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Results 351 - 400 of 532
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Iwami O - - 1994
To identify important risk factors of motor neuron disease (MND) in a focus (Hohara) on the Kii peninsula of Japan, 24-h dietary duplicates, rice, drinking water, and soils were analysed for metals in Hohara and control areas. The manganese content in 24-h food in Hohara was significantly (P < 0.01) ...
Biaudet H - - 1994
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) contamination was determined in 556 food samples and 75 beverages purchased in eastern France in 1987-1992. NDMA was found in 427 samples (68%). Data amassed enabled the first estimation to be made in France of the mean daily intake of NDMA from French foods and beverages in 1987-1992 ...
Seruga M - - 1994
The aluminium (Al) content of soft drinks from Al cans has been measured during 12 months of storage, by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) method. The results show that the Al content in all soft drinks increased during the whole storage time. This increase was a result of ...
King A C - - 1994
Two questionnaire formats for assessing alcohol consumption in a community sample were compared. Subjects completed the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and a questionnaire specifically targeting alcohol use. Across all alcoholic beverages, subjects reported lower consumption on the alcohol questionnaire than on the food frequency questionnaire. The results suggest that food ...
Penugonda B - - 1994
This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-containing mouthwashes on composite resin hardness. Eighty hybrid composite discs were fabricated and divided into eight equal groups: Listerine, Scope, Viadent, Plax, Lavoris, Clear Choice, and Rembrandt Mouth Refreshing Rinse. Water acted as a control. All of the discs were immersed by group in ...
Soderstrom C A - - 1993
Alcohol use, driving records, crash culpability, and crash conviction rates for 165 injured motorcycle drivers (MTCDs) were studied. Of the 165 MTCDs, 53.3% tested positive for alcohol (BAC+). Culpability determinations (n = 150) revealed that 83% of BAC+ and 46% of BAC-MTCDs caused their crashes (p < 0.001). Driving records ...
Keung W M - - 1993
Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest ...
de Castro J M - - 1993
The heritability of fluid and beverage intake was investigated with 109 identical and 86 fraternal adult twin pairs who were paid to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they either ate or drank. Both classical analysis of heritability and linear structural modeling revealed that the amount of fluids ingested daily or ...
Hupkens C L - - 1993
Within the European Community (EC) drinking patterns in the southern countries can be characterised by daily consumption of wine at meals, and in the northern countries by less frequent consumption of beer outside meals. Yet, as in past decades in the southern countries beer consumption and in the northern countries ...
Skog O J - - 1993
In 1916-17, prices of alcoholic beverages increased dramatically in Denmark, and alcohol consumption decreased strongly. On the basis of this 'natural experiment', the effect of variations in per capita alcohol consumption on suicide rates is estimated, and compared to Norström's analysis of Danish data from the period 1931-80, as well ...
Veenstra J - - 1993
The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ...
Gvozdenović L V - - 1993
The effects of fentanyl, ketamine and thalamonal on some biochemical parameters of ethanol-treated and untreated dogs, were studied. The study was carried out on mongrel dogs. The animals were divided into two main groups: one which had free access to food and to 12% (v/v) ethanol, instead of water, and ...
Kulkosky P J - - 1993
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and bombesin tetradecapeptide (BBS-14) are brain-gut neuropeptides shown to inhibit intake and choice of alcohol solutions and foods in a variety of species. Recently, Draski and colleagues selectively bred strains descended from N/Nih outbred Norway rats that differ in sleep time after injection of ethanol. The intake ...
Hankin J R - - 1993
In a sample of over 12,000 African-American gravidas, we tested the hypothesis that the Federal Beverage Labeling Act of 1988 has decreased antenatal drinking. Results of time series analysis indicated a 7-month lag in the impact of the alcohol warning label. Controlling for population changes, antenatal drinking began to fall ...
Black R M - - 1993
Despite some reports that aspartame (APM)-sweetened beverages may increase subjective appetite, previously we demonstrated that drinking 280 ml of an APM-sweetened soft drink (170 mg APM) had no effect on appetite, and 560 ml of the same soft drink (340 mg APM) reduced appetite. The present study examined this appetite ...
Akinshola B E - - 1993
Ethanol was shown previously to increase ADP-ribosylation of hepatocyte proteins. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ethanol on ADP-ribosylation of histones in hepatocyte nuclei. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to 100 mM ethanol for 2 h and ADP-ribosylated histones were separated from nonribosylated histones by ...
Watkins R L - - 1993
The same nine subjects (six male, three female) were given near bolus doses of alcohol (0.69 g/kg) on two occasions separated by one week. They were instructed to consume the alcohol as rapidly as possible (12.1 min average). The alcohol was consumed after dilution to 15% with fruit punch mix. ...
Smith A P - - 1993
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of coffee on performance and alertness in the day and at night. The results showed that caffeinated coffee had a beneficial effect on alertness and improved performance on a variety of tasks in both day and night sessions. The effects were ...
Kraft J M - - 1993
The linkage of the gender mix of occupations to drinking patterns has been suggested by Wilsnack and Wilsnack (1991). Using a national sample of American workers, associations among gender, the gender mix of occupations, occupation, and drinking variables were explored. The results suggest that the relationship between the gender mix ...
Auerhahn C - - 1992
Alcoholic beverages comprise an appreciable percentage of the total caloric intake of individuals in Western societies. Alcohol contains no usable nutrients and, in the chronic drinker, often replaces food. Chronic alcoholics frequently have evidence of nutritional deficiencies due to decreased intake, reduced uptake and impaired utilization of nutrients. Syndromes of ...
Boyle A E - - 1992
The effects of GABAA agonist THIP on the acquisition of voluntary ethanol intake and the pattern of food and water consumption were examined through the use of a computer-controlled data acquisition system. Twenty male Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received THIP (16 mg/kg, IP) ...
Clark N - - 1992
With the rising popularity of ultradistance sports events lasting from 6 to 24 hours or multiple days, athletes are consulting registered dietitians for specialized dietary advice. Many dietitians, however, lack experience with these types of events. This article provides basic guidelines ffor fueling the ultradistance athlete. The goals are to ...
Stricker E M - - 1992
A detailed description of the increased intake of 0.5 M NaCl solution by rats after systemic treatment with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) or after adrenalectomy was obtained by measuring feeding and drinking activity every 6 s for 23 h. In both models of salt appetite, the induced increase in saline intake ...
Sinclair J D - - 1992
Restricting access to alcohol to a short period daily causes rats, in effect, to drink on command. They usually begin drinking alcohol immediately when it is first made available each day and consume a rather constant amount during each access period. The procedure thus has a variety of useful applications. ...
Lancaster F E - - 1992
Drinking patterns of male and female Long-Evans rats were compared during a 15-day drinking period. All animals were tested for preference for alcohol for 24 h during which food, water, and beer containing 5% ethanol were freely available. Animals drinking 50 ml or more of beer were chosen for the ...
Mareschi J P - - 1992
Estimates have been made of the consumption levels of sulphites in foods in France using two methods, a global and a segmented protocol. The global method gave an estimated average intake of 20 mg SO2/day/capita; the segmented method gave estimates of 1.96 mg/day/capita for non-consumers of alcoholic beverages and 31.5 ...
Mulford H A - - 1992
Recent changes in Iowa liquor control laws ended the 51-year-old state alcohol monopoly distribution system and turned the sales of bottled wine and spirits over to the private sector. The resulting increase in the availability of these beverages provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between increased wine and ...
Van Hee R - - 1992
The Renaissance period in Europe saw many dietary changes due to imports of new ingredients from the Far East as well as from newly discovered Central and South America. Maize and potatoes rapidly conquered European markets and because of their easier cultivation and higher calorie content, displaced grains such as ...
Desenclos J A - - 1992
Limited data indicate that drinking alcoholic beverages along with eating food contaminated with Shigella or Salmonella decreases the risk and/or the severity of illness. No such study has been reported following exposure to a viral pathogen. During an oyster-borne outbreak of hepatitis A, we studied the effect of ingestion of ...
Gavaler J S - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of an effect of moderate alcoholic beverage consumption on the biologic correlate of postmenopausal estradiol levels. Total weekly consumption and beverage-specific intake were assessed using both self-reported usual consumption information and prospective food record data. In terms of total weekly ...
Gosnell B A - - 1992
Male rats were given daily sessions during which a palatable saccharin solution was available. Based on intakes averaged over 3 days, groups with low, intermediate, or high intake of saccharin were formed. These rats were then given daily sessions in which alcohol (2-8%) or water were available. Initially, sessions were ...
Neff J A - - 1992
The relationship between acculturation, generational status/nativity and drinking patterns is examined using data from a 1988 community survey of 1286 adult regular drinkers (at least two drinks/month) in San Antonio, Texas. This sample includes 412 Anglo, 239 Black, and 635 Mexican American respondents, with Mexican Americans further classified into high, ...
Gannon K S - - 1992
A system for long-term monitoring of mouse eating and drinking behavior with 6-s resolution is described. The apparatus utilizes infrared beams to monitor activity at a single feeding port and electronic contact detector circuitry to record individual licks at two drinking ports. Eight SWR/J mice were monitored using this system ...
Tricker A R - - 1991
The levels of volatile N-nitrosamines were determined in 38 alcoholic drinks and 215 food samples prepared for human consumption using standard culinary practices. The analyses used gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. Detectable levels were found in 80 (31.5%) of the individual samples. The average daily intake of volatile N-nitrosamines in West ...
Jones A W - - 1991
Blood ethanol profiles were determined in experiments with healthy volunteers after they had drunk beer. When 330 ml of light beer (1.8% w/v ethanol) was consumed in 5 min by four men and four women, the average peak blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) reached was 8 mg/100 ml (range 2-11). After nine ...
McNamara J R - - 1991
By using a self-management program, a 25-yr.-old white male was able to decrease the amount of junk food and beverage consumed while increasing the amount of healthier food and beverage ingested during evening snacks. This change was evident at 6 wk. and at a 6-mo. follow-up. Factors contributing to this ...
- - 1991
Balance and moderation are two good words to remember about nutrition through all phases of womanhood. By eating regularly from each of the four basic food groups, varying food intake to match your level of activity and moderating your consumption of food and drink that is considered less than good ...
Canty D J - - 1991
This study examined the effects of aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose on hunger and food intake. Twenty normal adults consumed a standard breakfast followed 3 h later by 200 mL of either water or a sweetened drink. One hour later, subjects' ad libitum consumption of a standardized lunch was measured. Subjects ...
Damron B L - - 1991
1. In each of two experiments lasting 21 days a commercially available ammonium polyphosphate solution was provided in the drinking water as the sole source of supplemental phosphorus for day-old chicks housed in batteries. 2. In both experiments, similar daily phosphorus intakes either from dicalcium phosphate in the food or ...
Black R M - - 1991
Ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverages has been reported to increase subjective measures of appetite. This study examined the effects of familiar carbonated soft drinks sweetened with aspartame on subjective hunger, energy intake and macronutrient selection at a lunch-time meal. Subjects were 20 normal weight young adult males, classified as either restrained ...
Zimmerli B - - 1991
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic compound in vitro and in vivo, it binds covalently to DNA and is an animal carcinogen. Today, EC is mainly found as a natural trace constituent in different alcoholic beverages and in fermented food items. Data on analytical methodology and the levels of EC ...
Hess J A - - 1991
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the capacity of various disinfectant chemicals to cause epithelial toxicity with repeated exposure. The abdominal area of 3-month old, experimental ICR/CD-1 mice was initially shaved, denuded with a depilatory agent and allowed to rest for 24 hours. Commercial preparations of iodophors, ...
Rossignol A M - - 1991
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic ...
Sisson J H - - 1991
Acetaldehyde, which is present in significant concentrations in cigarette smoke and is elevated during alcohol ingestion, has been demonstrated to impair mucociliary clearance of the lung. Acetaldehyde is also known to impair protein function through the formation of acetaldehyde-protein adducts. We hypothesized that acetaldehyde impairs bronchial epithelial cilia motion by ...
Te Wierik E - - 1991
The hormone gastrin plays an important role in the regulation of acid secretion in the stomach which, in turn, stimulates the digestion of food. Previous studies reported that administration of beer and wine but not ethanol and spirits increases gastrin secretion in fasting volunteers. It is not known whether alcoholic ...
Whichelow M J - - 1991
Dietary data, mostly in the form of the frequency of consumption of foods, from the 9003 respondents in the Health and Lifestyle Survey were used to compare lifetime non-smokers with light, heavy and ex-smokers, taking account of age and social class. Non-smokers, of both sexes, were significantly more likely than ...
Dietze M A - - 1991
The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal ...
Cometto-Muñiz J E - - 1990
Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects. The stimuli comprised the first eight members of the series of n-aliphatic alcohols, phenyl ethyl alcohol, pyridine, and menthol. Results showed that anosmics could detect, via pungency, all but phenyl ethyl alcohol reliably. In the aliphatic series, ...
Burkhart K K - - 1990
The alcoholic patient, in an attempt to maintain an altered mental status, may ingest ethanol substitutes containing methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol. The subsequent clinical presentation in the Emergency Department is highly variable and depends on the ethanol substitute ingested, the time since ingestion, and concomitant ethanol abuse. This article ...
Gullberg R G - - 1990
Many jurisdictions have "per se" driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) status expressed in terms of a blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) standard (in grams per 100 mL or the equivalent). Since breath-alcohol (BrAC) analysis is typically employed to determine BAC, there is often challenge to the use of an assumed 2100:1 conversion ratio. This concern ...
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