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Results 351 - 400 of 490
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Rossignol A M - - 1991
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic ...
Sisson J H - - 1991
Acetaldehyde, which is present in significant concentrations in cigarette smoke and is elevated during alcohol ingestion, has been demonstrated to impair mucociliary clearance of the lung. Acetaldehyde is also known to impair protein function through the formation of acetaldehyde-protein adducts. We hypothesized that acetaldehyde impairs bronchial epithelial cilia motion by ...
Te Wierik E - - 1991
The hormone gastrin plays an important role in the regulation of acid secretion in the stomach which, in turn, stimulates the digestion of food. Previous studies reported that administration of beer and wine but not ethanol and spirits increases gastrin secretion in fasting volunteers. It is not known whether alcoholic ...
Whichelow M J - - 1991
Dietary data, mostly in the form of the frequency of consumption of foods, from the 9003 respondents in the Health and Lifestyle Survey were used to compare lifetime non-smokers with light, heavy and ex-smokers, taking account of age and social class. Non-smokers, of both sexes, were significantly more likely than ...
Dietze M A - - 1991
The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal ...
Cometto-Muñiz J E - - 1990
Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects. The stimuli comprised the first eight members of the series of n-aliphatic alcohols, phenyl ethyl alcohol, pyridine, and menthol. Results showed that anosmics could detect, via pungency, all but phenyl ethyl alcohol reliably. In the aliphatic series, ...
Burkhart K K - - 1990
The alcoholic patient, in an attempt to maintain an altered mental status, may ingest ethanol substitutes containing methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol. The subsequent clinical presentation in the Emergency Department is highly variable and depends on the ethanol substitute ingested, the time since ingestion, and concomitant ethanol abuse. This article ...
Gullberg R G - - 1990
Many jurisdictions have "per se" driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) status expressed in terms of a blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) standard (in grams per 100 mL or the equivalent). Since breath-alcohol (BrAC) analysis is typically employed to determine BAC, there is often challenge to the use of an assumed 2100:1 conversion ratio. This concern ...
Rolls B J - - 1990
Forty-two nondieting adult males were given 8 or 16 oz of lemonade, sweetened to equal intensity with either aspartame or sucrose, or the same volumes of water, or no drink. Subjects were separated into three groups receiving the drinks at different times: with a self-selection lunch, or 30, or 60 ...
Crowley T J - - 1990
We examined in nine group-living, male Japanese Snow monkeys the initiation of alcohol-drinking behavior in an enriched environment where both social and nonsocial stimuli could influence drinking. The monkeys usually could move freely between an indoor shelter and a large outdoor corral, which contained three drinkometers. During daily 2-hr sessions ...
González C A - - 1990
The selection of the best control group is a major concern in the design of any case-control study, because of its enormous implications on both interval validity and cost. We compare the dietary habits of hospital and neighbourhood control groups which had both been used in a case-control study on ...
Rogers P J - - 1990
The effects on motivation to eat and food intake of administering small amounts of aspartame (234 to 470 mg: lower dose equivalent to the amount of aspartame contained in 1-2 cans of some soft drinks) in capsules to human volunteers were examined in two separate experiments (the second was a ...
Knøchel S - - 1990
A total of 970 Danish commercial foods and drinking water samples were examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. With a detection limit of 10(2)/g the frequent prevalence in raw foods was confirmed. Aeromonas occurred in 7% of 779 samples of prepared foods; most frequently in whipped cream from ...
Toth P - - 1990
The present study investigated a possible role for neural signals sent from the liver and stomach to the brain in the regulation of alcohol intake. Experiment 1 showed that gastric vagotomy (GVX) reduced the intake of 3% alcohol and 6% alcohol, while water intake was increased. This effect was not ...
Kelbaek H - - 1990
Alcohol and food intake induce changes in LV performance which can be evaluated by radionuclide cardiographic methods. Alcohol probably exerts its effects by a direct action of ethanol in the blood on the myocardium, while the postprandial hemodynamic changes are related to the effects of food in the intestine. Alcohol ...
Kärkkäinen P - - 1990
The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected ...
Perkins K A - - 1990
Smoking cessation may have significant effects on consumption of certain foods and other substances which may influence health. This study of seven young female smokers examined consumption of alcohol, coffee, soda, and sweets (sweet, high-fat foods) across 3 weeks, involving baseline ad lib smoking (week 1), complete cessation (week 2), ...
Klein H - - 1990
Based on a national probability sample of 2,401 Americans age 21 and over (1,069 of whom were deemed "drinkers" on the basis of having consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the past 7 days), this study develops profiles of the drinker and heavier drinking prototypes for beer, distilled spirits, ...
Johnson J A - - 1990
Alternative accepted methods of aggregating prices and quantities of beer, spirits and wine could yield different conclusions for intertemporal comparisons. In this study Fisher's index is used to measure changes in per capita consumption and price of alcoholic beverages in Canada, 1957-83. The results are typically very close to those ...
Szlyk P C - - 1990
The effects of exercise, water temperature, and food consumption on patterns of ad libitum drinking were studied in 33 men during 6 consecutive cycles of 30 min walking (4.8 km.h-1, 5% grade) and 30 min rest in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C, 40% relative humidity). On two nonconsecutive days, ...
Bensley L S - - 1990
Intentional self-restraint may play an important role in the control of potentially addictive behavior. Unfortunately, for some individuals, efforts to reduce substance use may prove not only temporary but to increase the likelihood of a later "binge." An experimental study examined the relationship between prior self-restraint efforts and drinking. Results ...
Jeffery R W - - 1990
We report the results of a survey conducted in upper-midwestern communities to assess public attitudes toward policy level interventions to moderate the use of alcohol, tobacco, and high-fat food. Four hundred thirty-eight women and 383 men were asked to indicate how much they favored or did not favor 29 policy ...
Yeomans M R - - 1989
Fowls were given a dilute quinine solution as their sole source of fluid, and effects on normal ingestion and on drinking responses to dipsogenic stimuli were examined. Compared to controls with water, daily fluid intakes were depressed by 25% with quinine. There was no significant effect of quinine on food ...
Weydert-Huijghebaert S - - 1989
The bile alcohol glucuronides in urine of 12 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 10 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and 6 healthy volunteers were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all subjects studied, the major urinary bile alcohol was found to be 27-nor-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,25-pentol ...
Clabots C R - - 1989
Direct inoculation to cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar and broth was compared with alcohol shock-chopped meat broth inoculation for optimal detection of Clostridium difficile in fecal samples. Alcohol shock is significantly more sensitive than cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar or broth and may be the method of choice to detect C. difficile in asymptomatic carriers.
Eisig J N - - 1989
The ingestion of plain coffee was compared in 150 duodenal ulcer patients (DU) and 100 control subjects without digestive complaints (C). The DU and C groups were registered in accordance with their daily consumption of coffee: none, 1-100 ml, 101-300 ml, 301-500 ml, and more than 500 ml. Fifty millilitres ...
Grupp L A - - 1989
The subfornical organ plays a role in a number of the effects of blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) including the increase in water drinking and blood pressure and the release of vasopressin from the pituitary. Recently it has been shown that systemically administered ANG II also reduces voluntary alcohol intake. ...
Dennis M J - - 1989
An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included ...
Gill K - - 1989
This paper describes an inexpensive, reliable computer controlled data collection system designed for the continuous monitoring of feeding and drinking behavior in rats. This system will be useful in areas of behavioral pharmacology research requiring a detailed analysis of food and fluid intake. The configuration described herein was developed for ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
To examine the orosensory and postingestive effects of saccharin solution on food intake and food preference, freely feeding rats were given flavored food to eat and a solution to drink for 2 h on eight to ten occasions. Relative to trials with a different flavored food and only water to ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these changes in feeding behavior were due to overhydration resulting from drinking hyposmotic saccharin solution. Consistent with this possibility, the short-term food ...
Birch L L - - 1989
In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib ...
Tordoff M G - - 1989
Rats that drink saccharin solution increase their short-term food intake and develop a preference for flavored food eaten when saccharin is ingested. In this paper, we examined whether these effects are mediated by cephalic-phase metabolic reflexes. The results show that the cephalic-phase insulin response could be dissociated from food intake ...
Yost D A - - 1989
Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener commonly used in soft drinks and many foods. Even with high doses, the metabolites of this sweetener do not accumulate in toxic amounts. To date, no definite symptom complex has been connected with aspartame, and it is considered safe for use in all populations, including ...
Price J - - 1989
The influence of a number of variables on the diets of 65 steady drinkers from alcohol rehabilitation units on Merseyside, United Kingdom was investigated. All drank principally beer or spirits. Social variables studied included age, sex, living alone or with others, employment status and socio-economic status. Alcohol-related variables included quantity ...
Newlin D B - - 1989
Previous studies on "craving" for alcohol after exposure to olfactory stimuli for alcohol may be criticized on the grounds that the control stimuli were not really appropriate. We included exposure to a preferred nonalcoholic beverage and to a sweet food item as additional control stimuli in order to better compare ...
Zamboni S - - 1989
Two hundred and nineteen psoriatic in-patients and 747 non-psoriatic subjects were asked to report in a semiquantitative, self-administered questionnaire on the frequency of consumption of different foodstuffs and cooking and seasoning fats and the daily intake of alcohol (glasses/day) and coffee (cups/day). According to this a definite score was assigned ...
Sorvari R - - 1989
A sport drink mixture, pH 3.2, containing 6% sucrose, was given to Osborne-Mendel rats, either as such or supplemented with 15 ppm fluoride, 38.5 ppm magnesium or both. Distilled water was given to the control groups. The rats were fed either a slightly cariogenic, powdered food containing 15% sucrose, or ...
Thiele M C - - 1989
Soft drink intake among Yup'ik Eskimo teenagers was assessed as part of a monitoring system for a nutrition education intervention project. Soft drink intakes were found to be three to four times greater than in the general US teenage population. Over half of the soft drinks consumed were in the ...
Gill K - - 1989
Previous research demonstrated that serotonin uptake blockers (e.g., zimeldine, sertraline, fluoxetine) reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in rats and humans. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is not well understood. It has been suggested, for example, that serotonin uptake blockade interferes with the processes that mediate the reinforcement derived ...
Strolin Benedetti M - - 1989
Salsolinol is present in human fluids and tissues as well as in foods and beverages. It was shown previously that the R enantiomer of salsolinol predominates in human urine, whereas the S enantiomer predominates in Port wine. An R/S ratio very near to 1 was found in dried banana, a ...
Pfeifer R W - - 1988
Multiple dosage regimens for therapeutic agents are commonly comprised of a constant dosing interval and a constant dose size. This is not true for the ingestion of a pharmacologically active agent that is a component in a dietary source. Caffeine is contained in foods and beverages that are regular components ...
O'Hanlon J F - - 1988
The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, ...
Couzy F - - 1988
This article is based on data on food consumption gathered from 10,000 households. The daily energetic intake of 2,000 to 2,500 kcal (8,360 to 10,450 kJ) (beverages excluded) provides adults with less than 80% of the recommended amount of several essential minerals and trace elements. For women, beverages contribute only ...
Ho A - - 1988
Individual differences in the amount of alcohol consumed in a choice situation are found in highly inbred C57BL/6J mice. The extent to which environmental stress can modify alcohol preference was studied by coupling acute episodes of poisoning with restricted fluid availability, and recovery with free choice of drinking fluids. Addition ...
Engell D - - 1988
The temporal and quantitative relationship between food and water intake and the effect of fluid restriction on voluntary food intake were studied in 20 male subjects over two 48-h periods. Food intake was limited to specific mealtimes, but subjects could eat as much as they wanted during these times. Drinking ...
Sjöberg A M - - 1988
The dietary intake of saccharin and cyclamate was investigated during the period 1979-1985 in order to find out about the use as sweeteners in the food industry and hospitals and to obtain intake data for the toxicological evaluation of sweeteners in the Finnish diet. Eighty-nine samples of desserts served in ...
Stavric B - - 1988
Five surveys, using a previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography procedure to measure caffeine concentrations, indicated great variations in the concentrations of caffeine in tea and coffee. In the study of beverages prepared at home, data on caffeine concentrations in 58 samples of tea and coffee, volumes of cups, and numbers ...
Heller R F - - 1988
In examining genetic influences on biological variables using twins, it may be important to examine the distribution between and within twin pairs of demographic and lifestyle factors that may themselves affect the biological variable being studied. We explored the distribution of demographic and lifestyle factors that may affect blood lipid ...
de Castro J M - - 1988
The characteristics of fluid intake in humans were investigated using a diary self-report method. Thirty-six adult humans were paid to record in a diary, for 7 consecutive days, everything that they either ate or drank, the time that they ingested it, and how thirsty and hungry they were on seven ...
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