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Results 451 - 500 of 528
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van der Westhuyzen J - - 1987
Some indices of nutrition have been examined in hostel- and non-hostel-dwelling groups of industrially employed black males. Hostel-dwellers in the large metropolitan areas have to prepare their own food and many are accustomed to excessive alcohol intake, especially of sorghum beer. In the two groups studied, blood levels of vitamin ...
Crowley T J - - 1987
We have developed two protocols for inducing sustained, high-dose, alcohol-reinforced, oral alcohol drinking among some members of Macaca nemestrina social groups. Both protocols initially co-present alcohol and the entire daily food supply in a 2-h daily drinking session, with a later return to continuous availability of food. One protocol presents ...
Sirota P - - 1987
It has been proposed by Amit, Brown and colleagues that the reduction in voluntary alcohol intake observed after the administration of FLA-57 in rats can be attributed to decreased NE levels produced by FLA-57. Our studies investigated whether a conditioned taste aversion could better explain this phenomenon. In the key ...
Curry S - - 1987
A seven-item Drinking Restraint Scale (DRS) has been developed which indicates that a style of alcohol consumption, equivalent in a number of ways to the style of food consumption termed eating restraint, may exist. Several hypothesized relationships between DRS scores and other drinking-related measures were confirmed. A restrained drinking style ...
Hines G - - 1986
Rats receiving chronic administration of lithium chloride (20 mEq/l) in their drinking water were tested for adjunctive alcohol (10% v/v) consumption in which temporally scheduled, noncontingent shock delivery was added following the establishment of food delivery-based adjunctive alcohol intake. The addition of shock to the eliciting schedule produced an initial ...
Milligan J R - - 1986
To test the hypothesis that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and possibly other nitrosamines are synthesized naturally in the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary excretion of nitrosamines has been measured in people whose first pass clearance and metabolism of nitrosamines had been inhibited by administration of ethanol. Five fasted volunteers consumed 350 mg of ...
Snow R W - - 1986
In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high ...
Smart R G - - 1986
The effect of happy hour discounts on alcohol consumption has become an important policy concern. Few studies, however, have examined this relationship. To examine the impact of banning happy hours in Ontario, an observational study of patron alcohol consumption was conducted in five taverns before and after the ban. Aggregate ...
Guenther P M - - 1986
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beverages, particularly soft drinks, in the diets of American teenagers by analyzing data collected in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Interviewers obtained 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and respondents completed diet records for the following 2 days. Variation ...
Henry C J - - 1986
Since the time of Lavoisier it has been known that the ingestion of food in animals and man produces an increase in oxygen consumption. This increase in metabolic rate was originally called 'specific dynamic action' (SDA) and is now widely referred to as the thermic effect (TE) of food or ...
Han A M - - 1986
A study was conducted in a rural community in Burma, to determine how people perceive the importance of food, water and defecation in the causation of diarrhoea and to determine whether people wash hands or use soap after defecation or before preparing and eating food. 90% of mothers with under-five ...
McFarlane A - - 1986
To determine the mechanism, whereby food lowers blood alcohol concentrations, gastric emptying and blood alcohol profiles were measured in six healthy male volunteers after they had drunk a 200 ml solution of vodka and orange juice containing 0.5 g/kg alcohol. Subjects were studied on two separate occasions during infusion of ...
Darret G - - 1986
The total average amount of beverages absorbed daily (1,378 ml) is split up as follows: tap water (650 ml where from 170 ml are used for the preparation of coffee and tea); bottled water (190 ml); alcoholic drinks (481 ml) and soft drinks (57 ml). Under these conditions, the intake ...
Schaefer O - - 1986
Eskimos and to a slightly lesser degree Northern Indians are extremely rapid acetylators as tested with isoniazid. They also tend to clear phenytoin rapidly as proven in Greenland Eskimos and supported by clinical observations in Canadian Eskimos. Most "silent gene" cholinesterase cases found in Canada came from the tiny minorities ...
Stall R - - 1986
Despite obvious theoretical and treatment implications, the study of how individuals end the "compulsive" use of substances without formal treatment ("spontaneous remission") remains a relatively neglected topic. This paper reviews the literature germane to spontaneous remission from four substances (opiates, alcohol, food/obesity, and tobacco) selected for their widely variant meanings ...
Mello N K - - 1986
Female Macaque monkeys were trained to self-administer food (1 g banana pellet) and alcohol (0.12 g/kg/inj IV) in an operant paradigm. Alcohol and food-maintained responding were controlled by a second order schedule of reinforcement FR 4 (VR 16:S) that required an average of 64 responses for delivery of one food ...
Neuman C - - 1985
On the aggregate level, physical availability of alcohol is related to per capita consumption, prompting the question whether high availability can increase consumption net of social norms which enhance drinking. This issue is investigated using individual-level data in a high-availability urban environment. Effortless, efficient purchase of alcoholic beverages explains a ...
Douglass J M - - 1985
We examined responses to cooked and uncooked food in 32 outpatients with essential hypertension; 28 were also overweight. By varying cooked and uncooked food percentages and salt intake, patients acted as their own control subjects in this unblinded study. After a mean duration of 6.7 months, average intake of uncooked ...
Shirlow M J - - 1985
In a cross-sectional study of 4558 Australians, it was found that the proportion of subjects reporting indigestion, palpitations, tremor, headache and insomnia increased significantly with mean caffeine intake. A multiple logistic regression model was used to show that the association between the prevalence of these symptoms and usual daily caffeine ...
Kraly F S - - 1985
Little is known about the physiological mechanisms that control normal drinking and, in particular, drinking around mealtime. This problem has recently been penetrated by experiments evaluating a role for histamine in drinking elicited by eating. This work supports the hypothesis of a preabsorptive, pregastric, vagally-mediated, histaminergic component of drinking elicited ...
Abel E L - - 1985
Monthly, seasonal, and day-of-week patterns in criminal homicide were studied specifically with respect to the victim's alcohol consumption, race, or both. There were no overall significant monthly or seasonal patterns although day-of-the-week was a significant factor affecting homicide. Alcohol did not affect monthly seasonal fluctuations for whites but did affect ...
Fisher M - - 1985
The relation of cigarette smoking and alcohol use to diet was examined in a general population of adults ages 20-59 years enrolled in the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) Prevalence Study. There was a positive association between cigarette and alcohol use, but little relation between these habits and the nutrient intake. ...
Kulkosky P J - - 1985
Recent studies have clearly shown powerful control of ingestive behavior by certain peptides known to be present in both brain and gut tissues. These "brain-gut neuropeptides" are thought to constitute endogenous factors responsible for the normal regulation of food intake. This review explores the potential for a role of these ...
Fahid A - - 1984
A controlled study was conducted to determine the influence on disinfection of cleaning endodontic files with either dry gauze or alcohol-saturated gauze prior to placement of the files into a hot bead sterilizer. File size and length of time in the hot bead sterilizer were also investigated. Findings indicated that ...
Samson H H - - 1984
Five groups of five male social drinkers, who frequently drank with one another, were observed during a 30-min drinking period in an experimental tavern. Audio/video tapes of each session were rated by two observers for onset and duration of drinking and talking using a computer scoring system. Drinking was found ...
Ismail A I - - 1984
The cariogenicity of soft drinks was evaluated in 3,194 Americans aged 9 to 29 years who were examined during the NHANES I survey conducted from 1971 to 1974. A significant positive association was found between the frequencies of at- and between-meal consumption of soft drinks and high DMFT scores. These ...
Dole V P - - 1984
Mice of the C57BL strain, given continuous access to 10% alcohol and plain water, with unlimited food and no stress, frequently drink enough alcohol to produce intoxicating levels in the blood. Nevertheless, this behavior does not appear to replicate the essential features of human alcoholism since the drinking lacks serious ...
Myers W D - - 1984
The effects of intravenous acetaldehyde or saline self-injection and feeding regimes on oral alcohol consumption in rats was examined. The alcohol solutions offered to the animals was increased systematically in concentrations from 3 to 30%, according to a three-bottle, two-choice technique. Results suggest that (1) acetaldehyde pre-treatment using a self-injection ...
Holdsworth M D - - 1984
As part of a four-year longitudinal study examining changes in nutrient intakes, eating patterns, lifestyle and health on individuals before and after retirement from work, accurate assessments of customary food and beverage intakes were essential. This paper shows that by using four techniques simultaneously, a number of discrepancies were exposed, ...
Satinder K P - - 1984
Cannabis use and its relationship with sensation-seeking orientation was investigated in 48 college and university students of both sexes. Users and nonusers were matched for sex, age, and education. Cannabis users scored higher on all the four subscales of the sensation-seeking scale (SSS). Analysis of covariance controlling for the use ...
Sherman J - - 1984
We propose that alcohol is a food and that drinking alcohol is fundamentally a feeding habit. Many feeding habits are acquired by Pavlovian conditioning in which the flavor of food [conditioned stimulus (CS)] is adjusted by the aftereffects of the ingested meal [unconditioned stimulus (US)]. Thus, repletion of nutritive deficits ...
Shively C A - - 1984
This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, ...
Ksir C - - 1983
Syrian hamsters consumed a commercial chewing tobacco in daily amounts equivalent to 2.6% of their body weights, even though food and water were always available. Daily intake increased gradually to this level over a period of 4 months. Commercial tobaccos contain a variety of flavoring agents, including sugars. Moistened, unflavored ...
West D B - - 1983
A monitoring system to continuously record the daily pattern of drinking and eating of rats is described. This system, based on a North Star microcomputer, can record the amount of food ingested with a temporal resolution of +/- 1.0 second and quantitative accuracy within +/- 5%. Drinking behavior is detected ...
Tramill J L - - 1983
In a test of competing hypotheses regarding the effects of alcohol on shock-elicited aggression, animals maintained on a food restricted regimen were administered either chronic or acute ethanol challenges. Chronic Ss showed a significantly higher rate of target-directed aggression and spent significantly more time in aggressive activity than did acute ...
Kraly F S - - 1983
Drinking occurs around meal time in most mammals. Food-related drinking accounts for approximately 70% of daily fluid intake for rats, but little is known of the mechanisms by which eating elicits drinking. That eating and vagal stimulation elicit the release of histamine from gastric mucosa, together with the fact that ...
Millard W J - - 1983
Mice of the C57BL/6J strain were given unrestricted access to food, water, and ethanol-water solutions, and intake was studied under different light-dark (LD) conditions. The instrumentation for recording licks permitted the accurate description of the temporal distribution of drinking over the 24-hr period. The 12-12 LD schedule resulted in a ...
Reid A K - - 1983
We tested the assumption of a facilitatory relation between periodic food presentation and schedule-induced drinking by examination of (a) elicited drinking, (b) drinking in anticipation of food delivery, and (c) possible indirect effects of food delivery on drinking. We exposed rats to a fixed-time 60-second schedule in which interfood intervals ...
Ator N A - - 1983
Oral self-administration of methohexital was generated in baboons that were food-restricted but not water-deprived. Stable intake of an 8% ethanol solution (two baboons) or water (two baboons) was first established in 3-h-sessions. Increasing concentrations of methohexital (0.005-10 mg/ml) then were substituted with a return to the ethanol or water baseline ...
Sandberg D - - 1982
The effects of daily injections of 5 microgram estradiol benzoate (EB) on the patterns of food and ethanol consumption were studied in ovarectomized rats given free access to food, a 10% ethanol solution, and water. EB led to an immediate, but transient, suppression of both food and ethanol intake. The ...
Borges S - - 1982
Pregnant Wistar rats were maintained on a diet of food pellets and a 10% (v/v) solution of ethanol in water during pregnancy and up to 21 days postpartum. Control groups were given food pellets and water ad libitum. The consumption of food and liquid was monitored throughout this period, so ...
Wilson N - - 1982
Ten asthmatic children with a history of cough and wheeze after drinking a cola drink performed histamine inhalation tests before and 30 minutes after a drink of Pepsi-Cola, soda water, and water on three separate study days. There was no significant change in baseline peak expiratory flow after any of ...
Kuribara H - - 1982
The effects of the tertiary cholinergic blockers atropine sulfate (AT) and scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP), and the quaternary cholinergic blockers atropine methylnitrate (AT-Mt) and scopolamine butylbromide (SCOP-Bt), on operant response (lever-pressing) and adjunctive drinking in the rat developed under a fixed interval (FI) 1.5 min food reinforcement situation were investigated. The ...
Simpura J - - 1981
An unusual opportunity to compare drinking habits in two countries in a technically satisfying way is offered by two surveys, one conducted in Scotland in 1972 by Dight and the other in Finland in 1976 by this author. Both Scotland and Finland represent ambivalent sociocultural attitudes toward alcohol, and the ...
Stich H F - - 1981
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed for 3 h to furan and 6 furan derivatives (furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural, 2-methyl furan, 2,5-dimethyl furan and 2-furyl methyl ketone). Each of the 6 furan derivatives induced a relatively high frequency of chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges in the absence ...
Boscarino J - - 1981
Analysis of alcohol consumption among veterans (N = 684) included in a 1977 national household survey of 3,322 adults confirmed previous findings based on 1975 national survey data. As previously found, higher levels of alcohol consumption were significantly related to being a veteran of U.S. military service. However, when demographic ...
Kolonel L N - - 1981
In order to determine the extent of correspondence between husbands and wives in their personal habits, a sample of 281 spouse pairs was interviewed regarding their smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. Both aggregate and within-pair agreements were examined. There was good correspondence between husbands and wives for a majority of ...
Freedman B J - - 1980
Sulphur dioxide is widely used in the food and drinks industries for its properties as a preservative and antioxidant. Whilst harmless to healthy persons when used in recommended concentrations, it can induce asthma when inhaled or ingested by sensitive subjects, even in high dilution. About one in nine asthmatics gives ...
Kinney L - - 1979
Rats were given cued and uncued inescapable shock; their voluntary alcohol intake was compared to a group given a yoked cue but no shock. Results suggested that, unlike uncued inescapable shock, cued inescapable shock caused an increase in voluntary alcohol intake, although the increase was insufficient to produce overt inebriation. ...
Walker E A - - 1979
Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that ...
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