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Williams John Russell JR Biology Department, Jacksonville State University , Jacksonville, Alabama 36265, United - - 2014
The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added l-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used: (a) 96 h LC50, the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b) 96 ...
Barry James P - - 2014
The influence of ocean acidification in deep-sea ecosystems is poorly understood, but is expected to be large owing to the presumed low tolerance of deep-sea taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-sea Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (dp-FOCE) system1 to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification ...
Van Dyke James U JU School of Biological Sciences, A08 Heydon-Laurence Building, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2014
Abstract Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only ...
Iannotti Lora L LL Institute for Public Health, Brown School, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2014
Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable ...
Mattos Douglas da Cruz DD Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Departamento de Produção Animal, Laboratório de Zootecnia e Nutrição Animal, CEP, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, - - 2014
Summary The aim of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus), and to determine the time required, hours post fertilization (hpf), for the emergence of various structures. To describe embryonic and larval stages, observations were made at regular periods under an optical ...
Thomas Jith K JK Toxicology Graduate Program, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N - - 2014
Selenomethionine (SeMet) is the major form of organoselenium present in food. Adult female fish can accumulate greater concentrations of SeMet from food in aquatic ecosystems contaminated with selenium (Se), and maternal transfer to eggs increases the incidence of developmental toxicities and mortality in F1 generation larval fish. The present study ...
Bolla Eduardo A EA Jr Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista/ UNESP, Botucatu, SP, - - 2014
The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C), filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰), and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered ...
Reis Lígia Cardoso Dos LC Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
Objective : To assess the nutritional and dietetic profile of freshman Nutrition undergraduate students, and its association with stages of changes (Transtheoretical Model) for fruit and vegetable intake. Methods : Demographic (age and gender), anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and nutritional (pattern of fruit and vegetable intake) data ...
Dahlen Carl - - 2014
Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of ...
Varrella Stefano S Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples 80121, Italy. - - 2014
Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and represent a major food source for zooplankton and benthic filter-feeders. However, their beneficial role in sustaining marine food webs has been challenged after the discovery that they produce secondary metabolites, such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), which negatively affect the reproductive ...
Shobrak Mohammed Y MY Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Zip Code 21974 Taif, Saudi - - 2014
We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is ...
Yekti Aulia Puspita Anugra - - 2013
Abstract Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide, is widely used on food crops. Frequent usage of PBZ may contaminate water, but its toxicity to aquatic organisms is understudied. Although the chronic effects of PBZ exposure on reproductive, antioxidant defense, and liver metabolism systems in rockfish have been reported, the toxic effects ...
Hutler Wolkowicz Ianina R - - 2013
Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud ...
Aldredge Robert A - - 2013
In birds, hatching failure is pervasive and incurs an energetic and reproductive cost to breeding individuals. The egg viability hypothesis posits that exposure to warm temperatures prior to incubation decreases viability of early laid eggs and predicts that females in warm environments minimize hatching failure by beginning incubation earlier in ...
Vargas Lilian - - 2013
Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside ...
Riddick Eric W - - 2013
The lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata De Geer is an omnivorous predator that could help suppress aphid and spider mite populations on plants in greenhouses, plantscapes or interiorscapes. We are assessing the nutritional requirements and feeding behavior of C. maculata on target prey (spider mites) and factitious (unnatural) food. Our ultimate ...
Eid Noura M S - - 2013
Date Palm (Pheonix dactylifera) fruit contain an array of polyphenols, although how these levels alter with cultivar type and fruit ripening is unclear. Utilising HPLC and LC-ESI-MS/MS, we define and quantify an array of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in three common cultivars of Dates (Ajwa, Barni and Khalas) ...
Paquet Matthieu - - 2013
In egg laying species, breeding females may adjust the allocation of nutrients or other substances into eggs in order to maximise offspring or maternal fitness. Cooperatively breeding species offer a particularly interesting context in which to study maternal allocation because helpers create predictably improved conditions during offspring development. Some recent ...
Nagy P - - 2012
Despite their production potential and ability to survive on marginal resources in extreme conditions, dromedaries have not been exploited as an important food source. Camels have not been specifically selected for milk production, and genetic improvement has been negligible. High individual variation in milk production both within the population and ...
Burger Claudia - - 2012
1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, ...
Molina Gonzalo A R - - 2012
Abstract Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ...
Lin Shin-Yi - - 2012
Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined ...
Baum William M - - 2012
The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of ...
Fanelli E - - 2011
Resource partitioning in two congeneric sparids, pandora Pagellus erythrinus and axillary seabream Pagellus acarne, was investigated using stomach content analysis integrated with data on stable isotopes (δ(15) N and δ(13) C). The study was carried out on coastal muddy bottoms in the Gulf of Castellammare (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean ...
Long Zachary T - - 2011
1. Using a subtidal marine food web as a model system, we examined how food chain length (predators present or absent) and the prevalence of omnivory influenced temporal stability (and its components) of herbivores and plants. We held the density of top predators constant but manipulated their identity to generate a ...
Snapp Sieglinde S - - 2010
The Asian green revolution trebled grain yields through agrochemical intensification of monocultures. Associated environmental costs have subsequently emerged. A rapidly changing world necessitates sustainability principles be developed to reinvent these technologies and test them at scale. The need is particularly urgent in Africa, where ecosystems are degrading and crop yields ...
Büttner Barbara E - - 2011
New stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the simultaneous quantitation of [(13)C(5)]-labelled and unlabelled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, folic acid along with unlabelled tetrahydrofolic acid and 10-formylfolic acid in clinical samples deriving from human bioavailability studies, i.e. plasma, ileostomy samples, and food. The methods were based on clean-up by ...
Dickinson Annette - - 2011
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), enacted in 1994, had two primary goals: to ensure continued consumer access to a wide variety of dietary supplements, and to provide consumers with more information about the intended use of dietary supplements. It accomplished these goals, and more, without changing the ...
Nunn Peter B - - 2011
Both neurolathyrism and konzo are associated with the nutritional dependence of human populations on a single plant food. These diseases express themselves as chronic disorders of upper motor neurones, leading to signs and symptoms that characterise amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neurone disease). The plant food associated with neurolathyrism is grass ...
Parikh Kavita - - 2010
The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic undernutrition rates before and after the introduction of a food-supplementation program as an adjunct to routine health care for children of migrant workers in the Dominican Republic. The cross-sectional study was conducted in five rural communities in the Dominican ...
Sheehy Tony - - 2011
European governments have yet to introduce mandatory folic acid fortification of foods for neural tube defect prevention because of uncertainty about the long-term safety of high intake of folic acid. Novel folate-enriched eggs have been proposed as offering a practical way of increasing intake of natural folates, which do not ...
Dufour Ariane - - 2010
Different European institutions have developed mathematical models to propose maximum safe levels either for fortified foods or for dietary supplements. The objective of the present study was to compare and check the safety of these different maximum safe levels (MSL) by using a probabilistic risk assessment approach. The potential maximum ...
Carmichael Suzan L - - 2010
This study investigated the association of neural tube defects (NTDs) with maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid-containing supplements and dietary nutrients, including folate, among deliveries that occurred after folic acid fortification in selected California counties. The population-based case-control study included fetuses and live born infants with spina bifida (189) or ...
Temple Norman J - - 2010
Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly ...
Carmel Ralph - - 2011
The success of folic acid fortification has generated consideration of similar fortification with cobalamin for its own sake but more so to mitigate possible neurologic risks from increased folate intake by cobalamin-deficient persons. However, the folate model itself, the success of which was predicted by successful clinical trials and the ...
Bailey Regan L - - 2010
Total folate intake includes naturally occurring food folate and folic acid from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Recent reports have focused on total folate intakes of persons aged > or =14 y. Information on total folate intakes of young children, however, is limited. The objective was to compute total folate ...
Eilat-Adar S - - 2010
AIMS: Some food groups and supplements have been recommended for preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. In this article, evidence on recommendations for some of these food groups (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts, and soy) and supplements (phytosterols, antioxidants, folic acid, and B-complex vitamins) is reviewed. Additionally, gender ...
Fiedler John L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Fortification offers great potential for reducing the enormous disease burden of micronutrient deficiencies. The lack of information on food consumption patterns has been a major impediment to the development of fortification programs. In some countries, the absence of this information has been an obstacle to the introduction of fortification. ...
Kao Tseng-Ting - - 2010
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogens that causes infectious and foodborne diseases worldwide. Searching for drug and chemical compounds against this bacterium is still in demand. We found that grape seed extract (GSE), a natural food product rich in polyphenols, inhibited the dihydrofolate reductase activity ...
McCormick Donald B - - 2010
In the United States today, there is a multibillion dollar industry in dietary supplements with at least a third sold as vitamin/mineral pills and drinks. Though everyone requires small amounts of these essential micronutrients, and supplements are of benefit to some within the population, the considerable majority of people can ...
Lee Jung Eun JE Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Republic of - - 2010
Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assessed from food-frequency questionnaires, are associated with total plasma homocysteine ...
Zaalberg Ap - - 2010
In an earlier study, improvement of dietary status with food supplements led to a reduction in antisocial behavior among prisoners. Based on these earlier findings, a study of the effects of food supplements on aggression, rule-breaking, and psychopathology was conducted among young Dutch prisoners. Two hundred and twenty-one young adult ...
Schiller-Frühwirth I - - 2010
Countries with obligatory fortification of food (USA, Canada) document a significant decrease of neural tube defects in newborns. In this study the Daly or, respectively, the Wald method was employed for calculating the potential of fortification/and supplementation for prevention in Austria. According to the EUROCAT study, in Austria the overall ...
Papoutsakis Constantina - - 2010
To explore the influence of folate-fortified foods (ready-to-eat [RTE] breakfast cereals or fruit-juice drinks) on the relation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy children. This was a cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview. A total of 186 sixth-grade students participated from randomly ...
Eneroth Hanna - - 2010
Knowledge about the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status is limited. We examined the effect of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab Trial. Pregnant women (n = 4436) were randomized to Early or ...
Huybrechts Inge - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake ...
Roush James K - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6-omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS: 127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately ...
Ganio Matthew S - - 2010
Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effect of quercetin supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to test the effects of quercetin supplementation on VO(2max) in untrained, sedentary individuals. After baseline treadmill VO(2max) testing, 11 participants (5 ...
Parachikova Anna - - 2010
Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitamins, vitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD ...
Frankos V H - - 2010
In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act) to set up a distinct regulatory framework for what we now call dietary supplements. The DSHEA was passed with the intent of striking a balance between providing consumers access to ...
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