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Results 451 - 500 of 1068
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Orpwood James E - - 2006
1. Patterns of sheltering and activity are of fundamental importance in the ecology of animals and in determining interactions among predators and prey. Balancing decreased mortality risk when sheltering with increased feeding rate when exposed is believed to be a key determinant of diel patterns of sheltering in many animals. ...
Randall David J - - 2006
Ammonia is produced in the liver and excreted as NH(3) by diffusion across the gills. Elevated ammonia results in an increase in gill ventilation, perhaps via stimulation of gill oxygen chemo-receptors. Acidification of the water around the fish by carbon dioxide and acid excretion enhances ammonia excretion and constitutes "environmental ...
Park Young-Seuk - - 2006
This study focused on characterizing fish assemblages in the Adour-Garonne basin and identifying the relative influences of landscape-scale features on observed patterns in stream fish assemblages. Two different artificial neural network algorithms were used: a self-organizing map (SOM) and a multilayer perceptron (MLP). A SOM was applied to determine fish ...
Clotfelter Ethan D - - 2006
We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, beta-sitosterol, and the positive control 17beta-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror ...
Hallett Sascha L - - 2006
A total of 7 samples of live freshwater oligochaetes (mixed species), sold as 'tubifex' worms as food for aquarium fishes, were purchased over a 1 yr period from several pet shops in Munich, Germany, and screened for parasitic infections of myxozoans. The water associated with 5 samples contained actinospores at ...
Vulesevic B - - 2006
The goals of this study were to assess the respiratory consequences of exposing adult zebrafish Danio rerio to chronic changes in water gas composition (hypoxia, hyperoxia or hypercapnia) and to determine if any ensuing effects could be related to morphological changes in branchial chemoreceptors. To accomplish these goals, we first ...
Bjerregaard Lisette B - - 2006
Brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from a number of Danish streams impacted by sewage effluent were examined for alterations to gonadal development and induction of vitellogenin synthesis. Among fish collected in June/July 2000/2001 and November 2002 higher levels of plasma vitellogenin were found in males from six streams impacted by ...
Bailey D M - - 2006
Food web structure, particularly the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of animal abundances, is poorly known for the Earth's largest habitats: the abyssal plains. A unique 15-yr time series of climate, productivity, particulate flux, and abundance of primary consumers (primarily echinoderms) and secondary consumers (fish) was examined to ...
Nielsen Jeppe L - - 2006
The abundance, identity and activity of uncultured Bacteria and Actinobacteria present in a drinking water reservoir (North Pine Dam, Brisbane, Australia) were determined using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) alone or with catalysed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) with microautoradiography. The CARD-FISH technique was modified relative to previous described ...
Calvani Mauro - - 2006
It has been suggested that changes in dietary habits, particularly increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decreased consumption of omega-3 PUFAs may explain the increase in atopic disease seen in recent years. Furthermore, it seems possible that it is mainly prenatal or very early life environmental factors ...
Oben, PM; Department of ...
The state of ornamental aquarium fish export trade in Cameroon is largely undeveloped. This is due mainly to lack of technical know-how concerning domestication and breeding. Synodontis obesus broodfish has been domesticated for six months in concrete tanks located at Buea, Cameroon using local food materials and plankton species, without ...
Graham Rachel T - - 2006
We present diving data for four whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse (reef fish spawn) and an analysis of the longest continuous fine-resolution diving record for a planktivorous shark. Fine-resolution pressure data from a recovered pop-up archival satellite tag deployed for 206 days on a whale shark ...
Boren Laura J - - 2006
New Zealand fur seals in the Kaikoura region breed near a town with expanding tourist and fishing industries and commonly come ashore entangled in nets and plastic debris. However, the rate at which entanglement occurs was previously unknown. A decade of Department of Conservation seal callout data was analysed to ...
Silva Fabio Arlindo - - 2006
This paper presents a simple, fast and sensitive method to determine chromic oxide (used as a biological marker of fish feed) in samples of fish feces by GFAAS through the direct introduction of slurries of the samples into the spectrometer's graphite tube. The standard samples of feces and of fish ...
Greathouse Effie A - - 2006
Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both ...
Burreson Eugene M - - 2006
Malmiana buthi n. sp. is described from the body and fins of the fluffy sculpin, Oligocottus snyderi, the tidepool sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus, and the woolly sculpin, Clinocottus analis, collected from tidepools at Horseshoe Cove on the Bodega Marine Reserve in Sonoma County, California. Prevalence of the leech was 32.6% on ...
Cardone I B - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether variations in the limnological parameters of the Corumbataí river resulting from the discharge of a variety of wastes into its waters may be responsible for spatial shifts in the diet and capture of the armored catfish Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1907). Individuals ...
Ebadi A G - - 2006
In this study, samples of four species of the most consumed fish (sefid, koli, kilca and kafal fish) were analysed for concentrations of lindane (organochlorine pesticides). Fish were caught using electric fishing at four sites (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in the Mazandaran provinces of Iran. ...
Hinck Jo Ellen - - 2006
Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River ...
Lopes Ruy Bessa - - 2006
Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most representative fish species of Brazilian fish culture, produced in most Brazilian States due to its importance for food diet and sport fishery. This research work investigated the bioconcentration of trichlorfon [phosphonic acid, (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl)-dimethyl ester] insecticide in pacu under fish ponds culture conditions ...
Stenberg, Marika
Animals foraging in a heterogeneous environment may combine prior information on patch qualities and patch sample information to maximize intake rate. Prior information dictates the long-term expectations, whereas prior information in combination with patch sample information determines when to leave an individual food patch. We examined patch use behaviour of ...
Santos M M - - 2006
Recently, it has been demonstrated that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) can interfere with fish sex differentiation, leading to a bias of sex toward males. On the contrary, it is well known that estrogenic compounds can induce fish feminization. Yet, the combined effects of mixtures of androgenic and estrogenic compounds on ...
Bettinetti Roberta - - 2006
BACKGROUND, AIMS AND SCOPE: Although pp'DDT usage was strongly limited or banned in most parts of the world during the last three or four decades, the parent compound, its homologues and their metabolites still occur at levels which might pose a risk for many ecosystem components. A case of DDT ...
Malbrouck Christelle - - 2006
Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic heptapeptides released into water during or on senescence of cyanobacterial blooms. This review details the different effects of the MCs on fish and discusses their potential consequences in aquatic food webs. In early life stages, exposure to MCs causes, in a dose-dependent manner, perturbations to embryonic ...
Ingrosso Loredana - - 2006
Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to the group of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). BSE epidemic in the UK and elsewhere in Europe has been linked to the use of bovine meat and bone meals (MBM) in the feeding of cattle. There is concern that pigs, poultry and ...
Theodorakis Christopher W - - 2006
In October 2001 and March 2002, a field survey of central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) from perchlorate-contaminated streams in central Texas was conducted to assess thyroid endocrine disruption. A survey of adult male and female cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) was performed at the same site between 2001 and 2003. Perchlorate is ...
Pacquit Alexis - - 2006
A sensor with potential for the development of a "chemical barcode" for real-time monitoring of fish freshness is described. This on-package sensor contains a pH sensitive dye, bromocresol green, that responds through visible colour change to basic volatile spoilage compounds, such as trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia (NH(3)) and dimethylamine (DMA) collectively ...
Yoshida Reiko - - 2005
The life cycle of Coitocoecum plagiorchis Ozaki, 1926 (Coitocaecum is an incorrect subsequent spelling) was studied in the field and laboratory. The study was conducted at the Futatsu River and the Chikugo River, Kyushu, Japan. Adults of C. plagiorchis were obtained from fishes Coreoperca kawamebari, Rhinogobius spp. and Odontobutis obscura. ...
Haddad Vidal V - - 2005
The authors report a spiny dogfish (Squalus cubensis/megalops group) sting of a professional fisherman. He was injured on the left hand by the spine anterior to the fish's dorsal fin and manifested local edema, erythema, and excruciating pain for 6 h. Sharks of the genus Squalus megalops/cubensis and Squalus acanthias ...
Faucher Karine - - 2006
Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, ...
Morris Jeffrey M - - 2006
The Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) is a federally listed, endangered species inhabiting the hypereutrophic waters of Upper Klamath Lake in southern Oregon, USA. High pH (> or =10) and elevated ammonia concentrations (> or =1 mg NH(3)-N/L) often occur during blooms of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) in the lake, with ...
MacMillan John R - - 2006
The use of antimicrobials in domestic aquaculture is limited. There are only two approved and available antimicrobials for food fish (Terramycin for Fish) and Romet-30 and one approved for ornamental fish (nifurpirinol). These antimicrobials are only approved to treat specific diseases in specific aquatic animal species. Antimicrobial use data, as ...
Anderson, ME; South African ...
The food habits of 10 species of grenadier collected from the upper continental slope off South Africa's west coast and Agulhas Bank are described. Three feeding strategies were identified. Members of the demersal micro- or mesocarnivore feeding guild and grazer feeding method include <i>Caelorinchus braueri, C. simorhynchus, juvenile Coryphaenoides striaturus, ...
Vermeirssen Etiënne L M - - 2005
Estrogenicity of river water is highly variable and it is difficult to obtain an average measure of the estrogenicity. Consequently it is difficult to tie the estrogenic effects observed in fish to their level of exposure to estrogens. To get a better handle on average estrogenic exposure we tested a ...
Hood James M - - 2005
In ecosystems where excretion by fish is a major flux of nutrients, the nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio released by fish can be important in shaping patterns of algal biomass, community composition, primary production, and nutrient limitation. Demand for N and P as well as energy influences N/P excretion ...
Rubio V C - - 2006
Teleost fish are able to regulate their energy intake selecting from pure macronutrients sources, but the regulatory mechanisms involved in macronutrients selection remain unknown. Serotonin (5-HT) reduces food intake in mammals and fish and modifies the macronutrients selection pattern in mammals; however, no information is available about its role on ...
Luellen Drew R - - 2006
In late 1975, it was discovered that a manufacturing facility had not only exposed workers to the chlorinated pesticide, Kepone, but had also severely contaminated the James River estuary. To assess the potential for the public to be exposed to Kepone through the consumption of contaminated seafood, the Commonwealth of ...
Scott Alexander P - - 2006
An ELISA for cod vitellogenin (VTG) has been set up using cod lipovitellin for plate coating and standardisation. The assay has been applied to plasma samples collected from male and female cod caught in three distinct areas around the UK, three areas off the Norwegian coast and also to cod ...
Artisanal fishing in Africa, historically dominated by fishermen in canoes and boats who set out to sea from small coastal fishing villages in search of bonga, sardinella and other pelagic fish, has provided a nutritious source of food often cheaper than meat. As a result, fish has been consumed by ...
Wong Chun-Kwan - - 2005
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been a significant and increasing public health problem in Hong Kong since 1980s. With growing demand for imported live coral fishes, the number of people who suffered from this disease has also been increasing. An outbreak of CFP in 2004 was the second most prominent ...
Heltsley Rebecca M - - 2005
As concerns mount over the human health risks associated with consumption of fish contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, there exists a need to better evaluate fish body burdens without lethally sampling many of the important commercial and sport species of interest. The aim of this study was to investigate two ...
Veltman Karin - - 2005
Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and marine mammals. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls is predicted well ...
Scheffer Marten - - 2005
Profound indirect ecosystem effects of over-fishing have been shown for coastal systems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A new study from the ecosystem off the Canadian east coast now reveals that the elimination of large predatory fish can also cause marked cascading effects on the pelagic food web. ...
Sangiao-Alvarellos Susana - - 2005
The influence of high stocking density (HSD) and food deprivation was assessed on carbohydrate metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus for 14 days. Fish were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) fed fish under normal stocking density (NSD) (4 kg m(-3)); (2) fed fish ...
Lee C-C - - 2005
Contaminated levels of butyl- and phenyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenlytin (DPT), and monophenyltin (MPT), were investigated in pelagic, demersal and cultured fish species from different seasons and locations in Taiwan. Seasonal variations were found in fishes from Wuchi and Hsingta fishing harbors for their ...
Maldonado-Montiel Teresita D N J - - 2005
Biomass of the crustacean Artemia sp. has multiple uses. The biochemical composition and biomass production of Artemia grown from cysts produced by a native population from Real de Salinas were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nauplii (instar I) were stocked at density of 10 nauplii/ml in 1.5 l tanks, fed with ...
Bucio Adolfo - - 2006
Lactobacilli are Gram-positive and catalase negative rods commonly found in lactic acid fermented foods and in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Few studies have described lactobacilli in freshwater fish. We analysed the presence of lactobacilli in the intestines of young and adult freshwater fish inhabiting a river environment ...
Wang Xinhong - - 2005
Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods (Acartia erythraea) and fish (mangrove snappers Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The uptake rate constant of DDT from water decreased with increasing trophic level. The dietary absorption efficiency (AE) of DDT was 10-29% in copepods and 72-99% in fish. Food ...
Schjolden Joachim - - 2005
Individual rainbow trout were transferred to visual isolation in experimental aquaria. As a measure of the speed of acclimation, individual food intake was quantified during the first 6 d following transfer. Following acclimation, aggression was quantified by subjecting the fish to three resident-intruder tests, with 30 d of recovery between ...
Meldrum R J - - 2005
The coordination of food sampling activities across Wales, a part of the United Kingdom with a population of approximately 3 million, led to the establishment in 1995 of a coordinated food-sampling program designed to monitor on a long-term basis the microbiological quality and safety of specific ready-to-eat products. This surveillance ...
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