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Wall Patrick P Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Public Health, Professor of Public Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, - - 2014
In the second of Veterinary Record's series of articles promoting One Health, Patrick Wall discusses how the health of food-producing animals affects public health, the challenges of an increasingly complex food chain and the contribution that vets can make to improving the safety and quality of the food we eat.
Gårdinger Ylva - - 2014
Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 +/- 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall ...
Pentikäinen Saara S VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Effects of fibre and β-glucan on satiety have been reported in many studies, but no consensus has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breakfasts varying in the dose of oat bran (4 g or 8 g β-glucan). The approach was to study whether ...
Groesbeck Amy S AS School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, - - 2014
Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing ...
Acosta-Estrada Beatriz A BA Centro de Biotecnología-FEMSA, School of Biotechnology and Foods, Tecnológico de Monterrey-Campus Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L. C.P. 64849, - - 2014
Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of ...
Clark Katherine A - - 2013
The funeral preparations for ancient Egyptian dead were extensive. Tomb walls were often elaborately painted and inscribed with scenes and objects deemed desirable for the afterlife. Votive objects, furniture, clothing, jewelry, and importantly, food including bread, cereals, fruit, jars of wine, beer, oil, meat, and poultry were included in the ...
Bennett Sarah D - - 2013
From 1998-2008, 1,229 foodborne outbreaks caused by B. cereus, C. perfringens, S. aureus were reported in the United States; 39% were reported with a confirmed etiology. Vomiting was commonly reported in B. cereus (median: 75% of cases) and S. aureus outbreaks (median: 87%), but rarely in C. perfringens outbreaks (median: ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2013
The impacts of molecular weight (MW), viscosity, and solubility of β-glucan on the rate of in vitro starch digestion and estimated glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Extracted oat starch and β-glucan suspensions with high, medium, and low-MW were heated to gelatinize the starch. Viscosity increased and solubility decreased with an ...
Parks Ashley N - - 2013
As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. Our research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of SWNT in marine benthic organisms at the base of the food chain. The toxicity of SWNT was tested in a whole ...
Singh Jaspreet - - 2013
Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect ...
Brennan Margaret A - - 2012
β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich ...
Asmathunisha N - - 2012
Marine organisms produce remarkable nanofabricated structures in cell wall, shells, pearls and fish bones. Marine microorganisms such as bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp.), cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis, Oscillatoria willei, Phormidium tenue), yeasts (Pichia capsulata, Rhodospiridium diobovatum), fungi (Thraustochytrium sp., Penicillium fellutanum, Aspergillus niger), and algae (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica, Stauroneis sp. ...
Polari Lauri - - 2012
A prebiotic is a non-viable food component that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulation of the microbiota. Hemicelluloses are the second most common group of polysaccharides in nature and they occur in plant cell walls. The predominant hemicellulose in softwood species is galactoglucomannan, and based on ...
Houhoula Dimitra P - - 2012
Abstract In order to examine the genetic variation of clinical and food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Greece, a total of 61 L. monocytogenes non-duplicate isolates, recovered from clinical specimens (n=19) and food (n=42), were serotyped and genotyped using two different Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocols and Multiple ...
Czeh Arpad - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Exposure to multiple mycotoxins through the food chain represents a major potential health hazard to both humans and livestock. They can cause a variety of severe acute as well as chronic diseases. Eliminating mycotoxins from various grain crops is a global health priority. According to the Food and Agriculture ...
Macieira R M - - 2012
The Indo-Pacific mud sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Eleotridae) is recorded for the first time in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, based on 23 specimens caught at seven localities along the northern, north-eastern, eastern and south-eastern Brazilian coast. The occurrence of males and females in different ontogenetic stages indicates that this exotic mud ...
Henry Amanda G - - 2012
Specimens of Australopithecus sediba from the site of Malapa, South Africa (dating from approximately 2 million years (Myr) ago) present a mix of primitive and derived traits that align the taxon with other Australopithecus species and with early Homo. Although much of the available cranial and postcranial material of Au. sediba ...
Sakai Eiji - - 2012
Natural medicinal exudates such as gum arabic are high-molecular-weight natural polysaccharides and are highly soluble in water. The dissolved solutions of these exudates show viscous behavior and exhibit favorable emulsion stability. These exudates have been widely used not only as a medicinal additive, such as a coating agent for tablets ...
Murphree Rendi - - 2012
Background. A mean of ≥1000 foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) causing ≥20 000 illnesses are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) annually. We evaluated characteristics of successful outbreak investigations (ie, those that identified an etiologic agent or food vehicle) in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Methods. FBDOs were ...
Matsuda Motoki - - 2012
Taurine demonstrates various physiological functions and pharmacological actions. A successful application of taurine dioxygenase [EC 1.14.11.17] for taurine determination is described. The gene encoding taurine dioxygenase was cloned from Escherichia coli strain K12, and the enzyme was used to determine taurine in commercially available beverages and some biological samples. The ...
Gomiero Lm - - 2012
In this work the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Astyanax intermedius parasitised and not by Paracymothoa astyanaxi were analysed in the Grande River. The length-weight relationship was estimated for females, males and immatures, and seasonally for the fishes and the parasites through the expression W = aLb. The ...
Lee Pei Sia - - 2012
Chitosan (CS) and β-lactoglobulin (βlg) double-wall coating was designed as a shell structure to achieve prolonged release of core material in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) for potential food applications. A model core material, brilliant blue (BB) dye, was incorporated into CS as the primary wall material, and subsequently, denatured βlg, ...
Grieger J A - - 2012
Background:There is little information on how breakfast choices are associated with dietary intakes in Australian boys.Objective:(i) To determine the proportion of breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) consumers and non-RTEC consumers at breakfast; (ii) to compare breakfast, and daily nutrient intakes and nutrient density, between the three groups; and (iii) to ...
De Giusti Maria - - 2012
Background. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. Methods. The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a) socio-demographic ...
Nagashima Yuji - - 2012
Food poisoning due to ingestion of a puffer fish occurred in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, in October 2008, causing neurotoxic symptoms similar to those of tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning. In the present study, we identified the species, toxicity, and toxins using the remaining samples of the causative puffer fish. The puffer fish ...
Wisniewski Julia Ann - - 2012
Despite increased consumer interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of food allergy, there remains a relative paucity of knowledge regarding the clinical efficacy, mechanisms of action, and safety of most CAM treatments available to consumers. This article focuses on recent advances in CAM for food allergy, ...
An Chun-Jiang - - 2011
Massive quantities of food waste often coexist with other agroindustrial and industrial waste, which might contain coal ash (CA) and uric acid (UA). This study investigated the influence of CA and UA on the composting of food waste in the in-vessel system. The patterns of food waste composting were compared ...
Fulgoni Victor L VL - - 2011
Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test ...
Korosi Jennifer B - - 2012
Increased algal blooms are a threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, although the combined effects of multiple stressors make it difficult to determine the underlying causes. We explore whether changes in trophic interactions in response to declining calcium (Ca) concentrations, a water quality issue only recently recognized in Europe and North ...
Bailey Regan L - - 2011
Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by ...
Sawai Jun - - 2011
Scallop shells are used to make food additives and plastering and paving materials. However, most of the shell is considered commercial waste. In scallop-harvesting districts, large numbers of shells are heaped near the seaside, which creates problems such as offensive odors and soil pollution from heavy metals that leach out ...
Eicher-Miller Heather A - - 2011
Food insecurity is associated with decreased nutrient intake and poor health and possibly low bone mass in children. The purpose of this study was to formally investigate the relationship of diet, bone mass, and food insecurity among children aged 8-19 y (n = 5270). The data used in this cross-sectional ...
Juvonen Kristiina R - - 2011
Physico-chemical and textural properties of foods in addition to their chemical composition modify postprandial metabolism and signals from the gastrointestinal tract. Enzymatic cross-linking of protein is a tool to modify food texture and structure without changing nutritional composition. We investigated the effects of structure modification of a milk protein-based model ...
Kohno Daisuke - - 2011
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that is activated by the increase of intracellular AMP:ATP ratio. AMPK in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is activated during fasting and the activation of AMPK stimulates food intake. To clarify the pathway underlying AMPK-induced feeding, we monitored the activity of single ...
Vertzoni Maria - - 2011
PURPOSE: To compare the degradation kinetics of metronidazole and olsalazine by the bacteria of ascending colon and the bacteria of feces of healthy adults. METHODS: Contents of the ascending colon of seven healthy adults were collected under conditions simulating the bioavailability/bioequivalence studies in the fasted and in the fed states ...
Magbuhat Rizza Marie T - - 2011
This study examined differences in food preferences and dietary intake among male and female Filipino adolescents of different nutritional status as measured by body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty 13-17-year olds from various schools and communities in Metro Manila, The Philippines were selected through quota sampling with BMI, ...
Raghavendra P - - 2011
The present work looks at the role of phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 application in functional foods to evaluate the fate of phytate and calcium solubility during fermentation. Under standard conditions, CFR R123 grown in modified MRS containing sodium phytate CFR R123 showed 43% degradation of sodium phytate in 15 ...
Shetty Vabitha - - 2011
To estimate Calcium and Phosphorus withdrawal from hydroxyapatite in the presence of bovine milk and human milk from which the following protective fractions namely Casein, Whey protein, Lactose and Milk fat have been individually removed and to compare the above protective fractions in human and bovine milk. Human milk obtained ...
Edwards Llifon - - 2011
AIM: There is currently no specific legislation to regulate either complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products or the majority of those promoting them. This study sought to highlight the general risk a consumer may face when they seek help/advice from a pharmacy or health food store (HFS). METHODS: 21 HFS, ...
Davidson Robert L - - 2011
Bembidion (Lymnaeum) nigropiceum (Marsham) (=puritanum Hayward), a European species introduced into Massachusetts but presumed not to have become established, has been rediscovered during the Boston Harbor Islands All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory undertaken by the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the National Park Service. A summary is presented of treatment of ...
Palacios Cristina - - 2010
Epidemiological studies show that a high calcium intake reduces the risk of colon cancer. The objective was to study the association between calcium intake and colorectal neoplasia in a clinic-based sample of Hispanics adults from Puerto Rico. As part of this cross-sectional study, a total of 433 subjects were recruited ...
Johnson Alexander W AW Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2011
Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer ...
Zentall Thomas R TR Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. - - 2011
Consistent with human gambling behaviour but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons showed maladaptive choice behaviour in experiment 1 by choosing an alternative that provided on average two food pellets over an alternative that provided a certain three food pellets. On 20 per cent of the trials, choice of the ...
Galuska Chad M - - 2011
Pausing within multiple fixed-ratio schedules differing in reinforcer magnitude is jointly controlled by both past and upcoming conditions of reinforcement. Abrupt shifts from a just-received large reinforcer to a signaled upcoming small reinforcer (i.e., a negative incentive shift) produce marked disruptions in responding, as indexed by extended pausing. The purpose ...
Ranaldi Robert R Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, United States. - - 2011
The mechanisms whereby reward-associated stimuli come to function as conditioned stimuli and acquire the capacity to activate the same neural regions activated by primary rewards (i.e., dopamine terminal regions) is not fully understood. We hypothesized that NMDA receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the acquisition by a CS ...
Hawken Emily R - - 2011
Primary polydipsia, defined as excessive fluid intake not explained by medical causes, has been reported to occur in over 20% of chronically ill psychiatric inpatients and is especially common in schizophrenic populations. We tested the hypothesis that in an animal model of schizophrenia-like symptoms (subchronic injections of MK-801, 0.5 mg/kg ...
Cooper Ziva D - - 2010
Opioid withdrawal increases the reinforcing effectiveness of the μ-opioid agonist remifentanil in rodents. The current study explored the selectivity of this effect by assessing operant behavior maintained by drug and non-drug reinforcers, remifentanil, cocaine, a palatable liquid food, and standard food pellets, as a function of opioid dependence and withdrawal. ...
Rasmussen Erin B - - 2010
Obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) eat more food than lean controls in free-feeding conditions, which strongly influences their phenotypic expression. Few studies, however, characterize their food consumption in environments that are more representative of foraging conditions, e.g., how effort plays a role in food procurement. This study examined the reinforcing efficacy ...
Fletcher Paul J - - 2010
Previous work showed that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists reduce cocaine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, whereas a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist enhances responding for cocaine. The present experiments examined the effects of Ro60-0175 (5-HT(2C) agonist) and SB242084 (5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist) in rats on responding for food on a ...
Kozyrev S A - - 2010
We have previously established that reactivation of a long-term memory "trace" during exposure to a protein synthesis inhibitor in common snails trained to refuse a defined foodstuff impairs reproduction of this skill. In the present studies, the cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in defensive behavior command neurons LPl1 ...
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