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Results 201 - 250 of 490
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Tfouni S A V - - 2002
The daily intakes of benzoates and sorbates from selected food categories were estimated in Brazil in 1999. The Budget method was used as a first screening procedure for the estimation of the safety aspects of the maximum permitted levels of benzoates and sorbates established by the Brazilian food legislation. This ...
Kokavec A - - 2002
The consumption of alcohol prior to food intake results in alcohol metabolism occurring in the liver, and the liver is often damaged in chronic alcoholics. This paper highlights the possibility that alcohol consumption in the absence of adequate nutrition after an extended period of time may lead to activation of ...
Kourkoutas Y - - 2002
Delignified cellulosic-supported biocatalyst, prepared by immobilization of kefir yeast on delignified cellulosic material (DCM), was found to be suitable for continuous, modified whey fermentation. The modified whey contained 1% raisin extract and molasses. Ethanol productivities ranged from 3.6 to 8.3 g L(-1)day(-1), whereas parameters such as ethanol concentration, residual sugars, ...
Pemberton P L - - 2002
A patient's observation led us to investigate whether drinking from a champagne flute required more cranio-cervical extension than drinking from other types of wine glasses. We measured the cranio-cervical extension required by normal volunteers to drink from four different types of glass. The mean [95% confidence intervals] extension from the ...
Raudenbush Bryan - - 2002
Pleasantness and intensity ratings of beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy were assessed. Past research has shown that the violation of food expectancies, e.g., color, taste, temperature, leads to more negative evaluations of food. Thus, it was hypothesized that beverages sampled from a container incongruent with expectancy, ...
Yeomans M R - - 2002
Previously, it has been reported that energy consumed as alcohol prior to lunch does not result in subsequent reductions in voluntary food intake, and in some situations alcohol can increase subsequent appetite. The present study extends these findings by examining the effects of beliefs about alcohol content. Eighteen unrestrained men ...
Birkenhauer J M - - 2002
Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are widely distributed throughout the environment and are readily cultured from a variety of foods. One member of this genus, Aeromonas hydrophila, has been reputed to be a significant cause of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we examined the effects of refrigeration and alcohol ...
Horner Neilann K - - 2002
Enterolactone is a lignan produced by fermentation of dietary precursors in the human gut. Because lignan precursors are uniquely found in plant foods, plasma enterolactone concentration may serve as a biological marker of plant food consumption. This cross-sectional study examined associations of dietary intake with plasma enterolactone concentration. Weight-stable, 20-40-year-old ...
Wadhwa Sanjivini G - - 2002
Humans ingest large numbers of microbes daily. Food provides distinctly different physical and physiological conditions from drinking water. With high concentrations of carbohydrate, protein, and ionic strength, food is much closer to the human physiological state than drinking water, which is essentially devoid of nutrients and ionic strength. Accordingly, microbes ...
Anderson W G - - 2001
This study investigated the control of drinking in elasmobranch fish through manipulation of the homologous renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The smooth muscle relaxant papaverine was found to increase basal drinking levels in the European lesser-spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, almost 20-fold. However, this response was significantly reduced with the coadministration of the ...
Ramchandani V A - - 2001
Several studies have evaluated the effect of food on alcohol pharmacokinetics; however, most studies have used oral alcohol administration, which cannot separate the influence of food on absorption from its influence on alcohol elimination. Alcohol clamping uses intravenous alcohol and provides a direct measure of the alcohol elimination rate (AER). ...
Kokavec A - - 2001
Alcohol can have an effect on almost every cell in the human body and it is becoming increasingly clear that when alcohol is consumed the prior nutritional status of the individual may be an important factor for long-term health. The salt and water hypothesis integrates the biochemical findings from the ...
Levine R S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To compare the bedtime consumption of sugar-sweetened food and drinks by children with their caries experience. The subjects were 600 children aged 2 to 16 years from two communities in northern England with high overall caries levels, who attended two general dental practices as new patients. The ...
Connors G J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The present study used data gathered in Project MATCH to longitudinally assess intake symptomatology, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation, and outcome. Three primary constructs were considered: intake symptomatology, engagement in prescribed AA-related activities and functioning after engagement in AA-related behaviors. METHOD: The participants were 480 outpatient and 434 aftercare clients ...
Zhang J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol drinkers are generally considered to underreport their alcohol intake, but little is known about whether they correctly report their energy intake (EI). We assessed the validity of the reported energy intake of alcohol drinkers using the 24-hour urinary (U) excretion of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) as biomarkers. ...
Hetherington M M - - 2001
To investigate the effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 26 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger, desire to eat and fullness (appetite ratings) were recorded from before breakfast until their return to ...
Suter P M - - 2001
Moderate amounts of alcohol may have cardioprotective effects. Several studies reported a higher protection by the consumption of wine. The favorable effects of wine have been attributed to different polyphenolic compounds, among others. However, these biochemical compounds are also found in other beverages. In view of the present evidence, there ...
Smith S D - - 2001
Coffee was the most frequently analysed commodity in the Lancet's Analytical Sanitary Commission's reports on adulteration published between 1851 and 1854. Techniques of sample collection and microscopical investigation developed to analyse coffee were applied to other foods and drinks by Arthur Hill Hassall, and his findings were instrumental in establishing ...
Hunt P S - - 2001
Although there are a variety of animal models used in alcoholism research, there has been very little experimental investigation into possible environmental/experiential factors leading to an initial bout of alcohol ingestion. Adolescent alcohol abuse is a major problem in today's society and research is beginning to focus on the predisposing ...
Boakes R A - - 2001
The standard activity-based anorexia procedure provides rats with access to a running wheel while restricting their access to dry food. This can produce reduced food intake and progressive weight loss. Using this procedure, in the present study (Experiment 1) the authors found changes in drinking patterns both in the period ...
Nagaoka H - - 2001
It was found that ovalbumin stereoselectively oxidized one of the enantiomers of p-substituted racemic alcohols, thereby providing optically active alcohols with high optical purities. It was found out that, when used appropriately in combination with immobilized pea protein, immobilized ovalbumin made it possible to resolve and synthesize racemic 1-(2-naphthyl)ethanol, 1-phenylethanol, ...
Majewski R F - - 2001
It can be summarized that adolescents have unique needs and concerns in regards to dental care. Among these concerns is the adolescent diet, which often contains high amounts of high-carbohydrate snack foods. Popular among these foods are carbonated beverages, usually containing significant amounts of sugar and caffeine. Sugar is a ...
Li T K - - 2001
This manuscript represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 RSA Meeting in Denver, Colorado. The organizer/chair was Ting-Kai Li. The presentations were: (1) Introduction to the Symposium, by Ting-Kai Li; (2) ALDH2 polymorphism and alcohol metabolism, by Shih-Jiun Yin; (3) ALDH2 promoter polymorphism and alcohol metabolism, by David ...
Burns D T - - 2000
Chemistry has been used for the detection of adulteration since the earliest times of recorded history going back at least 3 1/2 millennia. Since the invention of printing the subject is easier to follow. Aspects of law and its application via chemistry in regard to precious metals, food, drink and ...
Ma J - - 2000
PURPOSE: To examine relationships between cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and dietary intake. DESIGN: Respondents to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, a nationwide probability sample conducted from January 1994 through January 1997 (n = 23,602; response rate = 80%), were selected. Adults ages 19 ...
Welch J L - - 2000
The purpose of this pilot study was to describe how often hemodialysis (HD) patients used particular self-care strategies to reduce fluid intake or relieve thirst, how effective each strategy was perceived to be, and whether they planned to use that strategy in the future. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. ...
Griffiths R R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Concern has been expressed about the nutrition and health impact of high rates of soft drink consumption. Caffeine is an added ingredient in approximately 70% of soft drinks consumed in the United States. The soft drink manufacturers' justification to regulatory agencies and the public for adding caffeine to soft ...
Marchal R - - 2000
We describe here techniques to detect and quantify lysozyme in Pinot noir and Chardonnay Champagne wines. Using a dot-blot technique, lysozyme antibodies were able to recognize their antigens even when the concentration of lysozyme in wine was 75 mg/L. SDS-PAGE was the second technique used. After Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) ...
Levi F - - 2000
The influence of food groups on oesophageal cancer risk was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1999 in the Swiss Canton of Vaud on 101 incident, histologically confirmed cases (92 squamous cell, 9 adenocarcinomas) and 327 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Multivariate ...
Christiani D C - - 2000
To investigate the types and quantities of beverages that increase urinary hippuric acid (HA) excretion, the authors recruited 137 healthy medical students and divided them into quintiles according to consumption of benzoic acid (BA) in beverages. Using chromatography, urinary HA before and 1.5 hours and 3 hours after consumption of ...
Gruenewald P J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether the association of beer drinking with drinking and driving is due to cultural norms or is an artifact arising from the demographic profile of beer drinkers (young and male), the drinking patterns of this subpopulation (frequent and heavy), and the venues in which they prefer ...
McCracken M - - 2000
The causes of tooth erosion are varied, but all are associated with a chemical attack on the teeth and resulting loss of tooth structure. Etiologic factors related to erosion cited in the literature include bulimia, eating acidic foods, soft drink consumption, acid reflux, and swimming, among others. This clinical report ...
Junghanns K - - 2000
In order to investigate changes in the consumption of substances that stimulate the reward system, 222 recently detoxified alcoholics were asked about their consumptional habits before as compared to after detoxification (mixed prospective and retrospective design). Seventy-eight point two percent reported an increase in consumption of coffee, cigarettes, chocolate and ...
Kim Y K - - 2000
Ethyl carbamate has been associated with cancer for several decades. It is mainly found in fermented foods and beverages. In view of the importance of fermented foods in the Korean diet and the significant level of ethyl carbamate expected, we determined ethyl carbamate concentrations in some of the staple food ...
Hobson R S - - 2000
The effect of food simulants upon the enamel-composite bond strength of two orthodontic adhesive composites was studied. Thirty extracted premolars were used in each experimental group. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with either Transbond (3M Unitek) or Right-On (TP orthodontics) and were then exposed to either distilled water (control), 8 per ...
Vally H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although anecdotally alcoholic drinks seem to be common triggers for asthma, little is known of the prevalence, the characteristics, or the mechanisms underlying these reactions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of asthmatic reactions triggered by alcoholic drinks in a community-based ...
Guadagnino E - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to estimate the lead intake from crystalware resulting from short-term contacts with beverages, under conditions that are likely to occur to a consumer. The extraction ability of different kinds of beverages was estimated by comparison with 4% acetic acid under conditions of continuous contact ...
Chatenoud L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between wine drinking and intake of selected indicator foods, which may vary in various populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the comparison group of a case- control study. SETTING: A network of teaching and general hospitals from six Italian areas. SUBJECTS: 5642 control subjects (3261 females ...
Vaessen H A - - 2000
In an overall evaluation of the situation published by IARC in 1993, beryllium and beryllium compounds are identified as carcinogens to humans. This prompted the initiation of this study on beryllium which reviews the situation up to 1998 on the aspects: properties and applications, toxicity, analytical procedures for food and ...
Farren C K - - 2000
Combination pharmacotherapy has proven effective in a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. However, compared with other affective disorders, few studies have explored the use of combination therapy in alcoholism, and the majority have been limited to animal models. There is evidence to support a role for combination ...
Gray D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify any regional variation in per capita consumption of alcohol and the types of beverages consumed in the NT; and to estimate the relative contributions to consumption by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. METHOD: Per capita consumption estimates were based on wholesale purchases of alcohol by license and Census ...
Heyman G M - - 2000
Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically ...
Franklin S D - - 2000
Wine-tasting has been used as a defence in the UK to charges of driving with excess alcohol on the breath. There is little scientific data to support this explanation. The authors carried out an experimental wine-tasting using twelve volunteer subjects. Breath alcohol samples were taken at the start of the ...
Vally H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Asthmatic reactions to foods and drinks are a significant health problem in the community, however, the true extent of this problem is unclear. In this study, a new food allergy questionnaire (FAQ) was designed to specifically investigate the prevalence and characteristics of asthmatic reactions triggered by alcoholic drinks, as ...
Rogers J D - - 1999
Patterns and correlates of hazardous drinking, defined as occasions in which five or more drinks were consumed in a day, were compared for wine, beer and distilled spirits. From a probability sample of the U.S. adult household population, 2,817 respondents who had consumed at least one drink in the previous ...
Jula A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of the days of the week on calculated food and nutrient intake. STUDY DESIGN: Daily variation in food and nutrient intake was studied by using 4-, 5- and 7-d estimated food records, all including Friday, Saturday and Sunday. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Two groups of untreated ...
Söderpalm A H AH Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, - - 1999
The present article analyzed the dramatic increase in alcohol ingestion that is known to occur in laboratory rats subjected to food restriction. In the first experiment, we wished to know when during the day food restricted animals consume the "extra" alcohol ration. Determinations of ethanol drinking at 3-h intervals throughout ...
McCann S E - - 1999
Epidemiologic studies often rely on food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) to collect information on alcoholic beverage intake. However, estimation of alcohol intake using FFQs may be of some concern because of limited questions concerning alcohol intake. The authors compared estimates of alcohol intake during the 12-24 months prior to interview obtained ...
West N X - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: A previous study demonstrated that an experimental low pH blackcurrant juice drink with calcium was markedly less erosive to enamel both in situ and in vitro than orange juice. Further development of the experimental blackcurrant juice drink formula has occurred and the aims of the present studies were two ...
Toumba K J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acidogenic response in dental plaque after challenge with four fruit drinks, including two blackcurrant drinks newly formulated, with low levels of carbohydrate. METHODS: 24 adult volunteers rinsed, in randomised order, with each of two new formulations of a blackcurrant drink (7% juice with 0.49% and 10% ...
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