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Results 251 - 300 of 510
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Gruenewald P J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether the association of beer drinking with drinking and driving is due to cultural norms or is an artifact arising from the demographic profile of beer drinkers (young and male), the drinking patterns of this subpopulation (frequent and heavy), and the venues in which they prefer ...
McCracken M - - 2000
The causes of tooth erosion are varied, but all are associated with a chemical attack on the teeth and resulting loss of tooth structure. Etiologic factors related to erosion cited in the literature include bulimia, eating acidic foods, soft drink consumption, acid reflux, and swimming, among others. This clinical report ...
Junghanns K - - 2000
In order to investigate changes in the consumption of substances that stimulate the reward system, 222 recently detoxified alcoholics were asked about their consumptional habits before as compared to after detoxification (mixed prospective and retrospective design). Seventy-eight point two percent reported an increase in consumption of coffee, cigarettes, chocolate and ...
Kim Y K - - 2000
Ethyl carbamate has been associated with cancer for several decades. It is mainly found in fermented foods and beverages. In view of the importance of fermented foods in the Korean diet and the significant level of ethyl carbamate expected, we determined ethyl carbamate concentrations in some of the staple food ...
Hobson R S - - 2000
The effect of food simulants upon the enamel-composite bond strength of two orthodontic adhesive composites was studied. Thirty extracted premolars were used in each experimental group. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with either Transbond (3M Unitek) or Right-On (TP orthodontics) and were then exposed to either distilled water (control), 8 per ...
Vally H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although anecdotally alcoholic drinks seem to be common triggers for asthma, little is known of the prevalence, the characteristics, or the mechanisms underlying these reactions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of asthmatic reactions triggered by alcoholic drinks in a community-based ...
Guadagnino E - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to estimate the lead intake from crystalware resulting from short-term contacts with beverages, under conditions that are likely to occur to a consumer. The extraction ability of different kinds of beverages was estimated by comparison with 4% acetic acid under conditions of continuous contact ...
Chatenoud L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between wine drinking and intake of selected indicator foods, which may vary in various populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the comparison group of a case- control study. SETTING: A network of teaching and general hospitals from six Italian areas. SUBJECTS: 5642 control subjects (3261 females ...
Vaessen H A - - 2000
In an overall evaluation of the situation published by IARC in 1993, beryllium and beryllium compounds are identified as carcinogens to humans. This prompted the initiation of this study on beryllium which reviews the situation up to 1998 on the aspects: properties and applications, toxicity, analytical procedures for food and ...
Farren C K - - 2000
Combination pharmacotherapy has proven effective in a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. However, compared with other affective disorders, few studies have explored the use of combination therapy in alcoholism, and the majority have been limited to animal models. There is evidence to support a role for combination ...
Gray D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify any regional variation in per capita consumption of alcohol and the types of beverages consumed in the NT; and to estimate the relative contributions to consumption by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. METHOD: Per capita consumption estimates were based on wholesale purchases of alcohol by license and Census ...
Heyman G M - - 2000
Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically ...
Franklin S D - - 2000
Wine-tasting has been used as a defence in the UK to charges of driving with excess alcohol on the breath. There is little scientific data to support this explanation. The authors carried out an experimental wine-tasting using twelve volunteer subjects. Breath alcohol samples were taken at the start of the ...
Vally H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Asthmatic reactions to foods and drinks are a significant health problem in the community, however, the true extent of this problem is unclear. In this study, a new food allergy questionnaire (FAQ) was designed to specifically investigate the prevalence and characteristics of asthmatic reactions triggered by alcoholic drinks, as ...
Rogers J D - - 1999
Patterns and correlates of hazardous drinking, defined as occasions in which five or more drinks were consumed in a day, were compared for wine, beer and distilled spirits. From a probability sample of the U.S. adult household population, 2,817 respondents who had consumed at least one drink in the previous ...
Jula A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of the days of the week on calculated food and nutrient intake. STUDY DESIGN: Daily variation in food and nutrient intake was studied by using 4-, 5- and 7-d estimated food records, all including Friday, Saturday and Sunday. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Two groups of untreated ...
Söderpalm A H AH Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, - - 1999
The present article analyzed the dramatic increase in alcohol ingestion that is known to occur in laboratory rats subjected to food restriction. In the first experiment, we wished to know when during the day food restricted animals consume the "extra" alcohol ration. Determinations of ethanol drinking at 3-h intervals throughout ...
McCann S E - - 1999
Epidemiologic studies often rely on food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) to collect information on alcoholic beverage intake. However, estimation of alcohol intake using FFQs may be of some concern because of limited questions concerning alcohol intake. The authors compared estimates of alcohol intake during the 12-24 months prior to interview obtained ...
West N X - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: A previous study demonstrated that an experimental low pH blackcurrant juice drink with calcium was markedly less erosive to enamel both in situ and in vitro than orange juice. Further development of the experimental blackcurrant juice drink formula has occurred and the aims of the present studies were two ...
Toumba K J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acidogenic response in dental plaque after challenge with four fruit drinks, including two blackcurrant drinks newly formulated, with low levels of carbohydrate. METHODS: 24 adult volunteers rinsed, in randomised order, with each of two new formulations of a blackcurrant drink (7% juice with 0.49% and 10% ...
Cantin I - - 1999
This paper focuses on the degree of correlation between food liking and consumption and proposes the degree of correspondence between affective and cognitive aspects of liking and consumption as moderators of this correlation. In a close-response questionnaire, 103 young females (average age of 20) indicated their liking for and consumption ...
Heyman G M GM Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. - - 1999
For the purpose of investigating the determinants of preference for alcohol, it would be advantageous to use a procedure in which the subjects had concurrent access to alcohol and an isocaloric food. However, in widely used animal models, the introduction of a weak sucrose solution markedly reduced alcohol consumption. In ...
Maurel S - - 1999
Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may decrease alcohol intake and craving in particular subgroups of alcoholics. The aim of the present study was to compare the behavioral profile of various SSRIs in alcohol-preferring cAA rats, a genetic model of alcoholism. The effects of acute IP administration of ...
Kleiner S M - - 1999
Water is an essential nutrient required for life. To be well hydrated, the average sedentary adult man must consume at least 2,900 mL (12 c) fluid per day, and the average sedentary adult woman at least 2,200 mL (9 c) fluid per day, in the form of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, ...
Bartlett D W - - 1999
Dental pain is extremely common in the UK and can severely reduce the quality of life when it is associated with eating, drinking or speech. Patients often present complaining of a short, sharp, stabbing pain from hot or cold air, foods or drinks: while this may be caused by tooth ...
Gao P - - 1998
Food-deprived rats were given intermittent access or, in a replication, continuous access to a 20% sucrose solution. Both drinking and nondrinking behaviors were recorded. During the ensuing drinking bout, latency of lapping after snout apposition, and duration of lapping bouts, did not change. Approaches to the sipper tube usually eventuated ...
Hazelett S E - - 1998
The present study examined whether measurement of hemoglobin-acetaldehyde (HbA1-AcH) using an improved methodology may be useful as a biological marker of alcohol abuse. Red blood cell hemolysates of 182 patients consecutively admitted to the drug and alcohol treatment unit of our institution were analyzed for HbA1-AcH concentration using cation exchange ...
Bell S M - - 1998
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide secreted by hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic neurons, is thought to mediate stress-related behaviors. The tension reduction hypothesis suggests that ethanol drinking reduces stress; that drinking is reinforced by this reduced stress; and that the probability of drinking therefore subsequently increases. CRF also decrease food intake, ...
Chatenoud L - - 1998
The relationship between frequency of consumption of whole grain food and risk of selected neoplasms has been analysed using data from an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in northern Italy between 1983 and 1996. The overall dataset included the following incident, histologically confirmed neoplasms: oral cavity and pharynx 181, ...
Bendtsen P - - 1998
Twenty healthy social drinkers (9 women and 11 men) drank either 50 g of ethanol (mean intake 0.75 g/kg) or 80 g (mean 1.07 g/kg) according to choice as white wine or export beer in the evening over 2 h with a meal. After the end of drinking, at bedtime, ...
Sood D - - 1998
Precautions to prevent spread of infection through tonometers and gonioscopes are described in this article. Tonometers and gonioscopes should not be used in the presence of clinically manifest conjunctivitis and keratitis. The Schiotz tonometer should be dipped in a 1:1000 merthiolate solution, and rinsed in saline/distilled water prior to use. ...
Logan B K - - 1998
A variety of breads and soft drinks were tested and found to contain low concentrations of alcohol. The potential for these products to generate false readings on an evidential breath-alcohol instrument was evaluated. Alcohol-free subjects ingested these products and then provided breath samples into a DataMaster. It was found that ...
Blau J N - - 1998
Epidemiological surveys show that migraine is global, although not so far reported in Eskimos. Where studied, countries show the usual age variations, but adult national prevalence figures range between 2 and 35%, indicating that data-gathering methods need scrutiny. National and religious lifestyles affect eating at different times, in varying quantities ...
Maupomé G - - 1998
Studies assessing the erosive potential of soft drinks have employed long time intervals of immersion that may not accurately depict the impact of frequent soft drink consumption on enamel. This in vitro study assessed the effect of a cola drink on enamel, replicating an actual drinking pattern. Six groups of ...
Forsander O A - - 1998
Alcohol intake is affected by both environmental and inherited biological mechanisms. In the early history of alcohol research, caloric interactions were among the most intensely studied of the environmental factors, and a large body of evidence was obtained that indicated that nutrition can affect alcohol drinking. Much of this evidence ...
Breen M H - - 1998
Thirteen healthy subjects (seven men and six women) participated in three drinking studies to examine the maximum increase of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the time taken to reach the maximum BrAC (peak) after a subject finished a 'one for the road' drink in a social environment with food consumption. ...
Rezvani A H - - 1997
We previously reported that single administration of ibogaine, an indol alkaloid with antiaddictive properties, dose dependently reduced alcohol intake in three strains of alcohol-preferring rats. The present study examined the effect of different doses of a newly developed nontoxic ibogaine analogue, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), on alcohol intake. Selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats ...
Macieira M S - - 1997
The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH) dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11), 5% ETOH (N = ...
Abercrombie D E - - 1997
Preliminary analyses by a commercial laboratory demonstrated varying amounts of aluminium in a small sampling of canned drinks, which had been stored at 15-20 degrees C., ranging from < 0.1 to 74 ppm depending on the product and storage time. Aluminum foil wrap immersed in several drinks demonstrated varying raters ...
Boyle A E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The present experiment examined the microstructure and temporal pattern of consummatory behavior to provide insight into the behavioral processes that regulate the acquisition of voluntary oral ethanol intake. METHOD: A microcomputer-controlled data acquisition system was used to dynamically monitor food, water and ethanol intake in Long Evans rats across ...
Files F J - - 1997
Initiation of alcohol drinking using the sucrose-substitution procedure was studied in inbred Lewis rats. One group of animals was initiated to self-administer alcohol prior to being placed in the continuous-access condition, whereas the second group of animals did not undergo initiation. During the continuous-access period, the animals were housed in ...
Hocking P M - - 1997
1. The food intake, rate of food consumption (g/min) and behavioural time budgets of individually caged broiler and layer (white egg) males were compared in the early morning (1.5 to 3.5 h after onset of photoperiod) and afternoon (5.5 to 7.5 h after photostimulation) on 4 different days at 11 ...
Montain S J - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Physical performance of military tasks can deteriorate during field training. HYPOTHESIS: Drinking a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) beverage during military relevant training would improve fluid and caloric intake, and better sustain physical performance. METHODS: Some 27 volunteers restricted to approximately 2600 kcal.d-1 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CHO-E, ...
Milosevic A - - 1997
AIM: To assess dental status and sports supplement uptake in swimmers and cyclists. To determine chemico-physical properties of the most popular sports drinks. DESIGN: Descriptive, prevalence study of tooth wear and caries experience. Questionnaire analysis of sports drinks usage. SETTING: Two public swimming pools in Liverpool and three cycle clubs ...
Johnson R F - - 1997
One of the primary goals of the study of thirst is to understand why drinking occurs under ad libitum or natural conditions. An appreciation of the experimental strategies applied by physiologists studying thirst from different perspectives can facilitate progress toward understanding the natural history of drinking behavior. Drinking research carried ...
Burke L M - - 1997
Recovery after exercise poses an important challenge to the modern athlete. Important issues include restoration of liver and muscle glycogen stores, and the replacement of fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat. Rapid resynthesis of muscle glycogen stores is aided by the immediate intake of carbohydrate (I g.kg-1 BM each 2 ...
Tavani A - - 1997
The relationship between frequency of intake of selected indicator foods, lymphoid neoplasms, and soft tissue sarcomas was investigated in an updated case-control study conducted in Northern Italy between 1983 and 1992 on 158 incident, histologically confirmed cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD), 429 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 141 cases of ...
Haveman-Nies A - - 1997
Dehydration is a common fluid disorder which occurs in residents, hospitalised and community-dwelling elderly people. In this study the intake of water and fluids of community-dwelling elderly Europeans is presented in relation to risk factors of dehydration: mental state, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), medicine use and ...
Hardalo C - - 1997
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous environmental bacterium. It can be recovered, often in high numbers, in common food, especially vegetables. Moreover, it can be recovered in low numbers in drinking water. A small percentage of clones of P. aeruginosa possesses the required number of virulence factors to cause infection. However, ...
Gill K - - 1996
The present study examined the maintenance of voluntary alcohol intake in male Long-Evans rats. A microstructural analysis of consummatory behaviors (food, alcohol, water) was carried out using a computerized drinkometer system. In this sample of animals, there was no association (r = 0.07) between total food intake and total alcohol ...
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