Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 532
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Chatenoud L - - 1998
The relationship between frequency of consumption of whole grain food and risk of selected neoplasms has been analysed using data from an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in northern Italy between 1983 and 1996. The overall dataset included the following incident, histologically confirmed neoplasms: oral cavity and pharynx 181, ...
Bendtsen P - - 1998
Twenty healthy social drinkers (9 women and 11 men) drank either 50 g of ethanol (mean intake 0.75 g/kg) or 80 g (mean 1.07 g/kg) according to choice as white wine or export beer in the evening over 2 h with a meal. After the end of drinking, at bedtime, ...
Sood D - - 1998
Precautions to prevent spread of infection through tonometers and gonioscopes are described in this article. Tonometers and gonioscopes should not be used in the presence of clinically manifest conjunctivitis and keratitis. The Schiotz tonometer should be dipped in a 1:1000 merthiolate solution, and rinsed in saline/distilled water prior to use. ...
Logan B K - - 1998
A variety of breads and soft drinks were tested and found to contain low concentrations of alcohol. The potential for these products to generate false readings on an evidential breath-alcohol instrument was evaluated. Alcohol-free subjects ingested these products and then provided breath samples into a DataMaster. It was found that ...
Blau J N - - 1998
Epidemiological surveys show that migraine is global, although not so far reported in Eskimos. Where studied, countries show the usual age variations, but adult national prevalence figures range between 2 and 35%, indicating that data-gathering methods need scrutiny. National and religious lifestyles affect eating at different times, in varying quantities ...
Maupomé G - - 1998
Studies assessing the erosive potential of soft drinks have employed long time intervals of immersion that may not accurately depict the impact of frequent soft drink consumption on enamel. This in vitro study assessed the effect of a cola drink on enamel, replicating an actual drinking pattern. Six groups of ...
Forsander O A - - 1998
Alcohol intake is affected by both environmental and inherited biological mechanisms. In the early history of alcohol research, caloric interactions were among the most intensely studied of the environmental factors, and a large body of evidence was obtained that indicated that nutrition can affect alcohol drinking. Much of this evidence ...
Breen M H - - 1998
Thirteen healthy subjects (seven men and six women) participated in three drinking studies to examine the maximum increase of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the time taken to reach the maximum BrAC (peak) after a subject finished a 'one for the road' drink in a social environment with food consumption. ...
Rezvani A H - - 1997
We previously reported that single administration of ibogaine, an indol alkaloid with antiaddictive properties, dose dependently reduced alcohol intake in three strains of alcohol-preferring rats. The present study examined the effect of different doses of a newly developed nontoxic ibogaine analogue, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), on alcohol intake. Selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats ...
Macieira M S - - 1997
The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH) dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11), 5% ETOH (N = ...
Abercrombie D E - - 1997
Preliminary analyses by a commercial laboratory demonstrated varying amounts of aluminium in a small sampling of canned drinks, which had been stored at 15-20 degrees C., ranging from < 0.1 to 74 ppm depending on the product and storage time. Aluminum foil wrap immersed in several drinks demonstrated varying raters ...
Boyle A E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The present experiment examined the microstructure and temporal pattern of consummatory behavior to provide insight into the behavioral processes that regulate the acquisition of voluntary oral ethanol intake. METHOD: A microcomputer-controlled data acquisition system was used to dynamically monitor food, water and ethanol intake in Long Evans rats across ...
Files F J - - 1997
Initiation of alcohol drinking using the sucrose-substitution procedure was studied in inbred Lewis rats. One group of animals was initiated to self-administer alcohol prior to being placed in the continuous-access condition, whereas the second group of animals did not undergo initiation. During the continuous-access period, the animals were housed in ...
Hocking P M - - 1997
1. The food intake, rate of food consumption (g/min) and behavioural time budgets of individually caged broiler and layer (white egg) males were compared in the early morning (1.5 to 3.5 h after onset of photoperiod) and afternoon (5.5 to 7.5 h after photostimulation) on 4 different days at 11 ...
Montain S J - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Physical performance of military tasks can deteriorate during field training. HYPOTHESIS: Drinking a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) beverage during military relevant training would improve fluid and caloric intake, and better sustain physical performance. METHODS: Some 27 volunteers restricted to approximately 2600 kcal.d-1 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CHO-E, ...
Milosevic A - - 1997
AIM: To assess dental status and sports supplement uptake in swimmers and cyclists. To determine chemico-physical properties of the most popular sports drinks. DESIGN: Descriptive, prevalence study of tooth wear and caries experience. Questionnaire analysis of sports drinks usage. SETTING: Two public swimming pools in Liverpool and three cycle clubs ...
Johnson R F - - 1997
One of the primary goals of the study of thirst is to understand why drinking occurs under ad libitum or natural conditions. An appreciation of the experimental strategies applied by physiologists studying thirst from different perspectives can facilitate progress toward understanding the natural history of drinking behavior. Drinking research carried ...
Burke L M - - 1997
Recovery after exercise poses an important challenge to the modern athlete. Important issues include restoration of liver and muscle glycogen stores, and the replacement of fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat. Rapid resynthesis of muscle glycogen stores is aided by the immediate intake of carbohydrate (I g.kg-1 BM each 2 ...
Tavani A - - 1997
The relationship between frequency of intake of selected indicator foods, lymphoid neoplasms, and soft tissue sarcomas was investigated in an updated case-control study conducted in Northern Italy between 1983 and 1992 on 158 incident, histologically confirmed cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD), 429 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 141 cases of ...
Haveman-Nies A - - 1997
Dehydration is a common fluid disorder which occurs in residents, hospitalised and community-dwelling elderly people. In this study the intake of water and fluids of community-dwelling elderly Europeans is presented in relation to risk factors of dehydration: mental state, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), medicine use and ...
Hardalo C - - 1997
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous environmental bacterium. It can be recovered, often in high numbers, in common food, especially vegetables. Moreover, it can be recovered in low numbers in drinking water. A small percentage of clones of P. aeruginosa possesses the required number of virulence factors to cause infection. However, ...
Gill K - - 1996
The present study examined the maintenance of voluntary alcohol intake in male Long-Evans rats. A microstructural analysis of consummatory behaviors (food, alcohol, water) was carried out using a computerized drinkometer system. In this sample of animals, there was no association (r = 0.07) between total food intake and total alcohol ...
Baeyens F - - 1996
It has been suggested that the observation of a model consuming a food (CS) and facially expressing either to like or to dislike (US') the food, may be a sufficient condition to bring about a change in the valence of the food for the observer. Unfortunately, up to now this ...
Kondo T - - 1996
Soft drinks containing dietary fiber are popular in Japan. There seem to be two types, one containing polydextrose and the other, oligosaccharide. These beverages are claimed to be useful for constipation or obesity, but data are scanty. We examined four such fiber-containing beverages [Fibe-mini Otsuka Pharmaceuticals (Tokyo, Japan), Seni and ...
Dawson D A - - 1996
This study compared three alternative scenarios for effecting a 25% reduction in U.S. alcohol consumption in terms of their respective impacts on the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence. The three approaches were (1) an overall 25% reduction in the volume of ethanol intake for all current drinkers, (2) an ...
Piercy K T - - 1996
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the etiology of aberrant consumption of alcohol. Several compounds thought to possess a potential therapeutic value to counteract drinking have high affinities for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the brain. For example, amperozide and FG5865 significantly reduce the volitional intake of ...
Jacobsen B K - - 1996
The aim of the study was to describe associations between childbearing pattern (parity and age at first and last birth) and food and alcohol habits in middle aged women. This was done in a cross-sectional survey of 3576 women aged 40-42 years living in a county in northern Norway, involving ...
Ferraroni M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility and validity of alcohol consumption has not been adequately studied, particularly in mediterranean countries, where alcohol drinking is a widespread habit, especially during meals. METHODS: We compared alcohol consumption measured by two interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) with average intake derived from two 7-day dietary (7-DD) records ...
Spanagel R - - 1996
The suppressing effect of acamprosate (calcium-acetyl homotaurinate) on alcohol drinking is well established; however, little is known about its effects upon the alcohol-induced withdrawal syndrome. Male Wistar rats received as a sole drinking fluid a 20% (v/v) alcohol solution for one week. Animals consumed on average 5.3 +/- 0.3 g/kg ...
Melo J A - - 1996
Mice from various inbred strains consume alcoholic beverages at highly reproducible and strain-specific levels. While most mice consume alcohol in moderate amounts, C57BL/6J animals exhibit sustained oral ingestion of high levels of alcohol in the presence of competing water and food. We now report a genetic investigation of this phenotype ...
Allsop K A - - 1996
In pre-industrial times, honey was the main source of concentrated sweetness in the diets of many peoples. There are no precise figures for per capita consumption during most periods in history because honey was part of either a hunter-gatherer or subsistence economy. Until now, historians and food writers have proposed ...
Guinard J X - - 1996
The relation between consumption of beer, alcohol, and bitter substances was investigated by comparing 20 each of male adults, low users ( < 720 ml/week) and high users ( > 3.61/week) of beer for sensitivity to and like/dislike for the bitterness of isohumulones. Intake of beer, alcohol, and bitter substances ...
Männistö S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with diet and body mass index. Type and frequency of consumed alcohol were also considered. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The baseline examination of the participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985-1988. SUBJECTS: 27215 ...
Hagopian L P - - 1996
In this study, we report on a 12-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, and a history of severe gastrointestinal problems who presented with total liquid and food refusal. Backward chaining was used to shape drinking from a cup, and a fading procedure was used to increase the quantity of water ...
Rienzi B M - - 1996
Gender role socialization differentially influences attitudes toward substance abuse for boys and girls. Students (n = 968, 456 = males, M age = 16.20, SD = 1.20) were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions of attitudes toward substance abuse. Boys' approval was significantly different than the level of approval ...
Savolainen V - - 1995
Cirrhosis is believed to be preceded by "precirrhotic" lesions indicating initial fibrogenesis in the perivenular area. We investigated three previously described markers of early perivenular fibrogenesis: the thickness of the rim of the terminal hepatic venule, perivenular fibrosis and perivenular fibronectin deposition. The frequencies of these features were evaluated and ...
Toledo M C - - 1995
A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect ...
Knox J - - 1995
In this paper I have explored the way in which regressive phantasies of fusion may be brought into being by the heavy consumption of alcohol and the cerebral changes which result, which impair the individual's capacity to digest new information and experience; change therefore has to be resisted and loss ...
Cook J D - - 1995
The effect of the phenolic compounds in wine was examined in this study by performing radioiron-absorption measurements from extrinsically labeled test meals in 33 human subjects. In four separate studies we observed that absorption was 2- to 3-fold higher from white wine containing a low concentration of polyphenols than from ...
Harper C - - 1995
In the Western world previous studies have shown that the majority of cases of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), which is caused by thiamine deficiency, occur in alcoholics. However, in France, a country with one of the highest per capita consumptions of alcohol, the prevalence of the WKS was found to ...
Ireland A J - - 1995
Loss of enamel due to dietary causes, either by acid erosion or the fermentation of dietary sugars, is well known. These processes will be affected by a number of factors, one of which is the ability of the food to adhere to the enamel. The aim of this study was ...
Ciccocioppo R - - 1995
The present study evaluated the effect of SC injections of the selective NK3 tachykinin agonist, Suc-[Asp6,MePhe8]substance P(6-11), also referred to as senktide (SENK), on 8% alcohol intake in genetically selected alcohol-preferring rats. Animals were offered access to 8% ethanol for 2 h/day (between 1800 and 2000 h) and to tap ...
Koutsoukos G B - - 1995
Weight reduction and food restriction increase the self-administration of alcohol and other drugs of abuse, but the underlying physiological mechanisms have not been identified. Because weight reduction alters angiotensin (ANG) II activity, and ANG II is known to modulate alcohol intake, ANG II may play a role in the enhanced ...
Mattes R D - - 1994
Bitterness is generally viewed as an undesirable attribute of foods and beverages, yet segments of the population regularly ingest items with a prominent bitter taste. The influence of taste sensitivity, exposure, selected personality traits (i.e., neophobia, variety seeking, sensation seeking) and pharmacological reactivity on alcohol and caffeine consumption, two widely ...
Sereme A - - 1994
The study of thirty sorghum varieties used for food in Burkina Faso showed a relationship between tannin level and utilization of sorghum grain. High tannin level varieties (more than 0.2%) are generally used for local alcoholic drink, instead low tannin level varieties (under 0.2%) are used for cooking and for ...
Hahn R G - - 1994
We studied the effect of eating a meal on the rate of ethanol elimination (clearance) from the blood after giving 0.4 g/kg by intravenous infusion to six female and six male volunteers. Half of the subjects had eaten breakfast whereas the other half had fasted overnight. After the first infusion ...
Forsander O A - - 1994
In addition to being a pharmacological agent, alcohol (ethanol) can also be considered a food; the body can utilize effectively its calorific contribution. The consumption of alcohol has in many respects the same characteristics as the intake of food. In animal experiments, food intake decreases in relation to the calorific ...
Mugula J K - - 1994
Powder for instant non-alcoholic pawpaw beverage formulation was manufactured by traditional sundrying and controlled ovendrying. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of sundrying on mats and ovendrying on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted into losses of vitamins A and C, and total sugar by 97, 98 and ...
Huang Y - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Five subjects participated in a study of optimal conditions for removing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from contaminated fingertips. METHODS: Fingertips were contaminated experimentally and cleaned by various methods. Bacterial removal was measured as percentage and is given as mean +/- standard error of the mean. RESULTS: Rinsing the fingertips with ...
Jones A W - - 1994
In a two-part crossover study, ten healthy men drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.80 g/kg) in the morning after an overnight fast or immediately after breakfast. The breakfast consisted of orange juice (150 mL), fruit yogurt (250 mL), two cheese sandwiches, one boiled egg, and one cup of coffee ...
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