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Rasmussen Erin B - - 2010
Obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) eat more food than lean controls in free-feeding conditions, which strongly influences their phenotypic expression. Few studies, however, characterize their food consumption in environments that are more representative of foraging conditions, e.g., how effort plays a role in food procurement. This study examined the reinforcing efficacy ...
Fletcher Paul J - - 2010
Previous work showed that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists reduce cocaine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, whereas a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist enhances responding for cocaine. The present experiments examined the effects of Ro60-0175 (5-HT(2C) agonist) and SB242084 (5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist) in rats on responding for food on a ...
Kozyrev S A - - 2010
We have previously established that reactivation of a long-term memory "trace" during exposure to a protein synthesis inhibitor in common snails trained to refuse a defined foodstuff impairs reproduction of this skill. In the present studies, the cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in defensive behavior command neurons LPl1 ...
Moscarello J M - - 2010
Goal-directed behavior is governed by internal physiological states and external incentives present in the environment (e.g. hunger and food). While the role of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in behavior guided by environmental incentives has been well studied, the effect of relevant physiological states on the function of this system ...
Hanlon Erin C EC University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53719, USA. - - 2010
Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome of increase in food intake accompanied by, paradoxically, decrease in weight, suggesting a potential alteration in motivation for food reward. Using the multiple platform method to produce REM sleep deprivation (REMSD), we investigated the effect of REMSD on motivation for food ...
Uslaner Jason M - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio ...
Schwabe Lars - - 2010
Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual ...
Jin Xinchun X Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0603, - - 2010
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically ...
Scheggi Simona - - 2011
Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression that also characterizes substance abuse-related mood disorders, in particular those secondary to stimulant abuse. This study investigated the long-lasting condition of cocaine sensitization as an inducing condition for anhedonia in rats. Cortical-mesolimbic dopamine plays a central role in assessing the incentive value of ...
McNamara I M - - 2010
Prior research has shown that the neuropeptide galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is made freely available. However, when access to food is made contingent upon lever pressing on a reinforcement schedule, no such stimulation occurs. This dissociation is consistent with the theorized "behavioral energizing" function ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2010
Choice is a central construct in behavioral economics, with choice research divided into choice of concurrent alternative reinforcers, which is conceptualized as relative reinforcing value, or choice of small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, usually of the same commodity, which is conceptualized as delay of gratification and delay discounting. Relative ...
Stingl Krunoslav T - - 2010
The importance of food stimuli for all living organisms is defined by their relevance for survival. Therefore, visual processing of food stimuli is influenced by many factors, such as cultural and societal background. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we examined the categorization and memorization of visual food and non-food stimuli ...
Stahlman W David WD Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1563, - - 2010
Instrumental response variation is inversely related to reward probability. Gharib, Derby, and Roberts (2001) theorized that individuals behave more variably when their expectation of reward is low. They postulate that this behavioral rule assists the discovery of alternative actions when a target response is unlikely to be reinforced. This suggests ...
Tomina Yusuke - - 2010
Operant conditioning is a common tool for studying cognitive aspects of brain functions. As the first step toward understanding those functions in simple invertebrate microbrains, we tested whether operant conditioning could be applied to train American lobster Homarus americanus that has been extensively adopted as an animal model for neurophysiological ...
McLaughlin P J - - 2010
Overt similarities exist between the effects of systemic cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonists and dopamine (DA) antagonists on appetitive behavior. The present set of studies was undertaken to apply a fine-grained analysis of food-reinforced operant lever pressing in rats in order to compare the pattern of effects produced by administration of ...
Maccioni Paola P CNR Neuroscience Institute, Viale Diaz 182, I-09126 Cagliari, - - 2010
Extracts from or derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris beans reduce body weight and food intake, including highly palatable foods and fluids, in multiple rodent models of overeating and obesity. The present study was designed to assess whether a standardised P. vulgaris dry extract was effective in reducing also the operant self-administration ...
Droste Suzanne M - - 2010
Ligands functioning as antagonists and inverse agonists at the cannabinoid CB(1)-receptor (e.g., AM 251, AM 281, and rimonabant (previously identified as SR141716)) have been demonstrated to have effects on satiety, consumption of, and the motivation to work for, or obtain food. These represent behavioral effects that may also be linked ...
Forget Benoit - - 2010
Nicotine is the principal component of tobacco smoke, resulting in addiction, and recent evidence suggests that damage to the insular cortex (insula) disrupts tobacco addiction in human smokers. However, the effect of an inactivation of this structure in an animal model of nicotine addiction has yet to be evaluated. To ...
Borrero Carrie S W - - 2010
Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food refusal ...
Lee May S H - - 2010
Most research on stimulus preference and reinforcer assessment involves a preference assessment that is followed by a reinforcer assessment. Typically, the most and least preferred stimuli are tested as reinforcers. In the current study, we first quantified the reinforcing efficacies of six food items and then assessed relative preference for ...
Valdimarsdóttir Hildur - - 2010
A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, nonremoval of the fork (Hoch, Babbitt, Coe, Krell, & Hackbert, 1994), and stimulus fading on consumption of food rejected previously. The study was conducted in two separate settings, and caregivers were trained in ...
Calvert Amanda L - - 2010
Humans discount larger delayed rewards less steeply than smaller rewards, whereas no such magnitude effect has been observed in rats (and pigeons). It remains possible that rats' discounting is sensitive to differences in the quality of the delayed reinforcer even though it is not sensitive to amount. To evaluate this ...
Plaza-Zabala Ainhoa A Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia, Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Calle Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, - - 2010
Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces mainly dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice. However, the consequences of this exposure on the behavioural responses related to natural reinforcing stimuli are still largely unknown. We examined whether repeated treatment with neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic doses of MDMA could exert acute and long-lasting effects on the ...
Sharf Ruth - - 2010
Orexin (hypocretin) signaling is implicated in drug addiction and reward, but its role in feeding and food-motivated behavior remains unclear. We investigated orexin's contribution to food-reinforced instrumental responding using an orexin 1 receptor (Ox1r) antagonist, orexin -/- (OKO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of orexin. C57BL/6J (n ...
Lupfer-Johnson Gwen G Department of Psychology, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99508-4614, USA. - - 2010
We investigated operant behavior in a novel species, the dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli). In two experiments, hamsters were trained to lever-press for food reinforcement. In Experiment 1, rate of reinforcement was manipulated across conditions using four variable-interval schedules of reinforcement (delivering one to eight reinforcers per min). As predicted, within-session ...
Rodewald Andrew M - - 2010
Four pigeons responded under a 7-component mixed schedule in which each component arranged a different left:right reinforcer ratio (27:1, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9, 1:27). Components were unsignaled, and the order within each session was randomly determined. After extensive exposure to these contingencies, effects of a range of doses of ...
Giesen Janneke C A H - - 2010
It has been suggested that for overweight and obese individuals high-calorie foods are more reinforcing than for normal-weight individuals. It has already been shown that in contrast to sedentary activities, snack food is more reinforcing for obese women, relative to normal-weight women. However, it is unclear whether overweight/obese individuals are ...
Melchor-Hipólito Benjamin - - 2010
The effects of retention and demonstration intervals on serial position were evaluated in two experiments with Long-Evans rats. A list of 3 demonstrators that had eaten one of three flavored foods was presented to naive observers. In Experiment 1, there were four groups, three groups with a retention interval compared ...
Perry Michelle L - - 2010
Previous work has implicated the cholinergic system in modulating feeding behavior; however, its specific function remains unclear. This work aims to characterize potential dissociations between the central cholinergic modulation of the incentive properties of food and food-associated cues, and consummatory behaviors. Three separate experiments demonstrated that intra-accumbens infusion of the ...
Stoops William W - - 2010
Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concern. Contingency management, wherein alternative reinforcers are made available upon cocaine abstinence, has shown promise for decreasing cocaine use. Other research has modeled this effect and demonstrated that alternative reinforcers also reduce cocaine self-administration in the laboratory. Results from both clinical ...
McGee Heidi M - - 2010
This study tested the hypothesis that withdrawal from intermittent access to a sweet fat mixture would lead to an exaggerated motivation and craving for palatable food. Male Long-Evans rats were divided into three weight-matched groups based on access to sweetened vegetable shortening (SVS). Groups received 1-hour SVS access everyday (7D ...
Jonkman Sietse S Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Different groups of rats received different amounts of training to lever press for a food reinforcer before an aversion was conditioned to the food. This devaluation of the reinforcer reduced responding in both subsequent extinction and reinforced tests of responding to a degree that was independent of the amount of ...
Sokolowski Michel B C - - 2010
An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the ...
Davison Michael M Psychology Department., The University of Auckland City Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. - - 2010
Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight ...
España Rodrigo A - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin-orexin system participates in the regulation of reinforcement processes. The current studies examined the extent to which hypocretin neurotransmission regulates behavioral and neurochemical responses to cocaine, and behavioral responses to food reinforcement. These studies used a combination of fixed ratio, discrete trials, progressive ratio and ...
Clark Erika N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The reinforcing value of food plays a role in food consumption. We have shown previously that daily intake of a high-energy-density (HED) snack food decreases food reinforcement and food liking in nonobese women but increases food reinforcement and decreases food liking in obese women. OBJECTIVE: These previous studies were ...
Nilsson Jonatan - - 2010
We studied the learning capacities and anticipatory behaviour in a "sit-and-wait" predatory fish, the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. In Experiment 1 two groups of halibut received series of light flashes (conditioned stimulus, CS) that started before delivery of food (unconditioned stimulus, US) and persisted until after food delivery, i.e. delay ...
Okamoto Yuta - - 2009
Motivation is one of the most important factors in dog training. To generate motivation, people use various reinforcer mechanisms. In particular, many pet owners use food because it is simple and convenient. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dogs' level of interest in food and ...
Kawamori Ai - - 2010
For animals to decide which prey to attack, the gain and delay of the food item must be integrated in a value function. However, the subjective value is not obtained by expected profitability when it is accompanied by risk. To estimate the subjective value, we examined choices in a cross-shaped ...
Foster T Mary - - 2009
Concurrent schedules were used to establish 6 hens' preferences for three foods. The resulting biases suggested wheat was preferred over honey-puffed and puffed wheat, and puffed wheat was the least preferred food. The hens then responded under fixed-ratio schedules for each food in 40-min (excluding reinforcer time) sessions, with the ...
Haluk Desirae M DM Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2010
Operant conditioning paradigms are useful for studying factors involved in reward, particularly when combined with the tools of genetic manipulation in mice. Published operant studies involving mice vary widely with respect to design, and insight into the consequences of design choices on performance in mice is limited. Here, we evaluated ...
Balsam Peter - - 2009
Anticipation occurs on timescales ranging from milliseconds to hours to days. This paper relates the theoretical and methodological developments in the study of interval timing in the seconds, minutes and hours range to research on the anticipatory activity induced by regularly timed daily meals. Daily food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is entrained ...
Thanos Panayotis K - - 2010
In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R(+/+)), both heterozygous (D4R(+/-)) and knockout (D4R(-/-)) mice showed no difference in responding for food ...
Pierce W David - - 2010
In Experiment 1, compared to non-reinforced presentation of a food stimulus (A-->no US), the association of a food stimulus with wheel running (A-->US) blocked subsequent avoidance of a distinctive flavor (X), when both the food and flavor were followed by wheel running (AX-->US). Experiment 2 replicated and extended the blocking ...
Dwyer D M - - 2009
It has recently been argued that rats engage in causal reasoning and they do so in a way that is consistent with Bayes net theories (Blaisdell, Sawa, Leising & Waldmann, 2006). This argument was based upon the finding that the tendency of cues to elicit approach to a food-well was ...
Killeen Peter R - - 2009
Pigeons responded to intermittently reinforced classical conditioning trials with erratic bouts of responding to the conditioned stimulus. Responding depended on whether the prior trial contained a peck, food, or both. A linear persistence-learning model moved pigeons into and out of a response state, and a Weibull distribution for number of ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2010
Behavioral choice theory and laboratory choice paradigms can provide a framework to understand the reinforcing efficacy or reinforcing value of food. Reinforcing efficacy is measured in the laboratory by assessing how much effort one will engage in to gain access to food as the amount of work progressively increases. However, ...
Proppe Darren S - - 2009
Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of ...
Carroll Marilyn E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of phencyclidine (PCP), ethanol (ETOH), and other drugs reduces operant responding maintained by food. OBJECTIVES: Experiment 1 examined the effects of withdrawing daily short access (2 h) to drug on impulsivity for saccharin (SACC) using a delay discounting task and comparing male and female rhesus monkeys. Experiment 2 ...
Casey Sean D - - 2009
The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and ...
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