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Results 351 - 400 of 511
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Clark N - - 1992
With the rising popularity of ultradistance sports events lasting from 6 to 24 hours or multiple days, athletes are consulting registered dietitians for specialized dietary advice. Many dietitians, however, lack experience with these types of events. This article provides basic guidelines ffor fueling the ultradistance athlete. The goals are to ...
Stricker E M - - 1992
A detailed description of the increased intake of 0.5 M NaCl solution by rats after systemic treatment with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) or after adrenalectomy was obtained by measuring feeding and drinking activity every 6 s for 23 h. In both models of salt appetite, the induced increase in saline intake ...
Sinclair J D - - 1992
Restricting access to alcohol to a short period daily causes rats, in effect, to drink on command. They usually begin drinking alcohol immediately when it is first made available each day and consume a rather constant amount during each access period. The procedure thus has a variety of useful applications. ...
Lancaster F E - - 1992
Drinking patterns of male and female Long-Evans rats were compared during a 15-day drinking period. All animals were tested for preference for alcohol for 24 h during which food, water, and beer containing 5% ethanol were freely available. Animals drinking 50 ml or more of beer were chosen for the ...
Mareschi J P - - 1992
Estimates have been made of the consumption levels of sulphites in foods in France using two methods, a global and a segmented protocol. The global method gave an estimated average intake of 20 mg SO2/day/capita; the segmented method gave estimates of 1.96 mg/day/capita for non-consumers of alcoholic beverages and 31.5 ...
Mulford H A - - 1992
Recent changes in Iowa liquor control laws ended the 51-year-old state alcohol monopoly distribution system and turned the sales of bottled wine and spirits over to the private sector. The resulting increase in the availability of these beverages provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between increased wine and ...
Van Hee R - - 1992
The Renaissance period in Europe saw many dietary changes due to imports of new ingredients from the Far East as well as from newly discovered Central and South America. Maize and potatoes rapidly conquered European markets and because of their easier cultivation and higher calorie content, displaced grains such as ...
Desenclos J A - - 1992
Limited data indicate that drinking alcoholic beverages along with eating food contaminated with Shigella or Salmonella decreases the risk and/or the severity of illness. No such study has been reported following exposure to a viral pathogen. During an oyster-borne outbreak of hepatitis A, we studied the effect of ingestion of ...
Gavaler J S - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of an effect of moderate alcoholic beverage consumption on the biologic correlate of postmenopausal estradiol levels. Total weekly consumption and beverage-specific intake were assessed using both self-reported usual consumption information and prospective food record data. In terms of total weekly ...
Gosnell B A - - 1992
Male rats were given daily sessions during which a palatable saccharin solution was available. Based on intakes averaged over 3 days, groups with low, intermediate, or high intake of saccharin were formed. These rats were then given daily sessions in which alcohol (2-8%) or water were available. Initially, sessions were ...
Neff J A - - 1992
The relationship between acculturation, generational status/nativity and drinking patterns is examined using data from a 1988 community survey of 1286 adult regular drinkers (at least two drinks/month) in San Antonio, Texas. This sample includes 412 Anglo, 239 Black, and 635 Mexican American respondents, with Mexican Americans further classified into high, ...
Gannon K S - - 1992
A system for long-term monitoring of mouse eating and drinking behavior with 6-s resolution is described. The apparatus utilizes infrared beams to monitor activity at a single feeding port and electronic contact detector circuitry to record individual licks at two drinking ports. Eight SWR/J mice were monitored using this system ...
Tricker A R - - 1991
The levels of volatile N-nitrosamines were determined in 38 alcoholic drinks and 215 food samples prepared for human consumption using standard culinary practices. The analyses used gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. Detectable levels were found in 80 (31.5%) of the individual samples. The average daily intake of volatile N-nitrosamines in West ...
Jones A W - - 1991
Blood ethanol profiles were determined in experiments with healthy volunteers after they had drunk beer. When 330 ml of light beer (1.8% w/v ethanol) was consumed in 5 min by four men and four women, the average peak blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) reached was 8 mg/100 ml (range 2-11). After nine ...
McNamara J R - - 1991
By using a self-management program, a 25-yr.-old white male was able to decrease the amount of junk food and beverage consumed while increasing the amount of healthier food and beverage ingested during evening snacks. This change was evident at 6 wk. and at a 6-mo. follow-up. Factors contributing to this ...
- - 1991
Balance and moderation are two good words to remember about nutrition through all phases of womanhood. By eating regularly from each of the four basic food groups, varying food intake to match your level of activity and moderating your consumption of food and drink that is considered less than good ...
Canty D J - - 1991
This study examined the effects of aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose on hunger and food intake. Twenty normal adults consumed a standard breakfast followed 3 h later by 200 mL of either water or a sweetened drink. One hour later, subjects' ad libitum consumption of a standardized lunch was measured. Subjects ...
Damron B L - - 1991
1. In each of two experiments lasting 21 days a commercially available ammonium polyphosphate solution was provided in the drinking water as the sole source of supplemental phosphorus for day-old chicks housed in batteries. 2. In both experiments, similar daily phosphorus intakes either from dicalcium phosphate in the food or ...
Black R M - - 1991
Ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverages has been reported to increase subjective measures of appetite. This study examined the effects of familiar carbonated soft drinks sweetened with aspartame on subjective hunger, energy intake and macronutrient selection at a lunch-time meal. Subjects were 20 normal weight young adult males, classified as either restrained ...
Zimmerli B - - 1991
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic compound in vitro and in vivo, it binds covalently to DNA and is an animal carcinogen. Today, EC is mainly found as a natural trace constituent in different alcoholic beverages and in fermented food items. Data on analytical methodology and the levels of EC ...
Hess J A - - 1991
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the capacity of various disinfectant chemicals to cause epithelial toxicity with repeated exposure. The abdominal area of 3-month old, experimental ICR/CD-1 mice was initially shaved, denuded with a depilatory agent and allowed to rest for 24 hours. Commercial preparations of iodophors, ...
Rossignol A M - - 1991
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic ...
Sisson J H - - 1991
Acetaldehyde, which is present in significant concentrations in cigarette smoke and is elevated during alcohol ingestion, has been demonstrated to impair mucociliary clearance of the lung. Acetaldehyde is also known to impair protein function through the formation of acetaldehyde-protein adducts. We hypothesized that acetaldehyde impairs bronchial epithelial cilia motion by ...
Te Wierik E - - 1991
The hormone gastrin plays an important role in the regulation of acid secretion in the stomach which, in turn, stimulates the digestion of food. Previous studies reported that administration of beer and wine but not ethanol and spirits increases gastrin secretion in fasting volunteers. It is not known whether alcoholic ...
Whichelow M J - - 1991
Dietary data, mostly in the form of the frequency of consumption of foods, from the 9003 respondents in the Health and Lifestyle Survey were used to compare lifetime non-smokers with light, heavy and ex-smokers, taking account of age and social class. Non-smokers, of both sexes, were significantly more likely than ...
Dietze M A - - 1991
The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal ...
Cometto-Muñiz J E - - 1990
Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects. The stimuli comprised the first eight members of the series of n-aliphatic alcohols, phenyl ethyl alcohol, pyridine, and menthol. Results showed that anosmics could detect, via pungency, all but phenyl ethyl alcohol reliably. In the aliphatic series, ...
Burkhart K K - - 1990
The alcoholic patient, in an attempt to maintain an altered mental status, may ingest ethanol substitutes containing methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol. The subsequent clinical presentation in the Emergency Department is highly variable and depends on the ethanol substitute ingested, the time since ingestion, and concomitant ethanol abuse. This article ...
Gullberg R G - - 1990
Many jurisdictions have "per se" driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) status expressed in terms of a blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) standard (in grams per 100 mL or the equivalent). Since breath-alcohol (BrAC) analysis is typically employed to determine BAC, there is often challenge to the use of an assumed 2100:1 conversion ratio. This concern ...
Rolls B J - - 1990
Forty-two nondieting adult males were given 8 or 16 oz of lemonade, sweetened to equal intensity with either aspartame or sucrose, or the same volumes of water, or no drink. Subjects were separated into three groups receiving the drinks at different times: with a self-selection lunch, or 30, or 60 ...
Crowley T J - - 1990
We examined in nine group-living, male Japanese Snow monkeys the initiation of alcohol-drinking behavior in an enriched environment where both social and nonsocial stimuli could influence drinking. The monkeys usually could move freely between an indoor shelter and a large outdoor corral, which contained three drinkometers. During daily 2-hr sessions ...
González C A - - 1990
The selection of the best control group is a major concern in the design of any case-control study, because of its enormous implications on both interval validity and cost. We compare the dietary habits of hospital and neighbourhood control groups which had both been used in a case-control study on ...
Rogers P J - - 1990
The effects on motivation to eat and food intake of administering small amounts of aspartame (234 to 470 mg: lower dose equivalent to the amount of aspartame contained in 1-2 cans of some soft drinks) in capsules to human volunteers were examined in two separate experiments (the second was a ...
Knøchel S - - 1990
A total of 970 Danish commercial foods and drinking water samples were examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. With a detection limit of 10(2)/g the frequent prevalence in raw foods was confirmed. Aeromonas occurred in 7% of 779 samples of prepared foods; most frequently in whipped cream from ...
Toth P - - 1990
The present study investigated a possible role for neural signals sent from the liver and stomach to the brain in the regulation of alcohol intake. Experiment 1 showed that gastric vagotomy (GVX) reduced the intake of 3% alcohol and 6% alcohol, while water intake was increased. This effect was not ...
Kelbaek H - - 1990
Alcohol and food intake induce changes in LV performance which can be evaluated by radionuclide cardiographic methods. Alcohol probably exerts its effects by a direct action of ethanol in the blood on the myocardium, while the postprandial hemodynamic changes are related to the effects of food in the intestine. Alcohol ...
Kärkkäinen P - - 1990
The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected ...
Perkins K A - - 1990
Smoking cessation may have significant effects on consumption of certain foods and other substances which may influence health. This study of seven young female smokers examined consumption of alcohol, coffee, soda, and sweets (sweet, high-fat foods) across 3 weeks, involving baseline ad lib smoking (week 1), complete cessation (week 2), ...
Klein H - - 1990
Based on a national probability sample of 2,401 Americans age 21 and over (1,069 of whom were deemed "drinkers" on the basis of having consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the past 7 days), this study develops profiles of the drinker and heavier drinking prototypes for beer, distilled spirits, ...
Johnson J A - - 1990
Alternative accepted methods of aggregating prices and quantities of beer, spirits and wine could yield different conclusions for intertemporal comparisons. In this study Fisher's index is used to measure changes in per capita consumption and price of alcoholic beverages in Canada, 1957-83. The results are typically very close to those ...
Szlyk P C - - 1990
The effects of exercise, water temperature, and food consumption on patterns of ad libitum drinking were studied in 33 men during 6 consecutive cycles of 30 min walking (4.8 km.h-1, 5% grade) and 30 min rest in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C, 40% relative humidity). On two nonconsecutive days, ...
Bensley L S - - 1990
Intentional self-restraint may play an important role in the control of potentially addictive behavior. Unfortunately, for some individuals, efforts to reduce substance use may prove not only temporary but to increase the likelihood of a later "binge." An experimental study examined the relationship between prior self-restraint efforts and drinking. Results ...
Jeffery R W - - 1990
We report the results of a survey conducted in upper-midwestern communities to assess public attitudes toward policy level interventions to moderate the use of alcohol, tobacco, and high-fat food. Four hundred thirty-eight women and 383 men were asked to indicate how much they favored or did not favor 29 policy ...
Yeomans M R - - 1989
Fowls were given a dilute quinine solution as their sole source of fluid, and effects on normal ingestion and on drinking responses to dipsogenic stimuli were examined. Compared to controls with water, daily fluid intakes were depressed by 25% with quinine. There was no significant effect of quinine on food ...
Weydert-Huijghebaert S - - 1989
The bile alcohol glucuronides in urine of 12 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 10 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and 6 healthy volunteers were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all subjects studied, the major urinary bile alcohol was found to be 27-nor-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,25-pentol ...
Clabots C R - - 1989
Direct inoculation to cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar and broth was compared with alcohol shock-chopped meat broth inoculation for optimal detection of Clostridium difficile in fecal samples. Alcohol shock is significantly more sensitive than cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar or broth and may be the method of choice to detect C. difficile in asymptomatic carriers.
Eisig J N - - 1989
The ingestion of plain coffee was compared in 150 duodenal ulcer patients (DU) and 100 control subjects without digestive complaints (C). The DU and C groups were registered in accordance with their daily consumption of coffee: none, 1-100 ml, 101-300 ml, 301-500 ml, and more than 500 ml. Fifty millilitres ...
Grupp L A - - 1989
The subfornical organ plays a role in a number of the effects of blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) including the increase in water drinking and blood pressure and the release of vasopressin from the pituitary. Recently it has been shown that systemically administered ANG II also reduces voluntary alcohol intake. ...
Dennis M J - - 1989
An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included ...
Gill K - - 1989
This paper describes an inexpensive, reliable computer controlled data collection system designed for the continuous monitoring of feeding and drinking behavior in rats. This system will be useful in areas of behavioral pharmacology research requiring a detailed analysis of food and fluid intake. The configuration described herein was developed for ...
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