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Crane N T - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: This article uses folic acid as an example to illustrate some of the complex issues and general principles that emerge when evaluating fortification of the food supply as one possible means to address a public health recommendation. METHODS: Distributions of current daily folate intakes from conventional foods and dietary ...
Lane H W - - 1995
This study was designed to determine whether freeze-dried and thermostabilized foods on a space shuttle contain adequate folate and to investigate any effects of freeze-drying on folacin. Frozen vegetables were analyzed after three states of processing: thawed; cooked; and rehydrated. Thermostabilized items were analyzed as supplied with no further processing. ...
Henle T - - 1995
Sensitive determination of furosine in acid hydrolysates of foods was achieved by isocratic ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC and direct UV-detection within a run time of 5 minutes and levels lower than 1.5 mg per kg of protein. The formation of furosine during hydrolysis of food samples with hydrochloric acid of varying ...
Dahiya S - - 1995
Four supplement mixtures using whole wheat, pearl millet, bengal gram, green gram, groundnuts and amaranth leaves were developed employing roasting and malting techniques. Malting used in the formation of the supplements reduced significantly hot paste viscosity of all the four supplements and increased their nutrient density per unit volume. The ...
Ramoino P - - 1995
Acid phosphatase activity was measured in individual cells by determining their optical densities through a scanning confocal laser microscope. The naphthol AS-TR (3-hydroxy-2-naphtoic acid 4'-chloro-2'-methylanilide) phosphate-hexazotized para-rosanilin method was used to visualise the acid phosphatase content in the light microscope. Evidence was obtained that the amount of enzyme varied in ...
Buist N R - - 1994
A new amino acid mixture for incorporation into medical foods for the treatment of hyperphenylalaninemia has been tested in a regular clinic. The mix is designed to be as unobtrusive as possible, consistent with good nutrition. After more than 1 year of trial as a beverage, we have shown that ...
Dawson D W - - 1994
Malnutrition of folate and cobalamin occurs on a world-wide scale. Millions of individuals, for a variety of cultural, religious and socio-economic reasons, ingest less than the daily amounts required to maintain body stores. Assessment of intake depends on the population under study, method of food preparation and assay technique. Up ...
Gahlawat P - - 1994
Four weaning foods were formulated using locally available cereals and pulses such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), green gram (Vigna radiata) and jaggery. Cereal, pulse and jaggery were used in the proportion of 70:30:25. Roasting and malting were two processing techniques used. The developed weaning foods were evaluated ...
Ortega R M - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between smoking habits and folate status in a group of elderly Spanish men. DESIGN: We studied folate intake, serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations, hematological and biochemical data in 72 elderly males (comparing 24 smokers data with 44 nonsmokers ones). RESULTS: Percentage deficiencies for folate intake, ...
Czeizel A E - - 1994
The Hungarian participation in the establishment of the new primary prevention of neural-tube defects by periconceptional supplementation with multivitamins including folic acid or with folic acid alone has been significant. Food and supplement consumption during the preconceptional period are hypothesized to closely reflect intakes during the time of neural-tube development, ...
Nakamura T - - 1993
Dieticians computed the fat and cholesterol contents of 11 foods that were commercially produced as ready-to-eat food from food component lists and obtained the P/S ratio (polysaturated/saturated fatty acids) from the fatty acid component list. Meanwhile the same foods were diluted and homogenized. The internal standard was combined with hepatadecanoic ...
Beltz S D - - 1993
Findings on the efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes are reviewed. Many athletes have turned away from anabolic steroids and toward nutritional supplements in the hope of gaining a competitive edge without threatening their health. Athletes may require slightly more protein than sedentary people do to maintain positive nitrogen ...
Denbow D M - - 1993
1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding supplemental tryptophan during the two weeks before market on growth, mortality during transportation, meal quality and brain neurotransmitter concentrations in male turkeys. 2. Brain serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and norepinephrine concentrations were increased dose-dependently with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg ...
Boisvert W A - - 1993
Six groups of elderly subjects from central Guatemala were assessed for riboflavin status by using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC). The prevalence of riboflavin deficiency ranged from 50% to 76% among the free-living rural elderly subjects. Milk intake data that were collected from some of the subjects showed ...
Sindt M H - - 1993
Two beef production systems were evaluated in conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period ...
Couzy F - - 1993
It is well recognized that the absorption, retention and metabolism of most essential minerals can be markedly influenced by the presence of antinutrient factors in the diet (i.e. fiber and phytate). However, in addition, interactions can also occur between essential minerals. Indeed, under some circumstances, these interactions can be profound ...
Yamanouchi T - - 1992
The origin and disposal of 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (AG), one of the main polyols found in the human body, was studied in normal subjects and diabetic patients. AG was detected in various kinds of foods. The mean AG supplement through foods was estimated to be approximately 4.38 mg/day, which was compatible with ...
Bailey L B - - 1992
This article analyzes the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs) for folate, which are approximately 50% less than the amounts recommended previously. The RDA committee used the following types of data to estimate allowances: (a) the quantity of folate required to elicit established physiologic responses or replace daily losses corrected for ...
Kerver J W - - 1992
Strains of Drosophila melanogaster homozygous for either the AdhF or the AdhS allele were kept on food supplemented with ethanol for 20 generations. These strains (FE and SE) were tested for tolerance to ethanol and compared with control strains (FN and SN). The E strains showed increased tolerance to ethanol ...
Sakamoto K - - 1992
To determine the relation between protein nutritive value and amino acid composition of protein in cooked food, statistical analysis was carried out on thirty cooked foods selected from Japanese daily meal. The food samples were cooked, and powdered after freeze-drying. The amino acid composition was determined by liquid chromatography and ...
Rajab M H - - 1991
The Texas A&M Sheep Simulation Model was used to examine genetic-environmental interactions (GEI) among Brazilian Somali, Morada Nova, and Santa Ines breeds and type and level of feed supplement in northeast Brazil. Two sets of simulations were conducted to examine effects of different supplement quality (napier grass vs cunha legume) ...
Freudenheim J L - - 1991
Experimental evidence suggests that folate depletion plays a role in carcinogenesis. A case-control study examining folate intake was conducted. Some 428 colon and 372 rectal cancer cases with matched neighbourhood controls were interviewed regarding usual intake of foods, including food preparation. Unadjusted folate was not associated with risk of either ...
Clifford A J - - 1991
Folate bioavailability of beef liver, lima beans, peas, spinach, mushrooms, collards, orange juice and wheat germ was estimated with a protocol of folate depletion-repletion using growth and liver, serum and erythrocyte folate of weanling male rats. Diets with 125, 250 and 375 micrograms folic acid/kg were standards. Individual foods were ...
Clifford A J - - 1990
Two experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a folate depletion/repletion protocol with rats fed an amino acid-based diet to measure the bioavailability of food folate. Growth, liver folate and serum folate of depleted rats that were fed test foods incorporated into a folate-free, amino acid-based diet were ...
Martin J I - - 1990
A tri-enzyme digestion procedure using chicken pancreas conjugase, alpha-amylase, and Pronase was evaluated to determine its usefulness in the microbiological quantitation of total folate in foods. Folate values obtained by traditional conjugase digestion were compared to those obtained by the tri-enzyme method for 12 food products that represent diverse matrixes. ...
Gmünder F K - - 1990
The effect of a food supplement on immunological parameters of 16 long-distance runners was tested in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The supplement comprised plasmolysed herbal yeast, malt, honey, and orange juice. No statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the following variables were detected at three sessions ...
Harper D S - - 1990
Most animal models for the study of calculus accumulation and control currently use rodents or dogs. In an effort to overcome limitations inherent in the use of these species, we investigated calculus formation in domestic ferrets, a species used by King et al. in the 1940's and 1950's. Ferrets are ...
Mann P H - - 1990
Work performed by King et al. in the 1940's and 1950's, as well as recent studies by our group, have shown that the domestic ferret is a suitable model for the study of calculus formation, offering several advantages over the rodent and dog models in current use. We have demonstrated ...
Bhandari S D - - 1990
Studies were conducted to determine the in vitro effect of selected food components on activity of the brush border membrane pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (folate conjugase) of porcine and human intestine. Foods differed widely in their effects although the pattern of the effects on both porcine and human enzymes was similar. Extracts ...
Subar A F - - 1989
Dietary data from 24-h recalls collected in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) were analyzed to determine intake and food sources of folate in US adults between ages 19 and 74 y. Mean daily folate intake was 242 +/- 2.8 micrograms (means +/- SEM) for all ...
Kallfelz F A - - 1989
This review demonstrates that manufactured pet foods contain more than adequate levels of all the essential nutrients needed by normal dogs and cats. Under normal circumstances, therefore, it is completely unnecessary to supplement the rations of these animals with protein, energy, fatty acids, vitamins, or minerals. We have tried to ...
Gee J M - - 1989
The effect of a range of saponins, commonly present in foods or dietary supplements, on the potential difference (PD) across the mucosa of the rat small intestine in vitro has been examined. Saponins from Gypsophila, guar, alfalfa, Quillaja, clover and liquorice together with glycoalkaloids from the potato and tomato were ...
Spindler A A - - 1989
In a pilot study, we compared dietary and biochemical status for vitamin B1, B2, B12, and C and folate, iron, and protein in CI and CN elders grouped by MMSE scores. Biochemical evaluation of folate and B12 status was continued beyond the preliminary study. Intakes of all nutrients except folate ...
Hitchins A D - - 1989
The beta-galactosidase-based assay for lysine developed by Tuffnell & Payne was used to measure the bioavailabilities of cyst(e)ine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in pronase digests of 17 foods. The digests were assayed by estimating the beta-galactosidase synthesis responses of five Escherichia coli mutants, each requiring one of the respective amino ...
Hawkes J G - - 1989
Nutritional deficiencies are eminent at all socioeconomic levels of the world population and have created a critical need for a reevaluation of the nutritional quality of the food supply. A particular group of vitamers, collectively referred to as folates, has received a great deal of attention due to their significance ...
Haines D J - - 1989
A rat model of moderate uraemia is described in which uraemic animals attain normal food intake and weight gain. Despite the low levels of the induced uraemia, which has been well defined, changes in plasma amino acid concentrations associated with experimental uraemia still occur. It appears from this study that ...
Micozzi M S - - 1988
We evaluated the relation between plasma levels of carotenoids and carotenodermia in 30 men receiving carotenoid supplementation for 42 d. Five subjects each were randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 30 mg purified beta-carotene supplement, 12 mg beta-carotene supplement, 272 g cooked carrots, 300 g cooked broccoli, 180 ...
Oguntona T - - 1988
1. The response of growing male guinea fowls to dietary supplements of oxytetracycline, Roxarsone and zinc bacitracin were investigated. 2. The antibiotics produced significant increases in body weight, efficiency of food utilisation and nitrogen retention in guinea fowls at 12 weeks of age. 3. Carcase protein was not affected by ...
Keagy P M - - 1988
The effect of wheat bran or California small white beans in the diet on absorption of monoglutamyl (PteGlu) and heptaglutamyl folic acid (PteGlu7) was studied in six men confined to a metabolic unit. Relative folate absorption was determined by measuring 24-h urinary folate excretion and serum folate levels at 0, ...
Sauberlich H E - - 1987
Folate metabolism and requirements were studied in 10 adult nonpregnant women maintained for 92 d in a metabolic unit. After a folate depletion period of 28 d, the subjects received increasing supplements of folate from food items or as pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA). Plasma folate levels fell 60% during the depletion ...
van der Westhuyzen J - - 1987
1. Long-term exposure of the fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus to nitrous oxide, which inactivates methylcobalamin, leads to neurological impairment and ataxia. 2. In N2O-exposed animals, liver concentrations of total folates and methyl folates decreased to less than one-fifth that of control animals. Pediococcus cerevisiae-active folates were also reduced. 3. In ...
Anderson J W - - 1987
Dietary fiber has important hypocholesterolemic effects and may reduce risk for coronary artery disease. Careful clinical studies indicate that foods such as oat bran or beans, rich in water-soluble fiber, can decrease serum total cholesterol by 19% while decreasing serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 22%. Food supplements rich in ...
Looker A C - - 1987
Despite widespread use of supplements, few studies have been conducted to determine if supplement users have better nutritional status. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), mean values of five iron status indicators (hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin) ...
Mirkin G - - 1987
Many adolescent athletes take nutritional supplements in the hope that such supplements will make them better athletes. Protein supplements will not build muscles unless the athlete is not ingesting adequate amounts of protein in food. Vitamins and mineral supplements will not improve performance unless the athlete suffers from a deficiency. ...
Ghitis J - - 1987
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate in amounts as low as 25 pmol could be reliably and economically measured with a CO2-releasing radioenzymatic assay when appropriate technical modifications were introduced. The concentration of commercially available phosphoribosylpyrophosphate used for reference standards was ascertained by a method based on the utilization of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate by hypoxanthine catalyzed by ...
Steckel R H - - 1987
Legislation designed to prevent slave smuggling after 1807 created an extra-ordinary set of documents identifying slaves transported in the coastwise trade by name, age, sex height and colour. Slaves fell below the first or second centile of modern height standards as children but recovered during and after adolescence to exceed ...
Read M - - 1985
Attitudinal and demographic correlates to food supplement use were ascertained for 689 adults residing in seven Western states. Of the 689, 372 (54%) were food supplement users and 317 (46%) were non-users. The only attitudinal variable significantly (p less than .001) related to the practice of food supplementation was the ...
Jahreis G - - 1985
Growing pigs were given 8% rape seed meal (RSM), which was offered without or with different iodine-supplements and further trace elements. RSM without I-supplementation reduced food intake and weight gains by more than 50%, thyroid weight increased by the factor 6, T4 declined below the detectable limit, T3 by two ...
Stanaszek W F - - 1985
Current issues related to oral potassium supplementation are reviewed, with emphasis on recommendations for the appropriate use of potassium supplementation for both replacement and preventive therapy. Dietary potassium intake, potassium-sparing diuretics, and the various forms of oral potassium supplements are reviewed in terms of indications for use, advantages, and limitations. ...
Ross S M - - 1985
The study attempted to determine if the bulk of dietary supplements given to pregnant women after midgestation affects fetal growth. 127 Zulu women were randomly assigned to four groups, two of which received daily food supplements designed to raise their energy, protein and vitamin intakes to levels recommended by the ...
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