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Hillyard S - - 2013
/st>Many preoperative fasting guidelines suggest that hot tea or coffee with milk added should be considered similar to solid food, allowing an interval of 6 h before commencing anaesthesia. There is little evidence to support these instructions, with recent guidelines undecided on the issue. This study aimed to establish whether ...
Mercachita Tânia - - 2013
Bariatric surgery is indicated as the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the procedure of choice. However, nutritional deficiency may occur in the postoperative period as a result of reduced gastric capacity and change in nutrients absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The prescription ...
Geliebter Allan - - 2013
Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derived from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. ...
Bornhorst Gail M - - 2013
The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that ...
Shannon Caroline - - 2013
Bariatric surgery is an effective method of weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. It is more effective when combined with nutritional care, which is sometimes complex, always ongoing and differs between surgical procedures. In Australia, the three most common bariatric surgical procedures are the adjustable gastric banding, sleeve ...
Sim┼ček Zahide - - 2013
Background/aims:During removal of intragastric balloon, there is a great deal of gastric undigested food even after an eight-hour starvation. Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme existing in the pineapple juice seems to be a good choice for the undigested food remnants in the stomach. We aimed to investigate the effect of drinking ...
Jordi Josua - - 2013
To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal ...
Miras Alexander D - - 2013
The clinical efficacy of bariatric surgery has encouraged the scientific investigation of the gut as a major endocrine organ. Manipulation of gastrointestinal anatomy through surgery has been shown to profoundly affect the physiological and metabolic processes that control body weight and glycaemia. The most popular bariatric surgical procedures are gastric ...
Badshah Haroon - - 2013
Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered ...
Yagi Takakazu - - 2013
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). According to the Rome III consensus, FD is divided into 2 subgroups: epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Although multiple mechanisms of FD pathogenesis have been suggested, its underlying etiology and pharmacological therapy remain unclear. Ghrelin is a gut-derived peptide ...
Carey Sharon - - 2013
PURPOSE: Few qualitative studies have explored patients' experience of food and eating following major upper gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The aim of this article was to explore the longer-term impact of different types of major upper gastrointestinal surgeries on people's relationship with food. METHODS: Twenty-six people having had major upper gastrointestinal ...
Dossat Amanda M AM Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, - - 2013
Recent evidence suggests that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neuronal projection to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) contributes to food intake control. To investigate the role of endogenous stimulation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in NAcC, we examined the effects of the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ex9) on meal pattern and microstructure of ...
Plamboeck Astrid - - 2013
Rapid degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) suggests that endogenous GLP-1 may act locally before being degraded. Signalling via the vagus nerve was investigated in 20 truncally vagotomized subjects with pyloroplasty and 10 matched healthy controls. Subjects received GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or saline infusions during and after ...
Kvenshagen Bente K - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of food allergy is increasing. Correct diagnosis is dependent on food challenges, which are not always performed, but more often based on history, skin prick test and specific IgE, leading to possible misdiagnoses. Mucosal provocation tests have been proposed as possible new diagnostic tools during ...
Levinson Radmila - - 2013
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure. It is associated with nutritional deficiencies due to gastric reduction, intestinal bypass, reduced caloric intake, avoidance of nutrient-rich foods, noncompliance with supplementation and poor food tolerability. Although there are multiple publications on this topic, there is a lack of consistent ...
Wu Yanmin - - 2013
Purpose: To investigate the association between various risk factors and precancerous lesion of gastric cancer (PLGC) in patients from eastern China. Materials and Methods: 501 cases of PLGC and 523 cases of superficial gastritis were included. A comparative study of the relation between different risk factors and PGLC was performed. ...
Céspedes Mario - - 2013
 The increase in vegetarianism as dietary habit and the increased allergy episodes against dairy proteins fuel the demand for probiotics in nondairy products. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content of dairy products can also be considered two additional reasons why some consumers are looking for probiotics in other foods. We ...
Koziolek Mirko - - 2013
Food effects on drug release and absorption from solid oral dosage forms are a common biopharmaceutical problem. The fed state is characterized by different motility and secretory activity of the complete gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared to fasting conditions. Due to long gastric transit times, the postprandial stomach plays an essential ...
Reidelberger Roger R Veterans Affairs Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, - - 2013
Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from gut to brain to inhibit food intake. PYY(3-36) potently reduces food intake when administered systemically or into the brain. If action of endogenous PYY(3-36) is necessary for normal satiation to occur, then pharmacological blockade of its receptors should ...
Farré Ricard - - 2013
The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. ...
Tanaka H - - 2013
The feeding ecology of two dominant lanternfishes Diaphus garmani and Diaphus chrysorhynchus was studied in the continental slope region of the East China Sea, off western Kyushu (31-33° N; 128-130° E). Stomach contents of D. garmani were composed mainly of crustacean zooplankton, such as copepods, euphausiids, decapod larvae and amphipods, ...
Kasicka-Jonderko Anna - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. METHODS: Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid ...
Komarnytsky Slavko S Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081, United States. - - 2013
Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits; however, the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here, we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extracts from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25-100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1 ± 8.5% ...
Laurenius A A Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2013
The main objective was to test the hypothesis that dietary energy density (DED) decreases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass). A total of 43 patients (31 women and 12 men) aged 43 (s.d. 10) years, with body mass index (BMI) 44.3 kg/m(2) (4.9), were assessed preoperatively at 6 weeks and 1 ...
Feinle-Bisset Christine - - 2013
Dietary factors are increasingly recognized to have an important role in triggering symptoms in a large proportion of patients with functional dyspepsia. Fatty foods seem to be the main culprits, but other foods (including carbohydrate-containing foods, milk and dairy products, citrus fruits, spicy foods, coffee and alcohol) have also been ...
Mandalari Giuseppina - - 2013
The bioaccessibility of bioactives from pistachios has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we quantified the release of polyphenols, xanthophylls (lutein), and tocopherols from pistachios (raw pistachios, roasted salted pistachios, and muffins made with raw pistachios) during simulated human digestion. A dynamic gastric model of digestion that provides ...
Kaur Lovedeep - - 2013
Green kiwifruit consumption has long been thought to assist in the digestion of food proteins due to the presence of the proteolytic enzyme actinidin. This chapter reviews the recent findings of both in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of green kiwifruit (which contain the enzyme actinidin) on ...
Alava Pradeep - - 2013
The release of arsenic (As) from a contaminated food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion, i.e., its bioaccessibility, is an important estimator of its bioavailability, and therefore also its health risk. In addition, As toxicity is primarily determined by its speciation and it is not clear how different As species behave during ...
Sayegh Ayman I - - 2013
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone secreted by the I-cells of the upper small intestine in response to fat, protein, and some nonnutrients, for example, camostat, and a peptide/neurotransmitter secreted by neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. There are multiple molecular forms of CCK, for example, CCK-8, CCK-33, and ...
Kim Min Jung - - 2013
Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control ...
Kodama Yosuke - - 2013
Both gastric bypass (GB) and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS) have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models ...
Senin Lucia L - - 2013
Over the years, the knowledge regarding the relevance of the cannabinoid system to the regulation of metabolism has grown steadily. A central interaction between the cannabinoid system and ghrelin has been suggested to regulate food intake. Although the stomach is the main source of ghrelin and CB1 receptor expression in ...
Enck Paul P Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital, Tübingen, - - 2013
The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing ...
McGaw Iain J - - 2012
This article reviews the mechanical processes associated with digestion in decapod crustaceans. The decapod crustacean gut is essentially an internal tube that is divided into three functional areas, the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut houses the gastric mill apparatus which functions in mastication (cutting and grinding) of the ingested ...
Koch Kenneth L KL Section on Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, - - 2012
The digestive tract is designed for the optimal processing of food that nourishes all organ systems. The esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon are sophisticated neuromuscular tubes with specialized sphincters that transport ingested food-stuffs from one region to another. Peristaltic contractions move ingested solids and liquids from the esophagus into ...
Stengel Andreas A Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division Psychosomatic Medicine, Obesity Center Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. - - 2012
Ingestion of food affects the secretion of hormones from specialized endocrine cells scattered within the intestinal mucosa. Upon release, these hormones mostly decrease food intake by signaling information to the brain. Although enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine were thought to represent the predominant gut-brain regulators of food intake, recent ...
Hagel A F - - 2012
Background and Aims: Mast cells, which are important effector cells in food allergy, require a special histologic treatment for quantification in endoscopic gastrointestinal samples. The objective of this study was to investigate whether mast cell tryptase (T), a typical mast cell-associated marker, may help to detect patients with food allergy. ...
Ullrich J - - 2012
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that severely obese patients display a markedly enhanced drive to consume palatable food, and that this hedonic hunger is reduced after gastric bypass surgery. Adjustable gastric banding is another frequently performed bariatric operation with unknown effects on hedonic hunger motivation. Here, we compared the level ...
Diesner Susanne C - - 2012
True food allergens are considered as digestion stable proteins, which are absorbed through the gastrointestinal epithelium in an intact form leading to sensitization and causing systemic symptoms. According to classifications, allergens, which are digestion-labile, cause local symptoms by their cross-reactivity towards inhalative allergens. Our recent studies revealed that digestion labile ...
Verdalet-Olmedo Monserrat - - 2012
To investigate factors associated with gastric cancer (GC) in the Mexican population using a validated questionnaire. We designed and validated in Spanish a Questionnaire to Find Factors Associated with Diseases of the Digestive Tract using GC as a model. A cross-sectional study using 49 subjects, with confirmed histopathological GC diagnosis, ...
Nitta Yoko - - 2013
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) catalyses the formation of histamine, a bioactive amine. Agents that control HDC activity are beneficial for treating histamine-mediated symptoms, such as allergies and stomach ulceration. We searched for inhibitors of HDC from the ethyl acetate extract of the petal of Filipendula ulmaria, also called meadowsweet. Rugosin D, ...
Wick Jeannette Y - - 2012
Public health authorities have mounted campaigns aimed at educating Americans about the obesity epidemic and urging them to consume less sugar. Another food additive-salt-is also a culprit, and many experts believe it should be the target of our next major public health campaign. In addition to obesity, salt is associated ...
Kafri Naama - - 2012
A healthy diet and good eating behaviors are essential components of long-term success in weight maintenance after bariatric surgery. Although rates of revised bariatric surgery have increased, data on subsequent behavioral outcomes are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate behavioral outcomes following revised laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (R-LSG) ...
Saeidi N N Center for Engineering in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2012
All available treatments directed towards obesity and obesity-related complications are associated with suboptimal effectiveness/invasiveness ratios. Pharmacological, behavioral and lifestyle modification treatments are the least invasive, but also the least effective options, leading to modest weight loss that is difficult to maintain long-term. Gastrointestinal weight loss surgery (GIWLS) is the most ...
Jessen Lene L Division of Endocrinology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45237, - - 2012
Administration of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4) directly into the central nervous system decreases food intake. But although Ex-4 potently suppresses food intake after peripheral administration, the effects of parenteral GLP-1 are variable and not as strong. A plausible explanation for these effects is the ...
Mackie Alan - - 2012
SCOPE: We have tested the hypothesis that high fat foods such as chocolate induce reduced rates of gastric emptying in comparison to lower fat foods and that this can impact uptake of allergens and subsequent reactions in allergic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In four volunteers, magnetic resonance imaging was used ...
Chambers Adam P AP Metabolic Disease Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. - - 2013
Reductions in levels of the hunger-stimulating hormone ghrelin have been proposed to mediate part of the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries for obesity. We studied circulating levels of acyl and desacyl ghrelin in rats after these surgeries. We found that blood levels of ghrelin ...
Ullrich Jennifer - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. METHODS: Forty-four severely obese patients were examined before and on ...
Mondovi Bruno - - 2012
This review provides an update on histamine, on diamine oxidase (DAO) and on their implications in allergy and various conditions or affections, such as food histaminosis, ischemia and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The review also presents, in brief, patent coverage on therapies for allergy and IBD with the focus on ...
Bessler Scott M - - 2012
At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly ...
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