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Results 451 - 500 of 518
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Han A M - - 1986
A study was conducted in a rural community in Burma, to determine how people perceive the importance of food, water and defecation in the causation of diarrhoea and to determine whether people wash hands or use soap after defecation or before preparing and eating food. 90% of mothers with under-five ...
McFarlane A - - 1986
To determine the mechanism, whereby food lowers blood alcohol concentrations, gastric emptying and blood alcohol profiles were measured in six healthy male volunteers after they had drunk a 200 ml solution of vodka and orange juice containing 0.5 g/kg alcohol. Subjects were studied on two separate occasions during infusion of ...
Darret G - - 1986
The total average amount of beverages absorbed daily (1,378 ml) is split up as follows: tap water (650 ml where from 170 ml are used for the preparation of coffee and tea); bottled water (190 ml); alcoholic drinks (481 ml) and soft drinks (57 ml). Under these conditions, the intake ...
Schaefer O - - 1986
Eskimos and to a slightly lesser degree Northern Indians are extremely rapid acetylators as tested with isoniazid. They also tend to clear phenytoin rapidly as proven in Greenland Eskimos and supported by clinical observations in Canadian Eskimos. Most "silent gene" cholinesterase cases found in Canada came from the tiny minorities ...
Stall R - - 1986
Despite obvious theoretical and treatment implications, the study of how individuals end the "compulsive" use of substances without formal treatment ("spontaneous remission") remains a relatively neglected topic. This paper reviews the literature germane to spontaneous remission from four substances (opiates, alcohol, food/obesity, and tobacco) selected for their widely variant meanings ...
Mello N K - - 1986
Female Macaque monkeys were trained to self-administer food (1 g banana pellet) and alcohol (0.12 g/kg/inj IV) in an operant paradigm. Alcohol and food-maintained responding were controlled by a second order schedule of reinforcement FR 4 (VR 16:S) that required an average of 64 responses for delivery of one food ...
Neuman C - - 1985
On the aggregate level, physical availability of alcohol is related to per capita consumption, prompting the question whether high availability can increase consumption net of social norms which enhance drinking. This issue is investigated using individual-level data in a high-availability urban environment. Effortless, efficient purchase of alcoholic beverages explains a ...
Douglass J M - - 1985
We examined responses to cooked and uncooked food in 32 outpatients with essential hypertension; 28 were also overweight. By varying cooked and uncooked food percentages and salt intake, patients acted as their own control subjects in this unblinded study. After a mean duration of 6.7 months, average intake of uncooked ...
Shirlow M J - - 1985
In a cross-sectional study of 4558 Australians, it was found that the proportion of subjects reporting indigestion, palpitations, tremor, headache and insomnia increased significantly with mean caffeine intake. A multiple logistic regression model was used to show that the association between the prevalence of these symptoms and usual daily caffeine ...
Kraly F S - - 1985
Little is known about the physiological mechanisms that control normal drinking and, in particular, drinking around mealtime. This problem has recently been penetrated by experiments evaluating a role for histamine in drinking elicited by eating. This work supports the hypothesis of a preabsorptive, pregastric, vagally-mediated, histaminergic component of drinking elicited ...
Abel E L - - 1985
Monthly, seasonal, and day-of-week patterns in criminal homicide were studied specifically with respect to the victim's alcohol consumption, race, or both. There were no overall significant monthly or seasonal patterns although day-of-the-week was a significant factor affecting homicide. Alcohol did not affect monthly seasonal fluctuations for whites but did affect ...
Fisher M - - 1985
The relation of cigarette smoking and alcohol use to diet was examined in a general population of adults ages 20-59 years enrolled in the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) Prevalence Study. There was a positive association between cigarette and alcohol use, but little relation between these habits and the nutrient intake. ...
Kulkosky P J - - 1985
Recent studies have clearly shown powerful control of ingestive behavior by certain peptides known to be present in both brain and gut tissues. These "brain-gut neuropeptides" are thought to constitute endogenous factors responsible for the normal regulation of food intake. This review explores the potential for a role of these ...
Fahid A - - 1984
A controlled study was conducted to determine the influence on disinfection of cleaning endodontic files with either dry gauze or alcohol-saturated gauze prior to placement of the files into a hot bead sterilizer. File size and length of time in the hot bead sterilizer were also investigated. Findings indicated that ...
Samson H H - - 1984
Five groups of five male social drinkers, who frequently drank with one another, were observed during a 30-min drinking period in an experimental tavern. Audio/video tapes of each session were rated by two observers for onset and duration of drinking and talking using a computer scoring system. Drinking was found ...
Ismail A I - - 1984
The cariogenicity of soft drinks was evaluated in 3,194 Americans aged 9 to 29 years who were examined during the NHANES I survey conducted from 1971 to 1974. A significant positive association was found between the frequencies of at- and between-meal consumption of soft drinks and high DMFT scores. These ...
Dole V P - - 1984
Mice of the C57BL strain, given continuous access to 10% alcohol and plain water, with unlimited food and no stress, frequently drink enough alcohol to produce intoxicating levels in the blood. Nevertheless, this behavior does not appear to replicate the essential features of human alcoholism since the drinking lacks serious ...
Myers W D - - 1984
The effects of intravenous acetaldehyde or saline self-injection and feeding regimes on oral alcohol consumption in rats was examined. The alcohol solutions offered to the animals was increased systematically in concentrations from 3 to 30%, according to a three-bottle, two-choice technique. Results suggest that (1) acetaldehyde pre-treatment using a self-injection ...
Holdsworth M D - - 1984
As part of a four-year longitudinal study examining changes in nutrient intakes, eating patterns, lifestyle and health on individuals before and after retirement from work, accurate assessments of customary food and beverage intakes were essential. This paper shows that by using four techniques simultaneously, a number of discrepancies were exposed, ...
Satinder K P - - 1984
Cannabis use and its relationship with sensation-seeking orientation was investigated in 48 college and university students of both sexes. Users and nonusers were matched for sex, age, and education. Cannabis users scored higher on all the four subscales of the sensation-seeking scale (SSS). Analysis of covariance controlling for the use ...
Sherman J - - 1984
We propose that alcohol is a food and that drinking alcohol is fundamentally a feeding habit. Many feeding habits are acquired by Pavlovian conditioning in which the flavor of food [conditioned stimulus (CS)] is adjusted by the aftereffects of the ingested meal [unconditioned stimulus (US)]. Thus, repletion of nutritive deficits ...
Shively C A - - 1984
This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, ...
Ksir C - - 1983
Syrian hamsters consumed a commercial chewing tobacco in daily amounts equivalent to 2.6% of their body weights, even though food and water were always available. Daily intake increased gradually to this level over a period of 4 months. Commercial tobaccos contain a variety of flavoring agents, including sugars. Moistened, unflavored ...
West D B - - 1983
A monitoring system to continuously record the daily pattern of drinking and eating of rats is described. This system, based on a North Star microcomputer, can record the amount of food ingested with a temporal resolution of +/- 1.0 second and quantitative accuracy within +/- 5%. Drinking behavior is detected ...
Tramill J L - - 1983
In a test of competing hypotheses regarding the effects of alcohol on shock-elicited aggression, animals maintained on a food restricted regimen were administered either chronic or acute ethanol challenges. Chronic Ss showed a significantly higher rate of target-directed aggression and spent significantly more time in aggressive activity than did acute ...
Kraly F S - - 1983
Drinking occurs around meal time in most mammals. Food-related drinking accounts for approximately 70% of daily fluid intake for rats, but little is known of the mechanisms by which eating elicits drinking. That eating and vagal stimulation elicit the release of histamine from gastric mucosa, together with the fact that ...
Millard W J - - 1983
Mice of the C57BL/6J strain were given unrestricted access to food, water, and ethanol-water solutions, and intake was studied under different light-dark (LD) conditions. The instrumentation for recording licks permitted the accurate description of the temporal distribution of drinking over the 24-hr period. The 12-12 LD schedule resulted in a ...
Reid A K - - 1983
We tested the assumption of a facilitatory relation between periodic food presentation and schedule-induced drinking by examination of (a) elicited drinking, (b) drinking in anticipation of food delivery, and (c) possible indirect effects of food delivery on drinking. We exposed rats to a fixed-time 60-second schedule in which interfood intervals ...
Ator N A - - 1983
Oral self-administration of methohexital was generated in baboons that were food-restricted but not water-deprived. Stable intake of an 8% ethanol solution (two baboons) or water (two baboons) was first established in 3-h-sessions. Increasing concentrations of methohexital (0.005-10 mg/ml) then were substituted with a return to the ethanol or water baseline ...
Sandberg D - - 1982
The effects of daily injections of 5 microgram estradiol benzoate (EB) on the patterns of food and ethanol consumption were studied in ovarectomized rats given free access to food, a 10% ethanol solution, and water. EB led to an immediate, but transient, suppression of both food and ethanol intake. The ...
Borges S - - 1982
Pregnant Wistar rats were maintained on a diet of food pellets and a 10% (v/v) solution of ethanol in water during pregnancy and up to 21 days postpartum. Control groups were given food pellets and water ad libitum. The consumption of food and liquid was monitored throughout this period, so ...
Wilson N - - 1982
Ten asthmatic children with a history of cough and wheeze after drinking a cola drink performed histamine inhalation tests before and 30 minutes after a drink of Pepsi-Cola, soda water, and water on three separate study days. There was no significant change in baseline peak expiratory flow after any of ...
Kuribara H - - 1982
The effects of the tertiary cholinergic blockers atropine sulfate (AT) and scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP), and the quaternary cholinergic blockers atropine methylnitrate (AT-Mt) and scopolamine butylbromide (SCOP-Bt), on operant response (lever-pressing) and adjunctive drinking in the rat developed under a fixed interval (FI) 1.5 min food reinforcement situation were investigated. The ...
Simpura J - - 1981
An unusual opportunity to compare drinking habits in two countries in a technically satisfying way is offered by two surveys, one conducted in Scotland in 1972 by Dight and the other in Finland in 1976 by this author. Both Scotland and Finland represent ambivalent sociocultural attitudes toward alcohol, and the ...
Stich H F - - 1981
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed for 3 h to furan and 6 furan derivatives (furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural, 2-methyl furan, 2,5-dimethyl furan and 2-furyl methyl ketone). Each of the 6 furan derivatives induced a relatively high frequency of chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges in the absence ...
Boscarino J - - 1981
Analysis of alcohol consumption among veterans (N = 684) included in a 1977 national household survey of 3,322 adults confirmed previous findings based on 1975 national survey data. As previously found, higher levels of alcohol consumption were significantly related to being a veteran of U.S. military service. However, when demographic ...
Kolonel L N - - 1981
In order to determine the extent of correspondence between husbands and wives in their personal habits, a sample of 281 spouse pairs was interviewed regarding their smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. Both aggregate and within-pair agreements were examined. There was good correspondence between husbands and wives for a majority of ...
Freedman B J - - 1980
Sulphur dioxide is widely used in the food and drinks industries for its properties as a preservative and antioxidant. Whilst harmless to healthy persons when used in recommended concentrations, it can induce asthma when inhaled or ingested by sensitive subjects, even in high dilution. About one in nine asthmatics gives ...
Kinney L - - 1979
Rats were given cued and uncued inescapable shock; their voluntary alcohol intake was compared to a group given a yoked cue but no shock. Results suggested that, unlike uncued inescapable shock, cued inescapable shock caused an increase in voluntary alcohol intake, although the increase was insufficient to produce overt inebriation. ...
Walker E A - - 1979
Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that ...
Macdonall J S - - 1979
The effects of food satiation, ethanol concentration, and the schedule of ethanol availability on the rate of ethanol consumption were investigated in rats. In Experiment 1 separate groups were exposed to 6.2 or 12.5% w/v ethanol and unlimited access to food. The food and ethanol were available concurrently for one ...
Harford T C - - 1979
The contextual differentiation of beverage specific consumption is examined in a metropolitan area household survey of current drinkers. The findings indicate that beverage specific consumption is related to such structural proportions as presence/absence of food, drinking location, type of companion, and duration. Wine, for example, is frequently associated with mealtimes, ...
Brown R A - - 1979
When a glass (150 ml) of a preferred/non-preferred orange drink was visible alcoholic subjects drank less than non-alcoholics. When a glass+jug (900 ml) was visible the alcoholics drank significantly more than the non-alcoholics. The cues of quantity visible and preference had an additive effect on the alcoholics' consumption. The experiment ...
Brozinsky S - - 1979
A patient with a history of alcohol abuse, who presented with severe malnutrition, was subjected to serial jejunal biopsies during his hospitalization. The improvement in villous size and absorptive cell ultrastructure paralleled his clinical recovery. It is concluded that the caloric and trophic benefits of food, the pancreatic and vitamin ...
Rosenberg K - - 1978
1. There was a significant increase in oxygen consumption in ten women after small intakes of alcohol. 2. No significant difference was found between the average increase in metabolic rate over 3 h after an isoenergetic meal of food or of food plus alcohol. However, during the last half of ...
van Delden W - - 1978
The allozyme polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster was studied in order to obtain experimental evidence about the maintenance of this polymorphism. Populations started with different initial allele frequencies from homozygous F and S lines showed a convergence of frequencies on regular food at 25 degrees, leading ...
Denoble V J - - 1978
Responding by 4 monkeys was maintained under a fixed ratio 10 (FR 10) schedule for either food, intravenous sucrose or alcohol. The 20 hr sessions were divided so that food was available during hours 1, 6, 11, 16 and alcohol or sucrose during hours 2-5, 7-10, 12-15, and 17-20. All ...
Lewis E A - - 1978
The aetiological factors at work in Nigerians with duodenal ulcer were examined. Stress and dietary factors were found to be major agents in the precipitation of exacerbations and recurrences of symptoms. Of the dietary agents, chillies and cassava preparations in the form of 'eba' and 'gari' are potent ulcerogenic food ...
Look J J - - 1978
The effects of neonatal undernutrition in rats on food and water regulation, external indices of development, and long-term regulatory behavior were investigated. Undernutrition produced retardation in some external indices of development. The ability to eat, drink, and maintain body weight at weaning were not seriously affected by the undernutrition. Longer ...
Purnomo - - 1977
The microfilaria of Brugia timori was compared with microfilariae of Indonesian strains of periodic and subperiodic Brugia malayi using alcohol-fixed (stained) and formalin-fixed (unstained) preparations. As noted by other observers of the Timor microfilaria, the absence of a stained sheath in Giemsa preparations, a long cephalic space with a length-to-width ...
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