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Schooling C Mary - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Food and drink are not consumed in isolation and can have complimentary effects enhancing or blocking the overall uptake of nutrients. We investigated how combinations of foods, drinks, and smoking affected mortality. Method Adjusted logistic regression was used to assess the joint effect of healthy foods, less healthy foods, ...
Smit Hendrik J - - 2006
Familiarity, through conditioned responses and expectations, may play a significant role in the expression of liking for, and mood and performance effects of, food and drink constituents. The role of familiarity and the effects of caffeine and glucose in Lucozade Energy were investigated by testing this familiar soft drink, and ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2006
The alcoholic beverage absinthe is recently experiencing a revival after a yearlong prohibition. This review article provides information on all aspects of this bitter spirit and its major components, especially wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), which contains the toxic monoterpene thujone. Over 100 references on historic and current literature are provided. ...
Ramchandani Vijay A - - 2006
Researchers studying alcohol absorption and metabolism in humans have been aided by the alcohol clamp method, in which alcohol is administered intravenously, allowing study participants to achieve and maintain a target breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) for an extended period of time. This tool minimizes the variability in BrACs that occurs ...
Griffith Christopher M - - 2006
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) evolves through various stages, and malnutrition correlates with the severity of ALD. Poor nutrition is caused both by the substitution of calories from alcohol for calories from food and by the malabsorption and maldigestion of various nutrients attributed to ALD. The only established therapy for ALD ...
Gruenewald Paul J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although the published literature on alcohol beverage taxes, prices, sales, and related problems treats alcoholic beverages as a simple good, alcohol is a complex good composed of different beverage types (i.e., beer, wine, and spirits) and quality brands (e.g., high-, medium-, and low-quality beers). As a complex good, consumers ...
Satel Sally - - 2006
The common-sense use of the term addiction is that regular consumption is irresistible and that it creates problems. Caffeine use does not fit this profile. Its intake does no harm to the individual or to society and its users are not compelled to consume it. Though cessation of regular use ...
Maher Anthony - - 2006
Sports sponsorship is a significant marketing tool. As such, it can promote products that pose risks to health (eg, high fat and high sugar foods) or it can promote health-supporting products (eg, sporting equipment and services). However, there is a lack of data on the proportion of sponsorship associated with ...
Rodd H D - - 2005
This paper provides some disturbing facts and figures about the amount of television being watched by children. In addition, it reports on the volume and type of television advertising aimed at young people, both in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. In view of recent public and professional concern ...
Barbour Michele E - - 2005
Dental erosion involves dissolution of the hydroxyapatite fraction of enamel and dentine, so agents that reduce the dissolution rate of hydroxyapatite could find application in food products aimed at reducing erosion. This study was performed to test some common food ingredients and additives for their effect on the dissolution rate ...
Agnew Dalen W - - 2005
A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also ...
Xu Y - - 2006
The effect of pure and mixed fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora valbyensis on the formation of major volatile components in cider was investigated. When the interaction between yeast strains of S. cerevisiae and H. valbyensis was studied, it was found that the two strains each affected the cell growth ...
Ferreira Aldo Pacheco - - 2005
This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence as compared to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological and physico-chemical) in order to characterize it as an efficient indicator of anthropic pollution of urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is an ingredient in a variety of ...
Shin J-H - - 2005
Volatile N-nitrosamine (VNA) levels in South Korean and imported alcoholic beverages were determined between 1995 and 2002. A total of 147 alcoholic beverages, including lager beer, whiskey, liqueurs and traditional Korean alcoholic beverages (Chungju, Takju and Soju), were analysed for their VNA content by GC-TEA. Of eight VNAs (N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), ...
Cramer Anne-Chrystelle J - - 2005
We identified volatile compounds of barley flour and determined the variation in volatile compound profiles among different types and varieties of barley. Volatile compounds of 12 barley and two wheat cultivars were analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. Twenty-six volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and a furan ...
Chung Min K - - 2005
Soft drink manufacturing has become one of the largest food industries in Korea, now competing in a 2.5-billion dollar market, with more than 20,000 people employed. Deliveries of a broad line of soft drink products involve the use of a hand truck and, in many cases, a backpack mode of ...
Knight Adina Kay - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with tacrolimus may be complicated by ingestion-related flushing caused by consuming small amounts of alcohol, a reaction that can be mistaken for food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of a drug interaction with alcohol that can mimic food allergy. METHODS: We describe 3 patients who used topical ...
Wongkhantee S - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acidic food and drinks (Cola soft drink, drinking yogurt, orange juice, sports drink, Tom-yum soup) on surface hardness of various substrates (enamel, dentine, universal composite, microfilled composite, conventional glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified resin composite). METHODS: Specimens ...
Dotson Cedrick D - - 2005
Using a lickometer, we assessed the effect of drinking spout orifice size on the licking behavior of inbred mice [C57BL/6J, SWR/J, 129P3/J and DBA/2J]. Animals licked from drinking spout sipper tubes that had what were defined as either a large (2.7 mm) or a small (1.5 mm) orifice. Mice took ...
Shariatmadari F - - 2005
1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain ...
Ferreira Aldo Pacheco - - 2005
This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence front to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological indicator data) in way to characterize it as an efficient pollution indicator of anthropogenic origin in urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is a constituent of a variety of ...
Smit Hendrik J - - 2005
RATIONALE: Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired ...
Kliethermes Christopher L - - 2005
Although drug withdrawal may induce an anxiety-like state, decreased locomotion in tests of anxiety-like behavior is an almost universal finding in rodent studies of ethanol withdrawal. Decreased locomotion in many behavioral apparatus, either as a result of a withdrawal-induced lethargy, malaise, or reduced motivation to explore confounds interpreting the effects ...
Elliott Simon - - 2005
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are regularly implicated in instances of surreptitious drug administration, particularly in beverages (so-called "spiked drinks"). In order to assist in the interpretation of cases where analysis of the actual beverage is required, over 50 beverages purchased in the UK were analysed for ...
Widén H - - 2005
Mineral water and soft drinks with a perceptible off-odour were analysed to identify contaminants originating from previous misuse of the refillable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. Consumers detected the off-odour after opening the bottle and duly returned it with the remaining content to the producers. The contaminants in question had thus ...
Krahn Dean - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Linkages between alcohol dependence (AD) and abstinence and aspects of food ingestion and preference have been described in animals and humans, including (1) eating sweets decreases urges to drink alcohol; (2) preferences for highly sweet tastants is associated with alcohol dependence; and (3) food deprivation leads to increased alcohol ...
Lewis M J - - 2005
It is known that microinjection of galanin (GAL) intraventricularly or in specific hypothalamic sites increases food consumption and, conversely, the intake of food increases the expression of GAL in hypothalamic sites. Ethanol (EtOH) is a calorie-rich food as well as a drug of abuse. The research reviewed here shows that ...
Aleksandrov Yu I - - 2005
The interactions of the neuronal mechanisms of food-acquiring behavior and newly formed operant alcohol-acquiring behavior were studied by recording the activity of individual neurons in the anterolateral area of the motor cortex in chronically alcoholized rabbits. Adult animals learned food-acquiring behavior in a cage with two feeders and two pedals, ...
Cheung Rebecca J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although patients are instructed to abstain from food before having blood drawn for lipid analysis, many still drink coffee in the morning. It is unknown whether coffee consumed prior to drawing blood samples will impact fasting serum lipids. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single 6-oz cup of coffee with ...
Smith Anthony - - 2005
ISSUE ADDRESSED: To assess whether the strategies used to sell the 'ready-to-drink' (RTD) category of alcoholic beverages is contributing to alcohol-related harm among adolescents. METHODS: An initial investigation of bottleshops, which included an observational study designed to analyse methods employed by the liquor industry to market RTDs in bottleshops, on ...
Pena A - - 2005
The caffeine content of 85 retail beverage samples purchased from local supermarkets between 1995 and 2004 was determined. The potential intake of caffeine through the consumption of these beverages (but excluding coffee) was estimated for students of the University of Coimbra, Portugal. The caffeine content of the beverages ranged from ...
Lee Jason - - 2005
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether fizzy drinks alone are effective at resolving food bolus impaction. Altogether 46 papers were found using the reported search, of which six presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group ...
Caton S J - - 2005
To examine the effects of manipulating pleasantness on subsequent energy intake following a moderate dose of alcohol, 12 males attended the laboratory on four occasions. On each occasion participants consumed breakfast then 4 h later were offered lunch. Twenty minutes before lunch participants received an alcohol (24 g ethyl alcohol, ...
Bell Robert A - - 2005
To describe depictions of food, alcohol, and exercise and sport in popular films. Content analysis of the 10 top-grossing films each year from 1991 to 2000 (N = 100 films). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa. Research questions were addressed with basic descriptive statistics. Associations among variables were examined ...
Frary Carol D - - 2005
This study provides information on the caffeine intakes of a representative sample of the US population using the US Department of Agriculture 1994 to 1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The percentage of caffeine consumers of the total sample (N=18,081) and by age and sex groups ...
Rowland Neil E - - 2005
High elective intake of ethanol was achieved in rats by presenting ethanol in palatable vehicles. We simultaneously measured intake of food (chow) to assess the accuracy of caloric compensation for the energy in the alcoholic commodity. In the first study, we used beer; nonalcoholic beer was consumed in large amounts, ...
Savoca Margaret R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although relatively little is known about the responsible factors, there is an increased prevalence of essential hypertension in youth. Our previous research using casual blood pressure (BP) suggests a role for caffeine intake. The objective of this study was to assess the association between caffeine intake and ambulatory BP ...
Lanier Sarah A - - 2005
Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. ...
Ang Catharina Y W - - 2004
Several bioactive botanicals including St. John's wort (SJW; Hypericum perforatum L.) have been used to formulate functional foods and beverages. This study aimed to investigate the stability of SJW components in aqueous solutions and fruit-flavored drinks. Changes of active marker components (hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, and adhyperforin) as affected by pH ...
Engelhard Sonja - - 2004
On the basis of absorption measurements in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range, a new method for the quantification of the ethanol content of beer is presented. Instead of the multivariate calibration models most commonly employed in NIR spectroscopic works, we use interpretive difference spectroscopy: Two wavelengths are selected according to ...
Schroff Karl C - - 2004
Specific inbred mouse strains such as C57BL/6J and DBA/2J show differences in consumption of and reaction on drugs of abuse. For example, C57BL/6J mice voluntarily consume greater amounts of ethanol than DBA/2J mice. Recently, it could be shown that a short environmental experience--12 days of food shortage followed by a ...
Gonzalez-Quintela Arturo - - 2004
Alcoholic drinks are involved in a variety of hypersensitivity reactions. These include flushing syndrome, anaphylactoid reactions (urticaria/angioedema and even shock), as well as the triggering of asthma, food allergy or exercise-induced anaphylaxis in susceptible subjects. In addition, there is increasing evidence that alcohol intake may play a role as a ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2004
The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all ...
Jayeola, C. O.; Cocoa ...
The fresh nuts (seeds) of kola (Cola nitida) were used in the preparation of kola soft drink. Proximate analysis of the nut was carried out to determine its moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat and caffeine contents. The pH, total solids, specific gravity, caffeine and sensory attributes of the developed kola ...
Abel Ernest L - - 2004
Not all heavy drinkers become intoxicated. We sought to improve predictability of intoxication of heavy drinkers. Based on criteria for heavy drinking in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), we identified characteristics related to heavy drinking. We then created a dichotomous heavy drinker typology variable (yes/no) and determined ...
Stacey Phillip S - - 2004
Insufficient thiamine intake during heavy alcohol dependence has been well established as a precursor to alcohol-related brain damage, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This study compared the alcohol and thiamine intakes of 35 alcohol-dependent patients upon admission for detoxification with 49 healthy young undergraduates. Subjects were interviewed using a retrospective diary that ...
Khrimian Ashot - - 2004
We report two new syntheses of (2S,3R)-2-(2Z,5Z-octadienyl)-3-nonyloxirane, the main sex pheromone component of the pink moth, Lymantria mathura. The key step in the first route was the construction of (Z,Z)-1-bromo-1,4-heptadiene (6), which was coupled in the final step with 2-iodomethyl-3-nonyloxirane 4 via a Grignard reaction. The second approach employed alkylation ...
Maruyama Shigeo - - 2004
Recent advances in high-purity and high-yield catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) generation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from alcohol are comprehensively presented and discussed on the basis of results obtained from both experimental and numerical investigations. We have uniquely adopted alcohol as a carbon feedstock, and this has resulted in ...
Taylor Elizabeth S - - 2004
Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements may be influenced by a number of confounding factors. Reports have offered conflicting evidence as to whether caffeine consumption increases or decreases FENO. In this study we aimed to confirm whether caffeine ingestion affects FENO in patients with asthma. On two separate days, 20 patients ...
Caton S J - - 2004
To examine the potential dose-response effect of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 12 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast, then lunch 3 h later, and dinner, 4 h after that. Thirty minutes before lunch, Ss received 330 ml of ...
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