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Kim Beom Su - - 2008
We prepared a nanoemulsion system with benzyl alcohol/ ethanol/Solutol/smash(R) HS 15 /water. Ketoprofen was used as a model drug in this study. The nanoemulsions of this system evidenced a high degree of stability. The droplet diameter did not change over a period of at least 3 months. The nanoemulsion containing ...
Scott Molly M - - 2008
Historically, the alcohol and tobacco industries have been the biggest users of outdoor advertising. However, the 1999 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) outlawed tobacco billboards and transit furniture (e.g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within ...
Maneze Della - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of kava use among Tongan men in Macarthur. Methods: A kava use survey of Tongan men was conducted between May and October 2006. RESULTS: Seventy-three Tongan men aged over 18 completed the survey, 90% drank kava regularly at least twice a week with 20 or ...
Juárez Jorge - - 2008
There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed ...
Wiens Frank - - 2008
For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in ...
Han Doug Hyun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Craving for alcohol and food has been studied in association with alcohol dependence and eating disorders, respectively. One subclass of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 has been reported to be associated with both alcohol dependence and weight gain. In this study, we hypothesized that patients being treated ...
Kerr William C - - 2008
To estimate the average of and sources of variation in the alcohol content of drinks served on premise in 10 Northern Californian counties. Focus groups of bartenders were conducted to evaluate potential sources of drink alcohol content variation. In the main study, 80 establishments were visited by a team of ...
Sang Yizhou - - 2008
The synthesis of cationically modified poly(vinyl alcohol), CPVA, by copolymerization of vinyl acetate and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC), followed by alkaline hydrolysis was systematically studied. The application of the resulting polymer to the fine clay flocculation was also reported. The charge density and the structure of the resulting CPVA were ...
Richards Elaine H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Controlling pests through disruption of biochemical pathways by physiologically active compounds/factors from animals and plants represents an expanding field of research. The authors investigated whether such factors in venom from the wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca (Retzius) can affect the viability and food consumption of the slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller), and ...
Chriqui Jamie F - - 2008
Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft ...
Kissack Julie C - - 2008
Many different biomarkers can be used to evaluate ethanol intake. Ethylglucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, is a biomarker that is useful in determining ethanol intake up to 80 hours after ethanol consumption. To better understand the utility of this biomarker, a MEDLINE search of ethylglucuronide in the English-language literature ...
Jackson Kristina M - - 2008
The goal of the present study was to empirically determine the effect of employing different cut scores for frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED; an often-used indicator of problematic alcohol involvement) within a longitudinal framework. Using data from a large prospective (9-wave) college student sample, the authors used latent class ...
Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2008
This study shows that alcohol consumption enhances the prediction of candy consumption by implicit attitudes and at the same time decreases the predictive validity of cognitive restraint standards. Female participants were assigned to either an alcohol or a control condition and were then given an opportunity to taste candies. For ...
Kokavec Anna - - 2008
Despite the overwhelming evidence linking alcohol to the development of disease, the contribution of alcohol toxicity to ill health remains controversial. One of the major problems facing researchers is the fact that alcoholic beverages, which contribute little to the nutritional requirements of the body, are often substituted for food and ...
Sreenath Kundimi - - 2008
Sugar alcohols are widely used as food additives and drug excipients. Erythritol (INS 968) is an important four-carbon sugar alcohol in the food industry. Erythritol occurs naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and fermented foods. Currently, HPLC and GC methods are in use for the quantification of erythritol in natural/processed foods. ...
Small Dana M DM John B Pierce Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. - - 2008
Perception of the smell of a food precedes its ingestion and perception of its flavor. The neurobiological underpinnings of this association are not well understood. Of central interest is whether the same neural circuits code for anticipatory and consummatory phases. Here, we show that the amygdala and mediodorsal thalamus respond ...
Lee Kenneth Y - - 2008
In the United States, a gasoline fuel blend with alcohol volume fractions of 85% or more is considered (among other fuels) an alternative fuel. As the popularity and usage of high-alcohol content gasoline fuel blends increase, subsurface contamination from these fuels will be of great environmental concern. An important parameter ...
Wolf A - - 2008
Numerous studies have demonstrated that beverages containing sugar, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or alcohol are handled differently by the body than when sugar or HFCS are incorporated in solid foods and as a result the overall caloric intake from solid food does not adjust to account for the calories ...
Ladipo, C O; ;
Background: Variation in physiological effects of chronic alcohol consumption is attributable to interference of confounding factors like body weight, diet and sex. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions between chronic alcohol intake, body weight, food consumption and sex in rats. Methods: The effects of drinking ...
Müller-Vahl Kirsten R - - 2008
AIM: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by waxing and waning motor and vocal tics. Because standard medication often remains unsatisfactory, many patients seek alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to increase experience about the influence of food and drinks in TS. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was sent to ...
Mulayim Baris - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To establish an early, safe, and well-tolerated time to start oral hydration after cesarean delivery. METHODS: A prospective randomized trial of women delivered by cesarean under regional anesthesia at Alanya Research and Medical Center, Turkey, between 2005 and 2006. A clear liquid drink was given to 100 women in ...
Gomikawa Syuzou - - 2008
Catechins in green tea have been shown to reduce a risk of coronary heart disease in epidemiological studies. Also, it has been reported catechins have hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Then, we investigated the effects of ground green tea drinking on the susceptibility of plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to the ...
Charlton Devon C - - 2008
Existing technologies have not met the challenge of designing a construct for the repair of focal cartilage defects such that it mimics the mechanical properties of and can integrate with native cartilage. Herein we describe a novel construct consisting of a non-degradable poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold to provide long-term mechanical ...
Gmel Gerhard - - 2007
First, to test whether current injury is more closely related to acute intake than to usual consumption patterns, and second, to test whether repeated injury is more closely related to general consumption patterns than to acute intake. Screening of alcohol consumption of 7,872 patients enrolling between January 1, 2003 and ...
Thompson Darcy A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the content of food and drink commercials aired during after-school hours on Spanish-language television. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a content analysis of food and drink advertisements, evaluating product type, food category, and message content. All advertisements aired during after-school hours (3 to 9 p.m.) on 2 U.S. ...
Han Doug Hyun - - 2008
The balance between inhibitory (gamma aminobutyric acid; GABAergic) and excitatory (glutamatergic) neurotransmission is thought to be associated with craving for alcohol and food. The anticraving effect of acamprosate is thought to be mediated through modifying the balance of GABA and glutamate. Recent studies in animals have suggested that acamprosate may ...
Demir E┼čref - - 2008
Food flavourings are an essential element in foods. Benzyl derivatives are the food additives which are used for increasing the taste of foods and beverages. In this study, different concentrations of four benzyl derivatives (benzaldehyde, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid) used as flavour ingredients have been evaluated for ...
Duffey Kiyah J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Beverage patterning may play a role in partially explaining the rising rates of obesity in the United States, yet little work on overall trends and patterns exits. Our objective was to examine trends and patterns of beverage consumption among U.S. adults. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative ...
Mazeh Shunit - - 2008
The sugars in fleshy fruits provide a rich source of energy to frugivorous animals. However, these carbohydrates also serve as a substrate for alcoholic fermentation by yeasts, ethanol being the main by-product of this process. Ethanol ingestion via frugivory thus occurs in a diverse assemblage of invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, ...
Fristachi Anthony - - 2007
Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and ...
Cohen Deborah A - - 2007
Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and ...
Alcácera M A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between alcohol beverage preference and dietary habits comparing wine drinkers with other alcoholic beverage drinkers and with nondrinkers in Spanish university graduates. SUBJECTS: A total of 10 526 men and women, who were recruited using mailed questionnaires, participated in this study. METHODS: A semiquantitative food ...
Cornelis Marilyn C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target ...
Bolca Selin - - 2007
Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A ...
Wojnicki F H E - - 2007
Previous studies have reported binge-type consumption of solid vegetable shortening in non-food deprived rats maintained on schedules of limited shortening access. The current study determined if limited access would promote binge-type consumption of sucrose solutions. Adult male rats (6 groups, n = 10 each) were provided with one of three ...
Schlichting Silzeth - - 2007
Alcoholism is a relevant problem in public health. The use of alcohol among women has increased as well as the search for treatment. This research proposes the resignification of food to these women, as a harm reduction strategy. The research aimed to study and to discuss the experience of lunchtime ...
Appenzeller Brice M R - - 2007
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol. Its detection in hair is more and more studied in both clinical and forensic context for the purpose of alcohol abuse monitoring. In this pilot study, hair specimens from 15 patients included in a treatment program after alcohol abuse cessation, were ...
Elfhag K - - 2007
We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch ...
Jimenez-Gomez Corina - - 2007
A common finding in resistance to change research with food-maintained operant behavior is that the persistence of behavior depends on the rate of reinforcement delivered in the context in which the behavior occurs. The present experiment evaluated the effects of rate of response-dependent alcohol delivery on the resistance to change ...
Hassan Lamees - - 2007
The aim of this study was to measure differences in oral pH after subjects drank carbonated and noncarbonated acidic soft drinks. Oral pH was measured in 17 subjects at 4 oral sites with beetrode electrodes after each subject drank 50 mL of noncarbonated and carbonated blackcurrant beverages. There were no ...
Streiff Stéphane - - 2007
Polyprenyl phosphates, as well as polyprenyl alcohols bearing different isopentenyl C(5) units, have been synthesized. The pH range of spontaneous vesicle formation of polyprenyl phosphates with or without polyprenyl alcohols was defined by fluorescence microscopy. A variety of the acyclic or monocyclic polyprenyl phosphates studied formed stable vesicles in water ...
Hartmann Susanne - - 2007
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a direct ethanol metabolite, is detectable in blood for more than 2 weeks after sustained ethanol intake. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of PEth [comparing sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC)] as compared with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and mean corpuscular ...
Vartanian Lenny R - - 2007
In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and ...
Arliss Rebecca M - - 2007
Assessment of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet in the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community has been neglected. A questionnaire was used to investigate these health risk behaviors in 466 students at an urban community college and results for the 138 AAPI study participants were compared ...
Homish Gregory G - - 2007
The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands' and wives' past-year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants (N = 634) were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses. Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage ...
Narayan Raj - - 2007
Present investigations were carried out on the limnological aspects of Texi temple pond in district Etawah. Many of the parameters were found below the permissible limits for drinking water as suggested by WHO. A total of 18 parameters were analysed and their seasonal variations in the year 2003 were discussed.
Duncan Elizabeth A EA Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, USA. - - 2006
Given into the brain, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) increases alcohol consumption, but the mechanism and physiological relevance of this effect are unclear. We hypothesized that endogenous MCH will enhance alcohol drinking and that MCH increases alcohol's reinforcing properties. An MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonist, or saline was administered centrally alone, or ...
Chiu T W - - 2007
Gathering information on the thermal characteristics of the causative agent in scald injuries provides clues as to the likely depth of injury. We theorize that viscosity and thermal capacity may have important roles to play when we view scalds as contact burns due to a liquid. From a 4-year review ...
Addolorato Giovanni - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a peptide produced mainly by the gut and hypothalamus. Ghrelin is able to stimulate food-seeking behavior. Alcohol-craving and food-seeking behavior could share common neural circuits. Ghrelin is related to nutritional status, but few data are available in alcoholic patients on the relationship between ghrelin and nutritional disorders. ...
Zghoul Tarek - - 2007
RATIONALE: Alcohol consumption shows circadian rhythmicity, i.e., alcohol preference and intake change with circadian time. Circadian rhythmicity is controlled by a biological clock, which has been shown to govern behavioral, physiological, and hormonal processes in synchronization with internal as well as external cues. Molecular components of the clock include circadian ...
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