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Webb Geoffrey P - - 2007
Almost anything that is swallowed in pill or potion form that is not a licensed medicine is, by default, legally classified as a dietary supplement. The present paper is an overview of supplement use and is intended to provide a logical framework for their discussion. Five major supplement categories are ...
Hoey Leane - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mandatory folic acid fortification of food is effective in reducing neural tube defects and may even reduce stroke-related mortality, but it remains controversial because of concerns about potential adverse effects. Thus, it is virtually nonexistent in Europe, albeit many countries allow food fortification on a voluntary basis. OBJECTIVE: The ...
Milla Gayle R - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption staples for potential folic acid fortification. METHODS: Convenience ...
Eberhardie Christine - - 2007
In 2000 an estimated pound sterling 335 x 106 was spent on food supplements and herbal remedies in the UK. Until recently, The Trades Description Act 1968, the Food Safety Act 1990 and The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 (amended 2004) were the only form of regulation available to protect the ...
Ritchie M R - - 2007
Within the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the sale and use of herbal supplements and food supplements by Western populations and within the UK. This increased usage has coincided with a resurgence of interest in nutritional therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, such as ...
Lucock Mark - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Folic acid mediates transfer of one-carbon units into methionine and DNA-thymine biosynthesis. Discretionary and mandatory use of synthetic folic acid (SFA) to reduce spina bifida is on the increase. We show that historically, the seasonal cycle of abundance of folate-rich foods may have regulated embryo viability by acting as ...
Chiuve Stephanie E - - 2007
Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for many chronic diseases, can be remethylated to methionine by folate. Alternatively, tHcy can be metabolized by other 1-carbon nutrients, ie, betaine and its precursor, choline. We aimed to assess the association between the dietary intakes of betaine and choline and the concentration ...
Molster Caron - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In response to the proposal that mandatory fortification be introduced in Australia to reduce the incidence of NTDs, the purpose of this study was to establish, for the adult community, baseline data on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards the fortification of foods with folic acid. METHODS: A cross-sectional, Computer ...
Kettawan Aikkarach - - 2007
Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) has been widely commercially available in Japan as a dietary and health supplement since 2001 and is used for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases induced by free radicals and aging. We evaluated CoQ(10) supplements to ensure that these supplements can be used effectively and safely. Commercially available ...
Oddy W H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The introduction of voluntary fortification of some foods with folic acid in Australia has been implemented since evidence of the prevention of neural tube defects with periconceptional folic acid was published. Our objectives were to determine how many women were aware of folate and when they became aware, what ...
Dilger Ryan N - - 2007
Relative bioefficacy and toxicity of Met precursor compounds were investigated in young chicks. The effectiveness of DL-Met and 2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (Keto-Met) to serve as L-Met precursors was quantified using Met-deficient diets of differing composition. Efficacy was based on slope-ratio and standard-curve methodology. Using L-Met as a standard Met source added ...
Kalouche Hassan - - 2007
A 42-year-old woman presented with blue lunulae in association with argyria and hypercopprecaemia. The argyria was caused by the regular ingestion of colloidal silver in water over an extended period of time. The raised copper may have contributed to the nail discolouration, and was believed to be due either to ...
Kloosterman Janneke - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To create a general framework for the simulation of intakes from mandatory or voluntary fortification, which will make outcomes of simulation studies more comparable and give insight on uncertainties. DESIGN: A general framework was developed based on methods used in already published case studies of mandatory fortification. The framework ...
Lim Kyungwha - - 2007
Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a whey protein that contains no aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine (phe). The objective of this study was to make a variety of palatable, low-phe foods and beverages with GMP and to assess their acceptability by conducting consumer sensory studies in individuals with PKU. Results demonstrate acceptability ...
De Wals Philippe - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In 1998, folic acid fortification of a large variety of cereal products became mandatory in Canada, a country where the prevalence of neural-tube defects was historically higher in the eastern provinces than in the western provinces. We assessed changes in the prevalence of neural-tube defects in Canada before and ...
Gu Haiwei - - 2007
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate and optimize the strategy for collecting mouse urine samples. A series of normal urine samples and those mixed with folate-deficient food, turkey or mouse fecal particles were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The metabolic profile of urine mixed with folate-deficient ...
Steyn Nelia P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A national survey found that micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in South African children, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, E and C. Mandatory fortification of maize meal and wheat flour were introduced in 2003 to combat some of the deficiencies found in children. To ...
Bui Lan T T - - 2007
The folate contents of 26 commercial noodle samples were investigated. The impact of ingredients, pH, and cooking on folate content was studied for the 3 predominant styles of noodles: white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant. Some variability was found in the proportion of folate present in the free form and ...
Ramalakshmi K - - 2007
Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical ...
Bui Lan T T - - 2007
Asian noodles, a widely consumed staple food, were evaluated as potential vehicles for fortification with folic acid. Samples of white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant noodles, prepared under controlled laboratory conditions, were fortified and folates were measured at each stage of processing using a microbiological assay. Although the 3 styles ...
Vilaiphan Prapaporn - - 2007
It has been widely accepted that peri-conceptional consumption of folic acid (FA) can prevent many congenital anomalies, including more than one-half of all neural tube defects. In several developed countries, educational campaigns and/or food fortification with FA have been launched, resulting in lower incidences of some anomalies. In Thailand, congenital ...
Sharpless Katherine E - - 2007
Well-characterized certified reference materials are needed by laboratories in the food testing, dietary supplement, and nutrition communities to facilitate compliance with labeling laws and improve the accuracy of information provided on product labels, so that consumers can make good choices. As a result of the enactment of the Nutrition Labeling ...
Schwertner Harvey A - - 2007
Ginger root powder is widely used as a dietary supplement as well as a spice and flavoring agent in foods and beverages. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method that is suitable for the analysis of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in a wide variety of ...
van de Rest Ondine - - 2007
Folate is required for 1-carbon metabolism and deficiency in folate leads to megaloblastic anemia. Low levels of folate have been associated with increased risk of vascular disease. To investigate whether RDA of folate are met, habitual folate intake needs to be assessed reliably. We developed a FFQ to specifically measure ...
Randhawa Sandeep - - 2007
A patient who had been taking an oral L-arginine-based body-building supplement developed bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages, circumcorneal dilated vessels, and peripheral corneal infiltrates after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. There is limited information regarding the efficacy, safety, and constituents of nutritional supplements because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates ...
Schoech Stephan J - - 2007
Providing supplemental food to Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) causes a reliable advance in clutch initiation of 1 to 2 weeks. In some years, supplemental food appeared to not only advance laying date but also decrease baseline concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) relative to controls. The coincidence of low CORT levels and ...
Imhoff-Kunsch Beth - - 2007
The potential impact of wheat flour fortification with iron and folic acid was assessed using data about food purchases from the nationally representative 2000 Guatemalan Living Standards Measurement Survey. Of 7265 households, 35% were indigenous and 57% rural; 11% were extremely poor, 35% were poor, and 54% were nonpoor. The ...
Owens Janel E - - 2007
An optimal folate nutritional status is important in minimizing developmental and degenerative disease. Therefore, constant monitoring of folate intake and of biomarkers of folate nutritional status is essential. The objective of this research was to compare two folate intake instruments and validate each one against RBC folate measured by a ...
Muggli Evelyne E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence of an association between periconceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation or fortification of foods with FA and the risk of twinning, using the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) framework for assessing evidence when substantiating nutrition, health and related claims on foods. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane ...
Rawn Dorothea F K - - 2007
Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of ...
Winkels Renate M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The bioavailability of natural food folates is lower than that of synthetic folic acid, but no agreement exists as to the extent of the difference. OBJECTIVE: In a 4-wk dietary intervention study, we determined the aggregate bioavailability of food folates from fruit, vegetables, and liver relative to that of ...
Bemis Debra L - - 2007
Dietary studies of men throughout the world have identified certain foods/food-derived substances that are correlated to prostate cancer risk. While radical modification of cultural dietary habits with the goal of preventing prostate cancer remains challenging, supplementation with certain foods and/or food-derived substances identified as having potential chemopreventative properties may be ...
Ostlund Richard E RE - - 2007
The purpose of this review is to outline the emerging role of dietary phytosterols in human health. Dietary saturated fat, cholesterol and fiber are currently emphasized in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, other dietary components such as phytosterols may have equivalent or even larger effects on circulating ...
Hanekamp J C - - 2007
In this paper, we review European legislation in the field of micronutrient food supplements and find it wanting. It is shown that the precautionary principle, embedded in European food legislation, pre-empts innovative developments in this field. In view of the scientific advances in micronutrients research, we subsequently critique the precautionary ...
Roebothan Barbara V - - 2007
PURPOSE: Dietary folic acid (FA) intakes were analyzed in random samples of 302 young women (aged 18 to 34) and 337 seniors (aged 65 to 74) residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). The analyses were an attempt to estimate the amount of FA they would consume solely because of mandatory ...
DeWolfe Judy - - 2007
PURPOSE: To determine whether fortification allowed older adults in the Kingston, Frontenac, and Lennox & Addington (KFL&A) Public Health area to obtain adequate amounts of food folate, and the proportion at risk of consuming more than the upper limit (UL) of folic acid (1,000 mcg). METHODS: Dietary intake of a ...
Mischoulon David - - 2007
Adequate levels of folate are crucial for proper brain and body functioning. Folate deficiencies may lead to an increased risk of depression and poorer antidepressant treatment outcomes, as well as an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of grain ...
Brantsaeter Anne Lise - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement and non-supplement users and to validate self-reported ...
Pitkin Roy M - - 2007
A protective effect of folate against the development of neural tube defects (NTDs), specifically, anencephaly and spina bifida, is now well recognized, having been established by a chain of clinical research studies over the past half century. This article summarizes the more important of these studies, which have led to ...
Thompson Lilian U - - 2007
Twenty-one nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements commonly consumed by women in Canada were analyzed for isoflavones (formononetin, daidzein, genistein, glycitein), lignans (pinoresinol, lariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol), and coumestrol to complement our previously published food phytoestrogen database. Supplements containing soy or red clover had the highest concentrations of total isoflavones (728.2-35,417.0 ug/g) and ...
Lawrence Mark - - 2007
In October 2006, the Australian and New Zealand Food Regulation Ministerial Council asked for a review of the proposed food standard permitting mandatory fortification of bread with folic acid. This article contributes to the policy debate associated with the standard's review by discussing the potential benefits and risks to the ...
Maughan Ronald J - - 2007
Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits ...
DiSilvestro Robert A - - 2007
Chromium (Cr) supplements are available as picolinate, nicotinate or chloride (the latter primarily in multivitamin-mineral supplements). The picolinate form has been reported to be the best absorbed and most efficacious, but some reports question which form has superior absorption. The present study examined acute Cr absorption, based on 24h urinary ...
Phillips Katherine M - - 2006
Folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is used in enriched foods; however, very little folic acid occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables. For the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program, a number of fruits and vegetables have been assayed for endogenous folates, by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, ...
Mannar M G Venkatesh - - 2006
This review highlights interventions and delivery mechanisms to alleviate macro- and micronutrient deficiencies in preschool children. These deficiencies can be addressed through an integrated combination of improved dietary intake, supplementation, commercial and home-based fortification of complementary foods. Several developed and developing countries have implemented successful approaches to eliminate protein-energy malnutrition ...
Reaves Lindsay - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship of multiple-vitamin supplement use with selected food groups, physical activity, lifestyle behaviors, and weight status. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred sixty-one adolescents in the 12th grade who participated in the fourth Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health study had height and weight ...
Sultan Shahnaz S Department of Medicine, University of Florida Medical Center and Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, Fla 32605, USA. - - 2006
Since the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra in February 2004, numerous "ephedra-free" weight-loss products have appeared on the market. Many of these supplements contain compounds such as bitter orange that are similar in structure and action to ephedra. We describe a patient ...
Schütz Katrin - - 2006
Dietary supplements are among the most rapidly growing products in the food and personal care market with an estimated worldwide volume exceeding $60 billion. The main problem associated with dietary supplements is their legal classification. Being neither food nor medicine, they often inhabit a gray area between the two, which ...
Arkkola Tuula - - 2006
Proper nutrition during pregnancy may be important for maternal health and fetal growth and development. In Finland, targeted recommendations are given to guide pregnant women in their food choice and dietary supplement use so that they may obtain adequate nutritional status and meet the increased need for nutrients. The aims ...
Chassy Alexander W - - 2006
Understanding how the environment and production and cultivation practices influence the composition and quality of food crops is fundamental to the production of high-quality nutritious foods. In this 3-year study, total phenolics, percent soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and the flavonoid aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and luteolin were measured in two varieties ...
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