Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 427
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Irvine Paul - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is a risk factor for mortality and various morbidities in the elderly. A low-energy intake often prevails and therapeutic interventions include the administration of dietary supplements, sometimes rich in proteins. We have tested the hypothesis that a protein-rich supplement inhibits appetite and decreases voluntary food intake. ...
Bower Carol - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effectiveness of efforts to increase folate intake in Western Australia (WA) for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). METHODS: Case (36) and control (578) mothers completed questionnaires, from which their intake of folate from supplements and food (including fortified foods) ...
Sichert-Hellert Wolfgang - - 2004
Folate is a critical nutrient and programs to enhance folate intake have been established or are under consideration. We investigated to what extent consumers (C) profit from folic acid-fortified food and dietary supplements compared to nonconsumers (NC) of these products. A total of 6135 weighed records from 861 subjects (47% ...
Yetley Elizabeth A - - 2004
Mandatory fortification of enriched cereal-grain products became effective in the United States on January 1, 1998. This fortification was undertaken to assist women of child-bearing age in increasing their intake of folic acid to reduce their risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube birth defect. The process ...
Shikany James M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grains on folate intake in women of predominantly childbearing age at high risk for cervical cancer. METHODS: Subjects in this cross-sectional study were 77 women randomized between November 1999 and December 2000 in the Women's Intervention to Stay ...
Costa Jorge Alberto Vieira - - 2004
Increasing interest is being shown in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis because of its nutritional properties when used as food supplement and possible therapeutic effects. One of the most important areas being studied is the development of alternative nutrient sources which can be used to decrease the production costs of commercially ...
Arora Annu - - 2004
Sulphur is an essential micronutrient required by the body in low concentrations, but its high intake can lead to a serious health hazard. Sulphur compounds are reported to induce several toxic responses in animals, but so far no reports are available on the toxic effects of elemental sulphur, following dietary ...
Haubert D - - 2004
The lipid pattern of animals is influenced by species, life stage, environmental conditions and diet. We investigated the effects of food quality and starvation on the phospholipid (PLFA) and neutral lipid (NLFA) fatty acid pattern of the collembolan Protaphorura fimata. Collembolans were fed with two common soil fungi, Agrocybe gibberosa ...
Wegkamp Arno - - 2004
Five genes essential for folate biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were cloned on a broad-host-range lactococcal vector and were transferred to the folate auxotroph Lactobacillus gasseri. As a result L. gasseri changed from a folate consumer to a folate producer. This principle can be used to increase folate levels in many ...
Waldmann Annika - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the homocysteine and cobalamin status of German vegans and determine whether the intake of very small amounts of foods of animal origin can improve this status. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, Germany. SUBJECTS: The dietary and nutritional intakes of 131 vegans (73 women, 58 ...
Walker R - - 2004
The increasing use of botanical food supplements has raised concerns among scientific and regulatory communities. Occasional cases of intoxication have occurred from misuse, misidentification of the botanical species or contamination with extraneous plants. Consequently, risk assessment of botanical products requires adequate specification of identity and composition. Sources vary from staple ...
Anderson Jeffrey L - - 2004
PURPOSE: In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration mandated the fortification of food products with folic acid. The effect of this rule on mortality associated with homocysteine levels in patients with coronary artery disease is unknown. METHODS:We studied 2481 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography between ...
Maughan Ron J - - 2004
For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread ...
Wiltshire E J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal changes in folate status in South Australian children and adolescents during fortification of food with folic acid. METHODS: Sixty-nine children and adolescents (age 12.8 +/- 2.3 years), 47 with diabetes and 22 healthy controls, had their folate status assessed at the beginning of 1999 and again ...
Mulhall John P - - 2004
Anecdotal evidence suggests that hypogonadal men who failed to respond to sildenafil citrate changed their response when supplemented with androgens. The author presents the case of a middle-aged man with hypogonadism who experienced success with sildenafil citrate with supplemental testosterone.
Bloedon LeAnne T - - 2004
Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because it is the richest known source of both alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and the phytoestrogen, lignans, as well as being a good source of soluble fiber. Human studies have shown that flaxseed can modestly reduce serum total and ...
Heaney Robert P RP Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Neb 68131, USA. - - 2004
Bone mineral consists of calcium phosphate, and phosphorus is as important as calcium in supporting bone augmentation and maintenance. Although typical adult diets contain abundant phosphorus, 10% to 15% of older women have intakes of less than 70% of the recommended daily allowance. When these women take high-dose calcium supplements ...
Ray Joel G - - 2003
By January 1998, most of Canada's cereal grain products were being fortified with folic acid. Among 336963 women who underwent antenatal maternal serum screening, the prevalence of orofacial clefts did not change from before (1.15 per 1000) to after (1.21 per 1000) food fortification (prevalence ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, ...
Kawata Kazuhito - - 2003
Dietary supplements have become very popular worldwide because they are believed to be safe with few side effects. Here, we report three cases of liver injury caused by Sennomotokounou, a Chinese dietary supplement for weight reduction. All patients developed acute hepatotoxicity and recovered spontaneously after withdrawal of dietary product. This ...
Spiegelstein Ofer - - 2003
In most mammalian species, arsenic biotransformation occurs primarily by biomethylation with dimethylarsinic acid being the predominant metabolite excreted in the urine. Folbp1 (folate binding protein-1) mediated intracellular folate uptake is one route by which cells harvest folate cofactors. In light of the likely relationship between folate biochemistry and arsenic biotransformation, ...
Hernandez Brenda Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A case-control study was conducted among a population of multiethnic women identified from clinics on Oahu, Hawaii between 1992 and 1996 to explore the relationship between diet and cervical dysplasia. METHODS: Two-hundred and fourteen women with biopsy-confirmed high and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix (SIL) and ...
Bailey Lynn B - - 2003
Colorectal cancer and adenoma risk are inversely associated with higher total folate intake. Significant modifiers of cancer risk also include other methyl-related nutrients and alcohol. Adequate folate intake is particularly important for women at higher risk for breast cancer because of moderate alcohol consumption. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T polymorphism ...
Royse Daniel J - - 2003
Synthetic substrate consisting of oak sawdust (50%), white millet (28%), winter rye (11%) and soft red wheat bran (11%) was non-supplemented or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% (dry weight basis) precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)). Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) was grown in two crops to determine the effect of three CaCO(3) ...
Rivera Juan A - - 2003
Several micronutrients are required for adequate growth among children. However, it has been unclear as to which nutrient deficiencies contribute most often to growth faltering in populations at risk for poor nutrition and poor growth. Therefore, evidence from community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled, micronutrient supplementation trials was reviewed to determine which micronutrient ...
Ziegler Anette-G - - 2003
CONTEXT: Dietary factors modifying type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk have been proposed, but little is known if they trigger the islet autoimmunity that precedes clinical disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether breastfeeding duration, food supplementation, or age at introduction of gluten-containing foods influences the risk of developing islet autoantibodies. DESIGN ...
Larsen Larissa L - - 2003
PURPOSE: To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. DATA SOURCES: Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, 6 out ...
Rosado Jorge L - - 2003
Micronutrient fortification of foods is now a highly relevant tool worldwide for overcoming micronutrient deficiency. Recent data show that subclinical zinc deficiency is widespread; in Mexico a national survey showed that 25% of children less than age 11 y had plasma zinc concentrations below 10.0 micromol/L (65 microg/dL). Copper deficiency ...
Abrams Steven A - - 2003
Provision of the bone minerals and vitamin D as fortificants in food or as dietary supplements designed for older infants and toddlers in Latin America is likely to be beneficial and safe. Currently available data are inadequate to establish the precise amounts of these nutrients that would be required for ...
Wollschlaeger Bernd - - 2003
The Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was intended to ensure consumer access to safe dietary supplements, e.g., herbs, minerals, and vitamins. It granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considerable enforcement authority to regulate dietary supplement industry. This article discusses relevant components of the DSHEA, explains ...
Han Jee-Yup - - 2003
Over the past two decades, the role of folate in human nutrition has been of much interest because of its relationship to diseases such as neural tube defects and heart disease. Since 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated that cereal products be fortified with 140 microg of ...
Ziessman Harvey A - - 2003
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the use of a commercially available lactose-free fatty-meal food supplement, as an alternative to sincalide cholescintigraphy, to develop a standard methodology, and to determine normal gallbladder ejection fractions (GBEFs) for this supplement. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers all had negative medical histories for ...
Sanderson Peter - - 2003
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate bioavailability. The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. Discrepancies were observed in the evidence base for folate bioavailability, especially with regard to the relative bioavailability of natural ...
McKillop Derek J - - 2003
To provide a tool to study folate bioavailability under controlled conditions, a methodology was developed to produce extracts representative of natural food folates but removed from their matrix and sufficiently concentrated so as to elicit a response in biomarkers of folate status without distorting usual dietary intake patterns. Egg, spinach, ...
Kamphuis Marleen M J W - - 2003
In a randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled crossover design study, we investigated whether healthy, non-smoking, dietary unrestrained women (n 24), divided into linoleic acid tasters (LAT, n 14) and linoleic acid non-tasters (LANT, n 10), differed in food intake regulation when linoleic acid was added to ice creams. The determination of ...
Ray J G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associated risk of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) insufficiency, as well as vitamin repletion, following folic acid food fortification. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study over a 5-year period. SETTING: Two large laboratory databases in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Canadian women aged 65 ...
Zeisel Steven H - - 2003
Choline is important for normal membrane function, acetylcholine synthesis and methyl group metabolism; the choline requirement for humans is 550 mg/d for men (Adequate Intake). Betaine, a choline derivative, is important because of its role in the donation of methyl groups to homocysteine to form methionine. In tissues and foods, ...
Wallace Allison W - - 2003
Chelation interactions between drugs/supplements that contain large amounts of multivalent ions and the fluoroquinolones have been known for quite some time. However, there has been a lack of taking this interaction into account when they may be coadministered with foods that have been fortified with amounts of multiple multivalent ions ...
Akase Tomoko - - 2003
We examined whether dietary intake of cattle liver-supplemented food induces reproductive effects in dams and developmental effects in embryos in the mouse model. Seven groups of 19 to 35 female mice each were given either powdered food or the food supplemented with crude liver homogenate, its lipophilic component, the defatted ...
Hepburn Dion D D - - 2003
The nutritional dietary supplement chromium picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], has gained much notoriety as a safe supplement that supposedly promotes fat loss and muscle enhancement in humans. Thus, a significant industry has materialized around the incorporation of [Cr(pic)(3)] in many sports foods and drinks and a variety of weight loss products. However, ...
Humphries Murray M - - 2003
Reduced torpor expression by hibernating mammals is often attributed to physiological constraints that limit their hibernation ability but may instead reflect adaptive, plastic responses to surplus energy availability. We evaluated this hypothesis by supplementing the food hoards of free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) before hibernation and then documenting their use ...
Boudville Neil - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. METHODS: We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking ...
Liukkonen Kirsi-Helena - - 2003
Manufacturing of healthy wholegrain foods demands knowledge of process-induced changes in macro-, micro- and non-nutrients. The high content of dietary fibre is a challenge in relation to good product texture and sensory quality. The stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds have a marked influence on the health effects of cereal ...
Rampersaud Gail C - - 2003
Inadequate folate status is associated with an increased risk for chronic diseases that may have a negative impact on the health of the aging population. Folate, a water-soluble vitamin, includes naturally occurring food folate and synthetic folic acid in supplements and fortified foods. Inadequate folate status may result in hyperhomocysteinemia, ...
Doherty Robert F - - 2003
The essentiality of dietary folates for human beings has been known for many years. Over the shorter term, biological activities associated with several human maladies and the attenuation of biomarkers for several chronic diseases also have been assigned to folates. In the United States, these observations have led to the ...
Quinlivan Eoin P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The addition of folic acid to all enriched cereal-grain foods, mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was initiated in January 1998. Although this program was designed such that typical folate intakes would be increased by approximately 100 micro g/d and that the risk of intakes > 1000 ...
Garg R - - 2003
The present study was carried out to develop papads from wheat and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic acceptability, nutritional quality, and keeping quality. Papad is a dehydrated product prepared from dhals or rice. A firm but pliable dough is made from the flours of dhals or rice ...
Peters Cara Lee Okleshen - - 2003
This study finds that consumers take dietary supplements to improve their physical health and gain peace of mind. Several factors influence the consumption of dietary supplements, but the advice of a physician underlies most consumer behavior. Few dietary supplement users over-consume these types of products, but those who do could ...
Egen Veronika - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The periconceptional intake of 0.4 mg folic acid is recommended in many countries to prevent neural tube defects. This paper describes the poor implementation of corresponding guidelines in Germany, the effectiveness of an intervention-based on providing adequate information and the problems associated with the implementation. METHODS: Two cross sectional ...
Ercken D - - 2003
Biocidal activities of monochloramine and peracetic acid were studied on cysts of Naegleria lovaniensis. Until recently the most commonly used biocide to disinfect cooling water systems was hypochlorite. Owing to its negative impact on the aquatic environment, ecologically less harmful alternatives have been sought. As the biocidal activity of monochloramine ...
McKillop Derek J - - 2002
Folate intake is strongly influenced by various methods of cooking that can degrade the natural forms of the vitamin in foods. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that contribute to folate intake in the UK ...
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