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Duncan Elizabeth A EA Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, USA. - - 2006
Given into the brain, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) increases alcohol consumption, but the mechanism and physiological relevance of this effect are unclear. We hypothesized that endogenous MCH will enhance alcohol drinking and that MCH increases alcohol's reinforcing properties. An MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonist, or saline was administered centrally alone, or ...
Chiu T W - - 2007
Gathering information on the thermal characteristics of the causative agent in scald injuries provides clues as to the likely depth of injury. We theorize that viscosity and thermal capacity may have important roles to play when we view scalds as contact burns due to a liquid. From a 4-year review ...
Addolorato Giovanni - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a peptide produced mainly by the gut and hypothalamus. Ghrelin is able to stimulate food-seeking behavior. Alcohol-craving and food-seeking behavior could share common neural circuits. Ghrelin is related to nutritional status, but few data are available in alcoholic patients on the relationship between ghrelin and nutritional disorders. ...
Zghoul Tarek - - 2007
RATIONALE: Alcohol consumption shows circadian rhythmicity, i.e., alcohol preference and intake change with circadian time. Circadian rhythmicity is controlled by a biological clock, which has been shown to govern behavioral, physiological, and hormonal processes in synchronization with internal as well as external cues. Molecular components of the clock include circadian ...
Hemingway C A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how enamel loss due to erosion, and due to cycling of erosion and abrasion, depends on compositional parameters of soft drinks, and particularly whether the thickness of the erosive softened layer is a function of drink composition. SETTING: University dental hospital research laboratory in the UK, 2004. ...
Doan Brandon K - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Interventions to maintain performance are necessary to meet demanding mission requirements during sustained and surge aviation operations. Tube foods are the only foods that can be consumed during a U-2 mission due to the confining and encapsulating nature of required support equipment. Caffeine is a safe and effective strategy ...
Koike Haruki - - 2006
The concept of alcoholic neuropathy has been obscured because of an often undetected or overestimated influence of thiamine deficiency. We describe clinicopathologic features of alcoholic neuropathy, taking the effect of thiamine status into consideration, and recent progress associated with the pathogenesis. Clinical features of alcoholic neuropathy without thiamine deficiency are ...
Babu V R Sarath - - 2007
We have utilized a microbe, which can degrade caffeine to develop an Amperometric biosensor for determination of caffeine in solutions. Whole cells of Pseudomonas alcaligenes MTCC 5264 having the capability to degrade caffeine were immobilized on a cellophane membrane with a molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 3000-6000 by covalent ...
Gupta C - - 2007
The antiseptic effectiveness and acceptability of a commercial alcohol-based waterless (ABWL) and an alcohol-based water-aided (ABWA) scrub solution were compared with a brush-based iodine solution (BBIS) under conditions encountered in community hospital operating rooms. This randomized partially blinded study was based on guidelines from the American Society for Testing and ...
Padang Cecilia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify associations and possible risk factors for gout that may contribute to chronic tophaceous gout in rural and urban districts of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. METHODS: A total of 190 patients with chronic gout and 190 age and sex matched controls were selected from 28 community health centers. Potential ...
Herrán Oscar F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative validity and reproducibility of two alcohol intake frequency questionnaires (AFQ-A; AFQ-B), designed to classify subjects according to their alcohol intake level, in Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHOD: One hundred and nine randomly selected subjects, aged between 20 and 60 years, completed three 30-day semi-quantitative alcohol intake records ...
Gaonkar T A - - 2006
Alcohol-based surgical hand disinfectants are widely available in healthcare settings. Some currently marketed alcohol-based products use active concentrations of antimicrobials to achieve the required efficacy, raising the risk for exposure to potentially irritating levels of antimicrobials. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of an alcohol-based surgical ...
Bello L L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To study the pattern of fluid consumption in a group of Saudi adolescent boys and girls aged 12-13 years. DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Three hundred forty-four boys and girls attending school in Riyadh recorded their fluid intake for three consecutive days, including one weekend day, in April and May ...
Tomie Arthur A Department of Psychology, 152 Freylinghuysen Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, USA. - - 2006
Intermittent presentations of the ethanol sipper have been reported to induce more ethanol drinking in rats than when the ethanol sipper was continuously available during the session. This intermittent sipper effect was observed in a social drinking situation, in which subjects experienced intermittent opportunities to interact briefly with a conspecific ...
De Bacquer Dirk - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism behind this cardioprotective role is not fully understood. In vitro and animal model studies suggest an anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory role. We aimed at investigating the association between tea drinking and indicators of low-grade inflammation ...
Johansen Ditte - - 2006
To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, ...
Freeman James - - 2006
Recent revisions of deterrence theory have highlighted the powerful effects of personal and vicarious punishment avoidance on criminal activity. The present paper reports on an application of Stafford and Warr's [Stafford, M.C., Warr, M., 1993. A reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 30 (2), 123-135] reconceptualisation ...
Schooling C Mary - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Food and drink are not consumed in isolation and can have complimentary effects enhancing or blocking the overall uptake of nutrients. We investigated how combinations of foods, drinks, and smoking affected mortality. Method Adjusted logistic regression was used to assess the joint effect of healthy foods, less healthy foods, ...
Smit Hendrik J - - 2006
Familiarity, through conditioned responses and expectations, may play a significant role in the expression of liking for, and mood and performance effects of, food and drink constituents. The role of familiarity and the effects of caffeine and glucose in Lucozade Energy were investigated by testing this familiar soft drink, and ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2006
The alcoholic beverage absinthe is recently experiencing a revival after a yearlong prohibition. This review article provides information on all aspects of this bitter spirit and its major components, especially wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), which contains the toxic monoterpene thujone. Over 100 references on historic and current literature are provided. ...
Ramchandani Vijay A - - 2006
Researchers studying alcohol absorption and metabolism in humans have been aided by the alcohol clamp method, in which alcohol is administered intravenously, allowing study participants to achieve and maintain a target breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) for an extended period of time. This tool minimizes the variability in BrACs that occurs ...
Griffith Christopher M - - 2006
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) evolves through various stages, and malnutrition correlates with the severity of ALD. Poor nutrition is caused both by the substitution of calories from alcohol for calories from food and by the malabsorption and maldigestion of various nutrients attributed to ALD. The only established therapy for ALD ...
Gruenewald Paul J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although the published literature on alcohol beverage taxes, prices, sales, and related problems treats alcoholic beverages as a simple good, alcohol is a complex good composed of different beverage types (i.e., beer, wine, and spirits) and quality brands (e.g., high-, medium-, and low-quality beers). As a complex good, consumers ...
Satel Sally - - 2006
The common-sense use of the term addiction is that regular consumption is irresistible and that it creates problems. Caffeine use does not fit this profile. Its intake does no harm to the individual or to society and its users are not compelled to consume it. Though cessation of regular use ...
Maher Anthony - - 2006
Sports sponsorship is a significant marketing tool. As such, it can promote products that pose risks to health (eg, high fat and high sugar foods) or it can promote health-supporting products (eg, sporting equipment and services). However, there is a lack of data on the proportion of sponsorship associated with ...
Rodd H D - - 2005
This paper provides some disturbing facts and figures about the amount of television being watched by children. In addition, it reports on the volume and type of television advertising aimed at young people, both in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. In view of recent public and professional concern ...
Barbour Michele E - - 2005
Dental erosion involves dissolution of the hydroxyapatite fraction of enamel and dentine, so agents that reduce the dissolution rate of hydroxyapatite could find application in food products aimed at reducing erosion. This study was performed to test some common food ingredients and additives for their effect on the dissolution rate ...
Agnew Dalen W - - 2005
A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also ...
Xu Y - - 2006
The effect of pure and mixed fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora valbyensis on the formation of major volatile components in cider was investigated. When the interaction between yeast strains of S. cerevisiae and H. valbyensis was studied, it was found that the two strains each affected the cell growth ...
Ferreira Aldo Pacheco - - 2005
This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence as compared to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological and physico-chemical) in order to characterize it as an efficient indicator of anthropic pollution of urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is an ingredient in a variety of ...
Shin J-H - - 2005
Volatile N-nitrosamine (VNA) levels in South Korean and imported alcoholic beverages were determined between 1995 and 2002. A total of 147 alcoholic beverages, including lager beer, whiskey, liqueurs and traditional Korean alcoholic beverages (Chungju, Takju and Soju), were analysed for their VNA content by GC-TEA. Of eight VNAs (N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), ...
Cramer Anne-Chrystelle J - - 2005
We identified volatile compounds of barley flour and determined the variation in volatile compound profiles among different types and varieties of barley. Volatile compounds of 12 barley and two wheat cultivars were analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. Twenty-six volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and a furan ...
Chung Min K - - 2005
Soft drink manufacturing has become one of the largest food industries in Korea, now competing in a 2.5-billion dollar market, with more than 20,000 people employed. Deliveries of a broad line of soft drink products involve the use of a hand truck and, in many cases, a backpack mode of ...
Knight Adina Kay - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with tacrolimus may be complicated by ingestion-related flushing caused by consuming small amounts of alcohol, a reaction that can be mistaken for food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of a drug interaction with alcohol that can mimic food allergy. METHODS: We describe 3 patients who used topical ...
Wongkhantee S - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acidic food and drinks (Cola soft drink, drinking yogurt, orange juice, sports drink, Tom-yum soup) on surface hardness of various substrates (enamel, dentine, universal composite, microfilled composite, conventional glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified resin composite). METHODS: Specimens ...
Dotson Cedrick D - - 2005
Using a lickometer, we assessed the effect of drinking spout orifice size on the licking behavior of inbred mice [C57BL/6J, SWR/J, 129P3/J and DBA/2J]. Animals licked from drinking spout sipper tubes that had what were defined as either a large (2.7 mm) or a small (1.5 mm) orifice. Mice took ...
Shariatmadari F - - 2005
1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain ...
Ferreira Aldo Pacheco - - 2005
This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence front to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological indicator data) in way to characterize it as an efficient pollution indicator of anthropogenic origin in urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is a constituent of a variety of ...
Smit Hendrik J - - 2005
RATIONALE: Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired ...
Kliethermes Christopher L - - 2005
Although drug withdrawal may induce an anxiety-like state, decreased locomotion in tests of anxiety-like behavior is an almost universal finding in rodent studies of ethanol withdrawal. Decreased locomotion in many behavioral apparatus, either as a result of a withdrawal-induced lethargy, malaise, or reduced motivation to explore confounds interpreting the effects ...
Elliott Simon - - 2005
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are regularly implicated in instances of surreptitious drug administration, particularly in beverages (so-called "spiked drinks"). In order to assist in the interpretation of cases where analysis of the actual beverage is required, over 50 beverages purchased in the UK were analysed for ...
Widén H - - 2005
Mineral water and soft drinks with a perceptible off-odour were analysed to identify contaminants originating from previous misuse of the refillable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. Consumers detected the off-odour after opening the bottle and duly returned it with the remaining content to the producers. The contaminants in question had thus ...
Krahn Dean - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Linkages between alcohol dependence (AD) and abstinence and aspects of food ingestion and preference have been described in animals and humans, including (1) eating sweets decreases urges to drink alcohol; (2) preferences for highly sweet tastants is associated with alcohol dependence; and (3) food deprivation leads to increased alcohol ...
Lewis M J - - 2005
It is known that microinjection of galanin (GAL) intraventricularly or in specific hypothalamic sites increases food consumption and, conversely, the intake of food increases the expression of GAL in hypothalamic sites. Ethanol (EtOH) is a calorie-rich food as well as a drug of abuse. The research reviewed here shows that ...
Aleksandrov Yu I - - 2005
The interactions of the neuronal mechanisms of food-acquiring behavior and newly formed operant alcohol-acquiring behavior were studied by recording the activity of individual neurons in the anterolateral area of the motor cortex in chronically alcoholized rabbits. Adult animals learned food-acquiring behavior in a cage with two feeders and two pedals, ...
Cheung Rebecca J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although patients are instructed to abstain from food before having blood drawn for lipid analysis, many still drink coffee in the morning. It is unknown whether coffee consumed prior to drawing blood samples will impact fasting serum lipids. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single 6-oz cup of coffee with ...
Smith Anthony - - 2005
ISSUE ADDRESSED: To assess whether the strategies used to sell the 'ready-to-drink' (RTD) category of alcoholic beverages is contributing to alcohol-related harm among adolescents. METHODS: An initial investigation of bottleshops, which included an observational study designed to analyse methods employed by the liquor industry to market RTDs in bottleshops, on ...
Pena A - - 2005
The caffeine content of 85 retail beverage samples purchased from local supermarkets between 1995 and 2004 was determined. The potential intake of caffeine through the consumption of these beverages (but excluding coffee) was estimated for students of the University of Coimbra, Portugal. The caffeine content of the beverages ranged from ...
Lee Jason - - 2005
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether fizzy drinks alone are effective at resolving food bolus impaction. Altogether 46 papers were found using the reported search, of which six presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group ...
Caton S J - - 2005
To examine the effects of manipulating pleasantness on subsequent energy intake following a moderate dose of alcohol, 12 males attended the laboratory on four occasions. On each occasion participants consumed breakfast then 4 h later were offered lunch. Twenty minutes before lunch participants received an alcohol (24 g ethyl alcohol, ...
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