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Results 501 - 550 of 863
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Furtado Jeremy - - 2004
The intake of vegetables and fruits has been shown to reduce the risk of multiple diseases in many different populations. Various components of these foods have been investigated to explain the protective effects. Carotenoids, a class of phytochemicals found in these foods, have been investigated for links between their oxidative, ...
Svilaas Arne - - 2004
The consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of major chronic degenerative diseases. The active compounds and the mechanisms involved in this protective effect have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of various food groups to total antioxidant intake, and to ...
Dikeman Cheryl L - - 2004
Eighteen plum/prune preparations and byproducts were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles. Plum puree and prune juice contained the highest concentrations of ash (13.0 and 13.8%, respectively). Crude protein (CP), acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF), and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in byproducts (waste cake and dried plum pits) ...
Deli József - - 2004
Lutein can convert to 3'-epilutein and anhydrolutein I in acidic medium as well as during different cooking methods. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the epimerisation and dehydration of lutein in native samples. During different cooking processes the lutein content of the processed vegetables and fruits dramatically ...
Tereschuk María L - - 2004
The flavonoids, constituting one of the most numerous and widespread groups of natural plant constituents, are important to humans not only because they contribute to plant colors but also because many members are physiologically active. These low-molecular-weight substances, found in all vascular plants, are phenylbenzopyrones. Over 4000 structures have been ...
Sawamura Masayoshi - - 2004
In the isotope ratio (Ir) analysis using GC-MS, several variable factors in sampling incidental to any food analysis were investigated for yuzu fruit. The Irs of ten monoterpene hydrocarbons in yuzu essential oils from each of six fruiting positions of three trees were measured. The sign test following t-test of ...
Moriyama Michie - - 2004
To assist our choice of sprouts as healthy foodstuffs, we examined and compared the antioxidant activities of various sprouts. Most sprouts contained higher amounts of vitamin C, polyphenol and DPPH radical-scavenging activity than their mature vegetables. As food materials, young college students preferred sprouts to mature vegetables in case of ...
Larrieu S - - 2004
PURPOSE: Diet plays an important role in maintaining quality of life in ageing and can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe dietary habits in a large population-based sample of elderly people and to explore how they may vary according to sex, age, educational level and lifestyle. METHODS: ...
Yao L H - - 2004
There has been increasing interest in the research of flavonoids from dietary sources, due to growing evidence of the versatile health benefits of flavonoids through epidemiological studies. As occurrence of flavonoids is directly associated with human daily dietary intake of antioxidants, it is important to evaluate flavonoid sources in food. ...
Schulz Mandy - - 2004
Ovarian cancer is commonly a fatal disease and, despite advances in screening and treatment, the lack of understanding of the underlying etiology has limited prevention strategies. This article reviews the epidemiologic literature on the relationship between consumption of major food groups and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We ...
Galvano Fabio - - 2004
Cyanidin and its glycosides belong to the anthocyanins, a widespread class of water-soluble plant compounds that are responsible for the brilliant color (red, orange, blue) of fruits and flowers. They are widely ingested by humans as it has been estimated a daily intake around 180 mg, mainly deriving from fruits ...
Zacharioudakis George - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Colored food substances may interfere with Bilitec system that uses bilirubin as a marker for the detection of duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux, causing false positive results. Therefore, diets have been suggested for consumption during Bilitec studies that contain minimal amounts of pigments. AIM: To enrich the list of suitable foods for ...
Watanabe Shaw - - 2004
More than 600 functional non-nutrient food factors (FFFs) in vegetables and fruits are considered to be effective for health promotion and disease prevention. However, phytochemicals studied thus far have failed to yield predicted results in randomized intervention studies. To assess the health effects of phytochemicals, a breakthrough in epidemiological methods ...
Maron David J - - 2004
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and beverages derived from plants. Foods thought historically by many societies to have healing properties--cocoa, red wine, and tea--are particularly rich in flavonoids. A majority of prospective cohort studies demonstrate a significant inverse association between flavonoid consumption and cardiovascular risk. Short-term studies ...
McCarty Mark F - - 2004
There is ample reason to believe that diets rich in phytochemicals provide protection from vascular diseases and many cancers; direct antioxidant activity as well as modulation of enzyme expression or hormone activity contribute to this effect. Phytochemicals derived from diverse foods presumably can interact additively and (possibly) synergistically; thus, the ...
Nelson Stuart O - - 2004
A brief account of interest in dielectric properties of agricultural materials is presented, and some examples of dielectric spectroscopy applied to agricultural problems are discussed. Included are wide frequency range (250 Hz to 12 GHz) permittivity, or dielectric properties, measurements on adult rice weevils and hard red winter wheat, for ...
Nasar Iqbal
Present studies were envisaged to determine the effect of inflorescence pattern on the fruit quality of <I>Satsuma mandarin </I> grafted on Troyer Citrange (TR), Sour Orange (SO) and Trifoliate Orange (TF) in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture, Ege University, Izmir Turkey. Physical fruit quality characteristics such as fruit ...
Gu Liwei - - 2003
A normal-phase HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to screen for proanthocyanidins in 88 different kinds of foods. Thirty-nine foods were found to contain proanthocyanidins. These foods include 19 kinds of fruits, eight cereals/beans, seven nuts, two beverages, two spices, and one vegetable. Twenty-five kinds of foods were found to contain both ...
Boynton-Jarrett Reneé R Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2003
National data indicate that children and youth do not meet Healthy People 2010 objectives for fruit and vegetable intake. Television viewing is hypothesized as a contributing factor because of its documented role in encouraging consumption of highly advertised foods that may lead to the replacement of fruits and vegetables. A ...
Resnicow Ken - - 2003
The association between baseline stage of change and intervention outcomes is examined in a sample of African-American adults who participated in the Eat for Life Trial, a study to increase fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake conducted through Black churches. We explore whether precontemplators responded differently over time than ...
Fernández-Trujillo J Pablo - - 2003
The relationship between soluble peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POX) activity and the development of a chilling-related disorder, superficial scald, was studied in three apple fruit (Malus x domestica Borkh.) systems: a White Angel x Rome Beauty population with progeny with different scald susceptibilities; Delicious from three harvests with progressively declining scald ...
Bensley Lillian - - 2003
Measuring the extent to which individuals meet the 5 A Day dietary recommendation for fruits and vegetables can provide information on the effectiveness of public health efforts to increase consumption of these foods. However, dietary measurement is complicated by the issue of serving size. We compared two methods of measuring ...
Nguyen Simone P - - 2003
This research explored children's use of multiple forms of conceptual organization. Experiments 1 and 2 examined script (e.g., breakfast foods), taxonomic (e.g., fruits), and evaluative (e.g., junk foods) categories. The results showed that 4- and 7-year-olds categorized foods into all 3 categories, and 3-year-olds used both taxonomic and script categories. ...
Farchi S - - 2003
The effect of dietary factors on asthma is controversial. This study examined food consumption and the use of fats in relation to wheezing and allergic rhinitis in children. Baseline questionnaire data on individual and family characteristics were recorded by parents of 5,257 children aged 6-7 yrs living in central Italy ...
Schulz R - - 2003
Methyl-parathion (MeP) was introduced into constructed wetlands for the purpose of assessing the importance of distance from the source of contamination and the role of emergent vegetation on the acute toxicity to Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda). A vegetated (90% cover: mainly Juncus effuses) and a nonvegetated wetland (each with a ...
Kaiser Dale - - 2003
The myxobacteria are Gram-negative organisms that are capable of multicellular, social behaviour. In the presence of nutrients, swarms of myxobacteria feed cooperatively by sharing extracellular digestive enzymes, and can prey on other bacteria. When the food supply runs low, they initiate a complex developmental programme that culminates in the production ...
O'Brien M M MM Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Republic of Ireland. - - 2003
To evaluate the contribution of composite foods to vegetable and fruit intakes in Irish adults and to compliance with dietary guidelines for vegetable and fruit intake. Data were analysed from the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey of 18-64-year-old adults (n=1379; 662 men, 717 women), which used a 7-day food diary ...
Alvarez-Fernández Ana - - 2003
The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on fruit yield and quality were measured in two peach cultivars, Carson (yellow-skin fruit) and Babygold (red-skin fruit). In both cultivars, Fe deficiency caused major decreases in fruit fresh weight per tree and number of fruits per tree. Fruits from Fe-deficient peach trees had ...
Pérez-Rodrigo C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of food preferences, likes and dislikes of Spanish children and young people and analyse its connection with prevailing food patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: Population study. Data were collected at participants' home address. SUBJECTS: Random sample of the Spanish population aged 2-24 y (n=3534; ...
Liu Rui Hai - - 2003
Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated ...
Reijnders Lucas - - 2003
Quantitative environmental evaluations of meat, fresh vegetables, and processed protein based on soybeans suggest that the environmental burden of vegetarian foods is usually relatively low when production and processing are considered. The environmental comparison of cheese varieties made from cow milk and directly from lupine and the evaluation of energy ...
McNaughton S A - - 2003
Evidence indicates that cruciferous vegetables are protective against a range of cancers with glucosinolates and their breakdown products considered the biologically active constituents. To date, epidemiological studies have not investigated the intakes of these constituents due to a lack of food composition databases. The aim of the present study was ...
Neumark-Sztainer Dianne - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify correlates of fruits and vegetables from within the domains of personal factors (taste preferences, health/nutrition attitudes, weight/body concerns, and self-efficacy), behavioral factors (meal frequency, fast food intake, and weight control behaviors), and socio-environmental factors (social support for healthy eating, family meal patterns, food security, ...
McKevith B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In 2001, the British Nutrition Foundation (BNF) was contracted to evaluate projects from the Antioxidants in Food research programme, now funded by the Food Standards Agency and previously the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The programme aimed at testing the 'antioxidant hypothesis'. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted with ...
Gandolfi Michela - - 2003
A high quality of mass reared parasitoids is required for successful biological control of pest insects. Although the phenomenon of behavioral deterioration of parasitoids due to rearing in artificial conditions is well known, its significance is often underestimated, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly investigated. We quantified behavioral alterations of ...
Galloway Amy T AT Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, S-110 South Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2003
Vegetable intake among children is well below recommended levels. We assessed whether food neophobia and pickiness contribute to low vegetable intake in school-aged girls and if there are distinct predictors for neophobia and pickiness. Children with food neophobia are reluctant to eat new foods whereas picky children resist eating many ...
Temple Norman J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A great deal of epidemiologic evidence has indicated that fruits and vegetables are protective against numerous forms of cancer. However, there are many gaps in our knowledge. METHODS: In this pilot study we reviewed more than 200 cohort and case-control studies to determine the shape of the dose-response relationship ...
Le Gall Gwénaëlle - - 2003
There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an ...
Bogers Rik P - - 2003
To correct for overreporting of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in a food-frequency questionnaire, summary questions about consumption of main FV groups are often used to calculate correction factors. This study compared the ability to rank people according to their FV intake of those summary questions and the sum of ...
Ma J - - 2003
Adequate fruit and vegetable intake is strongly associated with a reduced risk for various chronic diseases. US national surveys show that 18- to-24-year-olds are not consuming enough of these foods. Theory-based nutrition interventions, e.g. stage-tailored education programs, are needed for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in this age group. Accurate ...
Marsal Jordi - - 2003
We studied the influence of branch autonomy on the growth of reproductive and vegetative organs by establishing different patterns of fruit distribution within and between large branch units (scaffolds) in mature peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. 'Elegant Lady'). Different patterns of fruit distribution were established by defruiting either ...
Kelly Y - - 2003
There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesised links between consumption of antioxidant rich foods and the occurrence of obstructive airway disease. The main research question was to examine the relationships between two types of dietary exposure and two indicators of respiratory morbidity in Scottish adults. The ...
Lugasi Andrea - - 2003
Recent interest in food phenolics has increased greatly, because of their antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities. Popular beverages in the world include tea, coffee, cocoa, beer, wine and fruit/vegetable juices. All of these beverages contain phenolic compounds. In present study total polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant properties were ...
Steptoe Andrew - - 2003
Fruit and vegetable consumption is below recommended levels in the population, paricularly in low-income groups. This study assessed factors associated with self-reported intake and 2 biomarkers (potassium excretion and plasma vitamin C) in 271 adults living in a low-income neighborhood. Attitudinal barriers to change were negatively related to reported intake ...
Olafsson S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is known that patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) often have an unhealthy lifestyle that results in increased mortality because of smoking-related diseases. No thorough study has been done to see what changes, if any, the patient makes to lifestyle after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: One-hundred-and-eighty-three patients ...
Denny Sarah I - - 2003
This review focuses on the role of dietary factors in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduced pulmonary function and indicators of airway obstruction have been shown to be strong indicators of mortality; therefore, a link with diet in the pathogenesis of these diseases would have important ...
Frazao Elizabeth - - 2003
The typical American diet is top-heavy in comparison with the Food Guide Pyramid-high in added sugars and fats at the Pyramid's tip, and low in most other food components at the Pyramid's base, especially fruit and green leafy vegetables. Improving the healthfulness of the diet would therefore require not only ...
Trichopoulou Antonia - - 2003
There is strong evidence that the intake of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is inversely associated with several forms of cancer. In contrast, information concerning specific macro- or micronutrients in relation to chronic diseases is limited and largely inconclusive. The beneficial role of vegetable ...
Burns Jennifer - - 2003
The carotenoid, tocopherol and chlorophyll metabolic profiles and content of a selection of fruits and vegetables found commonly in the diet, have been determined using a rapid RP-HPLC technique with on-line PDA detection. Information gathered from the screening of secondary plant metabolites is vital for the accurate determination of the ...
Humphries Julia M - - 2003
Quantitative data with regard to dietary (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein, (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin, and their (E/Z)-geometrical isomers are scarce, and in most cases, only the combined concentrations of these two carotenoids in foods are reported. Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the human macula and have been implicated in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ...
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