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Ward Sara Jane SJ Temple University School of Pharmacy, 3307 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States. - - 2009
Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists decrease self-administration of palatable food and several abused drugs in animals and modulate extinction of conditioned fear responses. Less is known, however, about whether and how CB1 antagonists might modulate the extinction of appetitive behavior. Therefore, this study examined the effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant ...
Pinkston Jonathan W JW Universityof Texas Health Science Center, Department of Psychiatry, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. - - 2009
Behavioral momentum theory proposes that operant behavior is the product of two separable processes: its rate of occurrence and its resistance to change. Generally speaking, operant situations providing more densely spaced or greater magnitudes of reinforcement should be more resistant to disruption. Attempts to disrupt ongoing behavior by manipulating the ...
Wakley Alexa A - - 2009
Involvement of the endocannabinoids in hyperphagia has been demonstrated, however, behavioral characterization of its role in food reinforcement is limited. The present study investigated whether 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, an endocannabinoid ligand, and rimonabant, a CB1 antagonist, change the reinforcing properties of food in gestationally undernourished rats (a putative model of obesity) ...
Durgin Amy A Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, United - - 2009
Pigeons were exposed to an automaintenance procedure in which 6-s key illuminations in one color (red or white) were immediately followed by 3-s food deliveries and key illuminations in the other color were followed by 9-s food deliveries. Both conditions engendered consistent responding. With both durations of food delivery, acute ...
Temple Jennifer L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack ...
Barbano Maria Flavia - - 2009
RATIONALE: Cannabinoid compounds are known to regulate feeding behavior by modulating the hedonic and/or the incentive properties of food. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to determine the involvement of the cannabinoid system in food reinforcement associated with a conflict situation generated by stress. METHODS: Mice were trained on ...
Bentosela Mariana - - 2009
Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also ...
Aparicio Carlos F - - 2009
To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and ...
Miller Holly C HC Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0044, - - 2009
When differential outcomes follow correct responses to each of two comparison stimuli in matching to sample, relative to the appropriate control condition, higher matching accuracy is typically found, especially when there is a delay between the sample and the comparison stimuli. In two experiments, we examined whether this differential-outcomes effect ...
Murphy Jack - - 2009
Eight horses were tested in a Y-maze to see if they would approach the side on which they had seen and heard food being delivered into a food trough. The horses were tested in five experimental contexts: immediate release (IR), delayed release 3s (3DR), 6s (6DR), 9s (9DR) and 12s ...
Goeders James E JE Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2009
Escalation of drug self-administration is a consequence of extended drug access and is thought to be specifically related to addiction, but few studies have investigated whether intake of non-drug reinforcers may also escalate with extended-access. The goal of these studies was to determine the effects of limited and extended-access to ...
Nair Sunila G - - 2009
The melanin-concentrating hormone 1 (MCH1) receptors play an important role in home-cage food consumption in rodents, but their role in operant high-fat food-reinforced responding or reinstatement of food seeking in animal models is unknown. Here, we used the MCH1 receptor antagonist SNAP 94847 to explore these questions. In experiment 1, ...
Walton Mark E ME Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK. - - 2009
Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and mesolimbic dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits. However, their exact contribution to such decisions has, to date, never been directly compared. To investigate this issue we tested ...
Alsiö Johan - - 2009
Anxiety has been implicated in obesity and in the overconsumption of highly palatable foods such as those high in fat, sugar, or both. Also, the novelty-seeking trait has been associated with failure in weight-loss programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of experimental anxiety and the ...
Jimenez-Gomez Corina - - 2009
Previous studies with concurrent-chains procedures have shown that preference for a terminal-link signaling a higher reinforcement rate decreases as initial-link durations increase. Using a concurrent-chains procedure, the present experiment examined the effects of manipulating initial-link duration on preference and resistance to disruption with rats nose poking for different rates of ...
Jiménez Angel A - - 2009
Studies of choice in steady state have shown that sensitivity to reinforcement increases with increasing fixed-ratio changeover (FR CO) requirements. We assessed the generality of this finding with choice in transition. Food deliveries were programmed according to concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Seven different VI pairs arranged ratios of food deliveries ...
Tanno Takayuki - - 2009
Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The tandem schedules ...
Locey Matthew L ML Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. - - 2009
Many drugs of abuse produce changes in impulsive choice, that is, choice for a smaller-sooner reinforcer over a larger-later reinforcer. Because the alternatives differ in both delay and amount, it is not clear whether these drug effects are due to the differences in reinforcer delay or amount. To isolate the ...
Cohen Ami A Department of Psychology, Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9660, - - 2009
Nicotine has been reported to produce both anxiolytic and/or anxiogenic effects in humans and animals. This study examined whether pretreatment with nicotine would alter anxiety in a unique runway model of approach-avoidance conflict. Food-restricted rats were trained to run a straight alley once a day to obtain food upon goal-box ...
Caetano Marcelo S - - 2009
A rat's behavior, as well as a stimulus, may be a time marker. But do they lead to similar performance? Eight rats were trained on a 20-s DRL procedure in which head-entry responses were time markers, i.e., each head-entry response indicated that food would not be delivered for 20s. Concurrently, ...
Gass Justin T JT Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, MSC 861, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2009
The type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) and the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCepsilon) regulate ethanol intake, and we have previously demonstrated that mGluR5 receptor antagonism reduces ethanol consumption via a PKCepsilon-dependent mechanism. We explored the potential neuroanatomical substrates of regulation of ethanol reinforcement by this mGluR5-PKCepsilon signaling ...
Kyonka Elizabeth G E - - 2009
Four pigeons responded in a concurrent-chains procedure in which terminal-link schedules were fixed-interval (FI) 10s and FI 20s. Across sessions, the location of the shorter terminal-link changed according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. Each session, the variable-interval initial-link schedule value was sampled from a uniform distribution that ranged from 0.01 ...
Johnson Alexander W AW Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2009
Considerable evidence implicates the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the formation of outcome representations that link cues to the incentive properties of reinforcers. Animals with BLA damage show impaired performance in reinforcer devaluation tasks, in which the value of the food reinforcer is reduced by satiation or food-toxin pairings after the ...
Boutros Nathalie - - 2009
Five pigeons responded on steady-state concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules of food presentation in which half of the foods were removed and replaced with nonfood stimuli. Across conditions, the stimuli were either paired or unpaired with food, and the correlation between the ratio of food deliveries on the two alternatives and ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2009
The present study examined the independent and interactive association between dietary restraint, body mass index (BMI) and the relative reinforcing value of food. Four hundred and three introductory psychology students completed questionnaires assessing age, gender, BMI, hunger, smoking status, nicotine dependence, dietary restraint, hedonic ratings for snack food and fruits ...
Halligan Sarah M - - 2009
Two parents were concerned because their two young girls were delayed in learning to use the potty. In this study we obtained data on the frequency of wet diapers and use of the potty at home. Following baseline, an intervention was implemented that involved increased intake of liquids and salty ...
Salamone John D - - 2009
There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional ...
Podlesnik Christopher A CA Utah State University, United States. - - 2009
In previous research on resistance to change, differential disruption of operant behavior by satiation has been used to assess the relative strength of responding maintained by different rates or magnitudes of the same reinforcer in different stimulus contexts. The present experiment examined resistance to disruption by satiation of one reinforcer ...
Holland Peter C - - 2008
In experiments that measured food consumption, Holland (1981; Learning and Motivation, 12, 1-18) found that food aversions were formed when an exteroceptive associate of food was paired with illness, but not when such an associate was paired with shock. By contrast, measuring the ability of food to reinforce instrumental responding, ...
Lombas Andrés S - - 2008
The present experiment compared the effects of a food-based conditioned inhibitor on food seeking vs. cocaine seeking behavior. In two groups of rats, the A+/AB- Pavlovian conditioned inhibition procedure was used to create a conditioned inhibitor for food. Then, for one group of rats (Food-Food Group), a click stimulus was ...
Mazur James E - - 2008
Pigeons responded in a successive-encounters procedure that consisted of a search period, a choice period, and a handling period. The search period was either a fixed-interval or a mixed-interval schedule presented on the center key of a three-key chamber. Upon completion of the search period, the center key was turned ...
Giesen Janneke C A H - - 2009
This study investigates individual differences in the reinforcing value of snack food. More specifically, it was investigated whether differences in restraint status are associated with differences in working for high-caloric snack food. Thirty-six unrestrained non-dieters, twenty restrained non-dieters and fifteen current dieters performed a concurrent schedules task in which they ...
Stairs Dustin J - - 2008
Bupropion has been found to be a useful pharmaceutical agent in furthering smoking abstinence. Preclinical research investigating the effects of bupropion on nicotine self-administration has indicated bupropion has selective effects on nicotine self-administration. However since response rates maintained by nicotine were significantly lower than rates of response maintained by the ...
Gass Justin T JT Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2009
Addiction to methamphetamine is a significant public health problem, and there are currently no pharmacological agents that are approved for the treatment of addiction to this powerful psychostimulant. Chronic methamphetamine use leads to cognitive dysfunction as well as numerous psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular complications. There is a growing body of ...
Pinkston Jonathan W - - 2008
The reproducibility of experimental outcomes depends on consistent control of independent variables. In food-maintained operant performance, it is of utmost importance that the quantity of food delivered is reliable. To that end, some commercial food pellet dispensers have add-on attachments to sense the delivery of pellets. Not all companies, however, ...
Lagendijk Emmanuelle - - 2008
A Web-enabled survey was conducted to improve knowledge of home refrigeration practices of French consumers (n = 809), with an emphasis on hygiene, and this information was used to establish recommendations. The survey targeted a convenience sample of working people. Analysis of the survey responses revealed that efforts should be ...
Allen Ron - - 2008
Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates increased significantly when the houselight ...
Raiff Bethany R - - 2008
RATIONALE: Nicotine may enhance the reinforcing value of other reinforcers. It is unclear whether nicotine enhances responding maintained by all reinforcers or whether there are limits to this role. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to test the generality of nicotine-induced increases in reinforced responding by using an observing ...
Ranaldi Robert R Department of Psychology, Queens College/City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, USA. - - 2009
We tested the hypothesis that sensitization to heroin enhances appetitive motivational processes involving food reward. In Experiment 1, sixteen rats were exposed to positive pairings of a light stimulus and food for 4 consecutive daily sessions. Then, the rats received either saline or heroin (2 mg/kg) injections before placement in ...
Beninger R J RJ Department of Psychology, and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston ON, K7L 3N6 Canada. - - 2008
Dopamine D(3) receptors (Drd3) have been implicated in the control of responding by drug-related conditioned incentive stimuli. We review recent studies of the effects of Drd3 antagonists or partial agonists on the control of self-administration of intravenous (IV) cocaine, IV morphine and oral ethanol on reward-rich and lean schedules, in ...
Guez David D Department of Psychology, State University of New York Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, - - 2008
Blaser, Couvillon, and Bitterman (2006) presented data obtained with honeybees that in principle challenged all traditional interpretations of blocking. They administered A + followed by either A + or + alone (where + indicates an unconditioned stimulus) and then tested on X. They observed less responding to X when they ...
Johnson Alexander W AW Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Neurogenetics and Behavior Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2008
Stimuli paired with reward acquire incentive properties that are important for many aspects of motivated behavior, such as feeding and drug-seeking. Here we used a novel chemical-genetic strategy to determine the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, known to be critical to many aspects of neural development ...
Christensen Chesley J - - 2008
When reinterpreted, data from Ahmed and Koob [Ahmed, S.H., Koob, G.F., Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: Change in hedonic set point. Science 1998; 282:298-301.] show that the reinforcing strength of cocaine, an inessential good, increases with experience. However, no such effect obtains with a homeostatically regulated good such ...
Nasser Jennifer A JA New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA. - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of food-reinforced operant task performance in modeling binge-eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that food reinforcement after a caloric preload would be related to BED status, but not hunger. We investigated the association between reports of hunger, binge tendency, and food ...
Grillon Christian - - 2008
Renewal of an extinguished conditioned response has been demonstrated in humans and in animals using various types of procedures, except renewal of motor learning such as eyeblink conditioning. We tested renewal of delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in a virtual environment in an ABA design. Following acquisition in one context ...
Foltin Richard W RW Division on Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2008
Procedures for studying the effects of medications on satiation will assist the development of obesity medications. Develop a procedure for measuring satiation during consumption of bland and highly palatable food and determine the effect of acute intramuscular administration of dexfenfluramine (DFEN), which increases serotonin levels, and memantine (MEM), which blocks ...
Nilsson Jonatan J Institute of Marine Research, 5392, Storebø, Norway. - - 2008
When animals associate a stimulus with food, they may either direct their response towards the stimulus (sign-tracking) or towards the food (goal-tracking). The direction of the conditioned response of cod was investigated to elucidate how cod read cue signals. Groups of cod were conditioned to associate a blinking light (conditioned ...
Reed Phil - - 2008
In three experiments, we examined the effect on the patterns of responding noted on fixed interval (FI) schedules of prior exposure to a range of interval and ratio schedules. Rats leverpressed for food reinforcement on random ratio (RR), random interval (RI), or variable interval (VI) schedules prior to transfer to ...
Shahan Timothy A - - 2008
Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with extinction. Observing responses in both ...
Temple Jennifer L JL University at Buffalo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Behavioral Medicine, Buffalo, NY 14214-3000, - - 2008
The reinforcing value of food is a reliable index of motivation to eat and energy intake. Obese adults find food more reinforcing than do nonobese adults. The present study was designed to assess whether the relative reinforcing value of food differs as a function of weight status in 8-12-y-old children ...
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