alcohol shock-chopped meat broth inoculation for optimal detection of Clostridium difficile in fecal samples. Alcohol shock is significantly more sensitive than cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar or broth and may be the method of choice to detect C. difficile in asymptomatic carriers.
Eisig J N - - 1989
The ingestion of plain coffee was compared in 150 duodenal ulcer patients (DU) and 100 control subjects without digestive complaints (C). The DU and C groups were registered in accordance with their daily consumption of coffee: none, 1-100 ml, 101-300 ml, 301-500 ml, and more than 500 ml. Fifty millilitres ...
Grupp L A - - 1989
The subfornical organ plays a role in a number of the effects of blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) including the increase in water drinking and blood pressure and the release of vasopressin from the pituitary. Recently it has been shown that systemically administered ANG II also reduces voluntary alcohol intake. ...
Dennis M J - - 1989
An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included ...
Gill K - - 1989
This paper describes an inexpensive, reliable computer controlled data collection system designed for the continuous monitoring of feeding and drinking behavior in rats. This system will be useful in areas of behavioral pharmacology research requiring a detailed analysis of food and fluid intake. The configuration described herein was developed for ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
To examine the orosensory and postingestive effects of saccharin solution on food intake and food preference, freely feeding rats were given flavored food to eat and a solution to drink for 2 h on eight to ten occasions. Relative to trials with a different flavored food and only water to ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these changes in feeding behavior were due to overhydration resulting from drinking hyposmotic saccharin solution. Consistent with this possibility, the short-term food ...
Birch L L - - 1989
In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these effects are mediated by cephalic-phase metabolic reflexes. The results show that the cephalic-phase insulin response could be dissociated from food intake ...
Yost D A - - 1989
Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener commonly used in soft drinks and many foods. Even with high doses, the metabolites of this sweetener do not accumulate in toxic amounts. To date, no definite symptom complex has been connected with aspartame, and it is considered safe for use in all populations, including ...
Price J - - 1989
The influence of a number of variables on the diets of 65 steady drinkers from alcohol rehabilitation units on Merseyside, United Kingdom was investigated. All drank principally beer or spirits. Social variables studied included age, sex, living alone or with others, employment status and socio-economic status. Alcohol-related variables included quantity ...
Newlin D B - - 1989
Previous studies on "craving" for alcohol after exposure to olfactory stimuli for alcohol may be criticized on the grounds that the control stimuli were not really appropriate. We included exposure to a preferred nonalcoholic beverage and to a sweet food item as additional control stimuli in order to better compare ...
Zamboni S - - 1989
Two hundred and nineteen psoriatic in-patients and 747 non-psoriatic subjects were asked to report in a semiquantitative, self-administered questionnaire on the frequency of consumption of different foodstuffs and cooking and seasoning fats and the daily intake of alcohol (glasses/day) and coffee (cups/day). According to this a definite score was assigned ...
Sorvari R - - 1989
A sport drink mixture, pH 3.2, containing 6% sucrose, was given to Osborne-Mendel rats, either as such or supplemented with 15 ppm fluoride, 38.5 ppm magnesium or both. Distilled water was given to the control groups. The rats were fed either a slightly cariogenic, powdered food containing 15% sucrose, or ...
Thiele M C - - 1989
Soft drink intake among Yup'ik Eskimo teenagers was assessed as part of a monitoring system for a nutrition education intervention project. Soft drink intakes were found to be three to four times greater than in the general US teenage population. Over half of the soft drinks consumed were in the ...
Gill K - - 1989
Previous research demonstrated that serotonin uptake blockers (e.g., zimeldine, sertraline, fluoxetine) reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and humans. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is not well understood. It has been suggested, for example, that serotonin uptake blockade interferes with the processes that mediate the reinforcement derived ...
Strolin Benedetti M M Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Research and Development, Erbamont Group, Milan, - - 1989
Salsolinol is present in human fluids and tissues as well as in foods and beverages. It was shown previously that the R enantiomer of salsolinol predominates in human urine, whereas the S enantiomer predominates in Port wine. An R/S ratio very near to 1 was found in dried banana, a ...
Pfeifer R W - - 1988
Multiple dosage regimens for therapeutic agents are commonly comprised of a constant dosing interval and a constant dose size. This is not true for the ingestion of a pharmacologically active agent that is a component in a dietary source. Caffeine is contained in foods and beverages that are regular components ...
O'Hanlon J F - - 1988
The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, ...
Couzy F - - 1988
This article is based on data on food consumption gathered from 10,000 households. The daily energetic intake of 2,000 to 2,500 kcal (8,360 to 10,450 kJ) (beverages excluded) provides adults with less than 80% of the recommended amount of several essential minerals and trace elements. For women, beverages contribute only ...
Ho A - - 1988
Individual differences in the amount of alcohol consumed in a choice situation are found in highly inbred C57BL/6J mice. The extent to which environmental stress can modify alcohol preference was studied by coupling acute episodes of poisoning with restricted fluid availability, and recovery with free choice of drinking fluids. Addition ...
Engell D - - 1988
The temporal and quantitative relationship between food and water intake and the effect of fluid restriction on voluntary food intake were studied in 20 male subjects over two 48-h periods. Food intake was limited to specific mealtimes, but subjects could eat as much as they wanted during these times. Drinking ...
Sjöberg A M - - 1988
The dietary intake of saccharin and cyclamate was investigated during the period 1979-1985 in order to find out about the use as sweeteners in the food industry and hospitals and to obtain intake data for the toxicological evaluation of sweeteners in the Finnish diet. Eighty-nine samples of desserts served in ...
Stavric B - - 1988
Five surveys, using a previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography procedure to measure caffeine concentrations, indicated great variations in the concentrations of caffeine in tea and coffee. In the study of beverages prepared at home, data on caffeine concentrations in 58 samples of tea and coffee, volumes of cups, and numbers ...
Heller R F - - 1988
In examining genetic influences on biological variables using twins, it may be important to examine the distribution between and within twin pairs of demographic and lifestyle factors that may themselves affect the biological variable being studied. We explored the distribution of demographic and lifestyle factors that may affect blood lipid ...
de Castro J M - - 1988
The characteristics of fluid intake in humans were investigated using a diary self-report method. Thirty-six adult humans were paid to record in a diary, for 7 consecutive days, everything that they either ate or drank, the time that they ingested it, and how thirsty and hungry they were on seven ...
Ferro-Luzzi A - - 1988
The interrelationship between habitual alcohol consumption, dietary intakes and vitamin status was examined in 393 elderly subjects (188 men, 205 women, age range 65-90 years) resident in seven retirement homes throughout Italy. Individual food intake was assessed by the 7-day precise weighing method. Fasting blood was tested for riboflavin (erythrocyte ...
Single E W - - 1987
The alcoholic beverage industry has undergone marked changes in its structure over the past several decades, and these changes have important implications to drinking and driving problems. In Canada and elsewhere, the industry has been generally transformed from a large set of small firms owned by entrepreneurs to a very ...
Gill K - - 1987
Previous research has demonstrated that the serotonin uptake blocker, zimeldine, reduced voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and humans. It has been suggested that zimeldine interfered with the processes that mediate the reinforcement derived from ethanol ingestion. However, there are considerable data which suggest that serotonergic pharmacological agents may produce a ...
Hurst M R - - 1987
Airborne levels of isopropyl alcohol when used as a disinfectant in a horizontal laminar-airflow hood were measured during a 10-day period to determine whether levels conformed to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines. An infrared vapor analyzer was positioned in the airflow of the six-foot horizontal laminar-airflow hood ...
Reid A K - - 1987
As a control for the effects of session duration and hunger on the relation between food magnitude and induced drinking, four food-deprived rats were exposed to a variable-time 50-s schedule of food delivery in which the size of each food delivery varied randomly within sessions. Food-related behavior and schedule-induced drinking ...
Pall H S - - 1987
A well-nourished alcoholic patient developed a subacute myopathy which responded rapidly to correction of severe hypomagnesaemia. The finding of profound hypocalcaemia prompted the measurement of serum magnesium. Magnesium deficiency should be looked for in any alcoholic patient with a myopathy as the prognosis seems better than in many other forms ...
Muñoz N - - 1987
Thermal injury resulting from drinking very hot beverages has been incriminated as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, although no information is available on the lesions caused by this injury in human or experimental animals. The drinking of hot maté tea is very common in areas of moderately high incidence ...
Barbancho M - - 1987
The suggestion of Oakeshott et al. (1984) that selection at the Adh locus, as a response to ethanol, is restricted to D. melanogaster laboratory-adapted populations, is tested in this paper with the "Lagar de los Reyes" (LR) lines. For this purpose, homozygous lines for the AdhF and the AdhS alleles ...
Wagstaff D J - - 1987
Patterns of food intake and cause-specific death rates were compared for population groups of the United States for 1965, the first year for which national files are available. Aging was a much more important determinant of death rates than type of food eaten. There were no strong patterns of rank ...
Sjöberg A M - - 1987
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyclamate was collaboratively studied in 9 laboratories. Ethyl acetate is added to extract cyclamate from acidic aqueous solution into water, and the cyclamate is then quantitatively converted to N,N-dichlorocyclohexylamine by adding excess hypochlorite. N,N-Dichlorocyclohexylamine is determined by measuring its UV absorption at 314 ...
Wiebold J L - - 1987
In Exp. 1A, hybrid mice (N = 10) were provided with food and 25% (v/v) ethanol as the only source of liquid for 72 h, beginning at the detection of the copulatory plug (08:00 h, Day 1). Control mice received food and tap water. Food consumption (P less than 0.001) ...
Lee Y H - - 1987
Corn stover was pretreated for compositional fractionation and structural modification for maximum conversion of carbohydrate to soluble sugars. The process scheme consisted of three steps: (1) mild prehydrolysis in dilute sulfuric acid, (2) delignification with various organosolv solvents, and (3) enzymatic hydrolysis in an agitated bead reactor. Prehydrolysis of corn ...
van der Westhuyzen J - - 1987
Some indices of nutrition have been examined in hostel- and non-hostel-dwelling groups of industrially employed black males. Hostel-dwellers in the large metropolitan areas have to prepare their own food and many are accustomed to excessive alcohol intake, especially of sorghum beer. In the two groups studied, blood levels of vitamin ...
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