Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 433
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McNulty H - - 2000
Committees worldwide have set almost identical folate recommendations for the prevention of the first occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). We evaluate these recommendations by reviewing the results of intervention studies that examined the response of red blood cell folate to altered folate intake. Three options are suggested to achieve ...
Bailey L B - - 2000
The Institute of Medicine Panel for Folate and Other B Vitamins and Choline considered data from population-based and metabolic studies to revise the dietary intake standards for pregnancy. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for pregnant women is the average daily dietary intake sufficient to meet the requirements of 97-98% of ...
Park Y K - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the possible role of niacin fortification of the US food supply and other concurrent influences in eliminating the nutritional deficiency disease pellagra. METHODS: We traced chronological changes in pellagra mortality and morbidity and compared them with the development of federal regulations, state laws, and other national activities ...
Santhosh-Kumar C R - - 2000
In a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of folic acid supplementation in 82 alcoholic subjects, it was found that whole blood folate levels, determined by a mass spectrometric method, do not increase in subjects whose baseline folate levels are above the third quartile (folate sufficiency). Since a state of folate sufficiency can ...
Forssén K M - - 2000
In recent years, folates have come into focus due to their protective role against child birth defects, for example, neural tube defects. In addition, folates may have a protective role to play against coronary heart disease and certain forms of cancer. During the last few years most countries have established ...
Schwarzenberg M - - 2000
T lymphocyte function is strongly depressed in vitro and in vivo under low-g conditions in space as well as simulated in clinostat. Here we describe the effect of a food supplement based on yeast plasmolysate on T cells activated in vitro with Concanavalin A and cultured in a random positioning ...
Elkin A C - - 2000
In 1992, recommendations were disseminated aimed at reducing the incidence of neural tube defects. Women were advised to increase consumption of folic acid supplements and dietary folates during the periconceptional period and a major integrated national campaign was launched to help achieve this. In this study we found that only ...
Burdock G A - - 2000
The demand for dietary supplements by the public has transformed this once cottage industry into a 12-billion-dollar-per-year business. Restrictive actions against dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prompted Congress to enact new and more permissive amendments governing dietary supplements (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, DSHEA) to ...
Watanabe A - - 2000
In an open study the clinical efficacy of milk serum (whey) protein (Immunocal; cysteine content: 7.6-fold higher than that of casein) isolated from fresh milk and purified without heating was evaluated in 25 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Immunocal (12 g as protein) food (mousse) was given twice ...
Suitor C W - - 2000
The 1998 Dietary Reference Intakes express the new Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in dietary folate equivalents ("DFEs"), which account for differences in the absorption of naturally occurring food folate and the more bioavailable synthetic folic acid. The quantity of dietary folate equivalents occurring naturally in food equals the micrograms ...
Krondl M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate regular use of a liquid nutrition supplement by subjectively healthy elderly persons in terms of body mass index, nutrient intake, selected biochemical parameters, and perceived quality-of-life changes, and to identify advantages and limitations of use. DESIGN: A 16-week intervention study in which subjects were assigned randomly to ...
Pierre F - - 1999
We have previously shown that addition of short chain fructo-oligosaccharides (indigestible carbohydrates) to food prevented colon tumors in C57BL/6-Apc(Min/+) mice, a model for human colon cancer. As gut-associated lymphoid tissue was concomitantly developed, we suggested that the immune response generated by this food may interfere with carcinogenesis due to involvement ...
Cuskelly G J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid was introduced recently in the United States, a policy expected to result in a mean additional intake of 100 microgram/d. One way of predicting the effectiveness of this measure is to determine the effect of removing a similar amount of folic ...
Lewis C J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated ...
Hayat J - - 1999
1. Supplements of between 2 and 8 g of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)/l in drinking water provided between 21 and 49 d of age to broilers at 31 degrees C increased growth after 35 d of age and food intake after 42 d of age compared to unsupplemented controls. The most ...
Sasaki S - - 1999
Results of dietary assessment are influenced by quality of food composition tables used for nutrient calculation. The Japanese food composition table has considerable missing values for fatty acid compositions. Substitution is often used for filling missing values. We examined reliability of the following 4 major substitution methods using available values ...
McCarthy D - - 1999
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of nutritional supplements on food intake in patients undergoing radiotherapy. DESIGN: Experimental prospective. SAMPLE: 40 newly diagnosed patients with cancer beginning external beam radiation therapy. METHODS: Weekly dietary counseling and recording of total daily dietary intake for three days a week for four weeks. One ...
Herrera E - - 1999
Mice genetically deficient for the telomerase RNA (mTR) can be propagated for only a limited number of generations. In particular, mTR-/- mice of a mixed C57BL6/129Sv genetic background are infertile at the sixth generation and show serious hematopoietic defects. Here, we show that a percentage of mTR-/- embryos do not ...
Kirk S F - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of dietary supplement users in a large cohort of women and test the hypothesis that supplement users would be more likely to have a healthier lifestyle than non-users. DESIGN: Comparison of nutrient intakes from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data for 8409 supplement users and 5413 ...
Ros J J - - 1999
In this manuscript the chemical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a doping case associated with the use of an Ephedra-labelled dietary supplement is reported. The urine of a Dutch professional cyclist was found to be positive for norpseudoephedrine at a doping control. An inquiry revealed that the cyclist had consumed a ...
Wickramasinghe S N - - 1999
Several fundamental questions relating to the biochemical basis of megaloblastic hemopoiesis in vitamin B12 (B12) and folate deficiency and neurological damage in B12 deficiency remain to be answered. Among them is the explanation underlying (1) the failure of B12-deficient animals to develop megaloblastic hemopoiesis despite indirect evidence of impaired thymidylate ...
Gurley B J - - 1998
Nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma-huang), a botanical source of ephedrine-type alkaloids, have been linked to numerous episodes of ephedrine (EPH) toxicity. With passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, nutritional supplements are no longer subject to the same FDA preapproval requirements as food additives, prescription, or ...
Seyoum E - - 1998
The intestinal absorption of folate occurs at the monoglutamyl level, and an important measure of food folate bioavailability is how much folate from the food reaches the intestinal sites in forms that can readily be absorbed. In the absence of protecting agents, e.g., vitamin C and reduced thiols, many labile ...
Lewis D P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To review folic acid's mechanism of action, adverse effects, therapeutic recommendations, compliance, and cost. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was conducted through December 1997. Additional sources were obtained from Current Contents and citations from the references obtained. Search terms included folate, folic acid, neural tube defect, homocysteine, and methylenetetrahydrofolate ...
Green T J - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to validate a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-d weighed food record (3d-WFR) by comparing nutrient intakes estimated using these methods with serum folate, RBC folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations in 105 females aged 16-19 y. During an early morning clinic visit, subjects ...
Firth Y - - 1998
The objectives of this study were to examine variability of folate intake in order to estimate the number of days needed to accurately estimate intakes in women of childbearing age and to simulate the effect of folic acid fortification of cereals and grains on individual folate intake. Observational study of ...
Howard J M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine if poor dietary intake can explain the cobalamin-related abnormalities often seen in the elderly. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory survey with a follow-up dietary assessment. SETTING: Social centers for the elderly and an outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS: Ninety-five free-living subjects >60y old with abnormal or suspicious findings in cobalamin-related tests ...
Robb SE - - 1998
Previous studies have largely supported the predictions that an animal's aggressiveness increases as the clumping of resources increases in space but decreases in time. Such tests of resource defence theory, however, have manipulated only one aspect of resource distribution at a time. We tested for an interaction between the effects ...
Aiso K - - 1998
Recent reports have indicated that trienzyme treatment before folate determination is essential to obtain the proper folate content in foods. Trienzyme treatment is performed by using alpha-amylase and protease for folate extraction from carbohydrate and protein matrices, and folate conjugase for the hydrolysis of polyglutamyl folates. We evaluated the conditions ...
Durand P - - 1998
Although folates are widely distributed in foods, folate deficiencies may be more frequent than expected because their true availability may be impaired due to their lability under various food cooking and processing conditions. Folate deficiency is frequently observed in elderly people, smokers, alcoholics and oral contraceptive users. It is also ...
Walker A R - - 1998
Fe deficiency is considered to be the commonest of nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Adverse effects are stated to include lower growth rate and impaired cognitive scores in children and poor pregnancy outcome and lower working capacity in adults. In the present review, Fe intake, stores of the element, the magnitude of ...
Wei MM - - 1998
Dietary folates exist largely as polyglutamates that require deconjugation prior to absorption. This process is catalyzed by intestinal pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) mainly associated with the jejunal brush border membrane. Previous studies have shown that citrate ion as well as the soluble fraction of many foods can inhibit PPH in vitro. ...
Matthews R T - - 1998
The gene defect in Huntington's disease (HD) may result in an impairment of energy metabolism. Malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) are inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase that produce energy depletion and lesions that closely resemble those of HD. Oral supplementation with creatine or cyclocreatine, which are substrates for the enzyme creatine ...
Hegedüs M - - 1998
In order to offer methods for assessing the protein quality of dog foods, eight commercial dry-type complete dog foods were analysed by in vitro chemical methods (crude protein, amino acid composition, in vitro pepsin digestibility) and rat growth trial (weight gain = WG, feed efficiency = FE, protein efficiency ratio ...
Houghton L A - - 1997
The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited ...
Lurz PWW - - 1997
Immigration patterns and the frequency of breeding dispersal in tree squirrels are predicted to be related to the amount of temporal and spatial variation in tree seed crops, their primary food supply. We studied Eurasian red squirrel, Sciurus vulgarisdispersal patterns in a stable habitat with predictable food supply and a ...
Mock D M - - 1997
In addition to the pharmacokinetic interest, serum concentrations of biotin and biotin metabolites are important because biotin in serum might interfere with assays that use avidin-biotin detection systems. With acute and chronic oral administration of biotin the serum concentration of biotin increases. Because of limited specificity of bioassays or avidin-binding ...
Koehler K M - - 1997
Folate fortification of bread and grains has been directed to prevent neural tube birth defects. Research has also challenged previous concepts of folate nutritional status and suggested that folate may play a role in reducing the risk of vascular disease. Although folate status of many elderly people is adequate according ...
Jabbar M A - - 1997
Considering leguminous trees Leucaena and Gliricidia as good sources of quality food, on-station and on-farm studies were conducted in the humid zone of West Africa to establish animal responses to levels, times and forms of browse supplementation, to develop alternative feeding strategies for utilising limited feed supply and to assess ...
Tucker K L - - 1996
We examined the relationship between intake of food group (and supplement) sources of folate and plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations among 885 elderly subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary data were collected by food-frequency questionnaire, and blood samples analyzed for folate and homocysteine concentrations. Top contributors to total folate ...
Schwarz R H - - 1996
The periconceptional intake of 400 micrograms of folic acid can prevent 50-70% of neural tube defects. It is difficult to achieve this intake with diet alone, even with the recently approved levels for grain-food fortification. Therefore, a daily multivitamin with folic acid is recommended for all women of childbearing potential. ...
Joshi A - - 1996
The phenotypic enhancement of longevity through a variety of environmental treatments, including dietary manipulations, has been observed in various species of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying such effects has provided insights into the physiological processes contributing to the determination of lifespan. Here, we report the enhancement ...
Muccifora S - - 1996
Euphorbia dulcis endosperm is the site of controlled long lasting endocellular lysis involving segregation and autophagy of portions of the cytoplasm within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The lysis products may constitute a food source for the benefit of the early developing embryo.
Rayburn W F - - 1996
Approximately 50% of neural tube defects may be folate-preventable and perhaps even more in other countries where prevalence is high. The Public Health Service has issued the recommendation that all women of childbearing age in the United States who are capable of becoming pregnant should consume 400 micrograms of folic ...
Cuskelly G J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Recommendations by the UK Department of Health suggest that protection from neural tube defects (NTD) can be achieved through intakes of an extra 400 microgram daily of folate/folic acid as natural food, foods fortified with folic acid, or supplements. The assumption is that all three routes of intervention would ...
Siehl D L - - 1996
The site of action of hydantocidin was probed using Arabidopsis thaliana plants growing on agar plates. Herbicidal effects were reversed when the agar medium was supplemented with AMP, but not IMP or GMP, suggesting that hydantocidin blocked the two-step conversion of IMP to AMP in the de novo purine biosynthesis ...
- - 1996
The relationship of folic acid to neural tube defects has provided us with one of the richest case studies in nutrition science policy of this half century. The concepts of nutritional adequacy in the periconceptual period, the power of well-designed and controlled intervention trials, the challenges of altering the intake ...
Pérez-Escamilla R - - 1995
This review examines evidence linking periconceptional folic acid intake to neural tube defects (NTDs) and related public health issues in the United States and developing countries. Sources of information were identified through on-line searches (Medline, UCAT-University of Connecticut) and by contacting researchers in the field. The distribution of NTDs varies ...
Nti C A - - 1995
The effects of cowpea and amino acid supplementation on the protein quality and chemical characteristics of a maize-based West African traditional weaning food were studied. Process optimization for improved nutritive value was also determined. Supplementation of the traditional weaning food with cowpea increased the lysine, tryptophan and threonine content while ...
Lukaski H C - - 1995
Mineral elements, including magnesium, zinc, and copper, are required by the body in modest amounts for the maintenance of health and for the development of optimal physiological function. For athletes, adequate amounts of these minerals are required for physical training and performance. Studies of athletes during training, as compared to ...
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