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Results 451 - 500 of 862
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Jaime Patrícia Constante - - 2005
This study estimated indicators of fruit and vegetable intake by Brazilian adults and examined the influence of demographic and socioeconomic variables on the consumption of these foods. We used the following indicators: daily fruit intake, daily vegetable intake, and daily consumption of five or more servings of fruits and vegetables ...
Donma Orkide - - 2005
Some metals are essential, others are found as contaminants in foodstuffs. There is some doubt on the antioxidant nature of foods or beverages containing phytochemicals because of cadmium and lead in foods. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental data has found an association between high fruit and vegetable intake and low ...
Beekwilder Jules - - 2005
In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage ...
Olivas G I - - 2005
The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), ...
Nifli Artemissia-Phoebe - - 2005
Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate that antioxidant food polyphenols could have antimitotic activities, interfering with cancer initiation, progression or mortality. Circulating polyphenols are far lower than the nominal value in foods. In the rare studies dealing with polyphenol bioavailability, it was noted that their active concentrations in the blood are ...
Nanney Marilyn S - - 2005
The purposes of this paper are two fold. First, to describe an approach used to identify fruits and vegetables to target for a child focused dietary change intervention. Second, to evaluate the concept of fruit and vegetable changeability and feasibility of applying it in a community setting. Steps for identifying ...
Moreira Pedro A - - 2004
Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. A cross-sectional study in a representative sample ...
Steven Maranz
Samples of dried shea fruit pulp were collected from tree populations in Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, and Uganda. A variety of analytical methods was used to measure total soluble solids (TSS), crude protein, and mineral contents. The results demonstrate that shea fruits are a rich source of sugars, protein, ...
Liu Rui Hai - - 2004
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets ...
Speed C - - 2004
Studies are consistently declaring that the Mediterranean-type diet is transposable to non-Mediterranean regions. The nutritional end points of Med-type eating appear to be achievable through foods from a variety of traditions and appear to support predetermined expectations surrounding food preparation, choice, taste and sensory appeal. The broad emphasis on minimally ...
Boyer Jeanelle - - 2004
Evidence suggests that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables may be responsible for this health benefit. However, there is limited knowledge on the bioavailability of specific phytochemicals from whole fruits and vegetables. This study used Caco-2 cells ...
Haire-Joshu Debra - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. DESIGN: Baseline data from a ...
Bedard-Haughn A - - 2004
Previous studies have observed higher levels of soluble nutrients leaving vegetative buffers than entering them, suggesting that the buffers themselves are acting as a source rather than a sink by releasing previously stored nutrients. This study used 98 atom % (15)N-labeled KNO(3) at a rate of 5 kg ha(-1) to ...
Demigné Christian - - 2004
Potassium (K+) requirements have been largely overlooked because severe deficiencies are uncommon due to the ubiquity of this element in foods. However, a transition toward modern ("Westernized") diets has led to a substantial decline of K+ intake compared with traditional food habits, and a large fraction of the population might ...
Ragusa-Netto J - - 2004
Parakeets usually forage for massive and ephemeral plant resources at forest canopies. Fruit pulp is widely cited as a major food resource for these birds, which often eat seeds and nectar. In this study, I assessed flower and fruit production at a gallery forest in the Pantanal flood plain (Brazil) ...
Wayne Sharon J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To quantify change in intake of kilocalories, macronutrients, and fruit and vegetable servings after diagnosis of breast cancer, and to correlate these changes with subject characteristics and with self-reported global change in dietary patterns. DESIGN: Food frequency questionnaires were completed by women newly diagnosed with breast cancer shortly after ...
Ezeronye O U - - 2004
The nutrient utilization pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine was studied using tropical fruits as substrate. Starter cultures were prepared by growing 15-18 h old stock cultures of the yeast in successively larger bottles containing pasteurized fruit must. Microvinification, substrate utilization and assay of yeast activity were performed. Soluble ...
Jansen M C J F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with cancer risk in many epidemiological studies. Accurate assessment of consumption of these foods is difficult, and biomarkers of intake would overcome several drawbacks of currently used dietary assessment methods. Therefore, we investigated the relation between plasma carotenoids and usual vegetable and ...
Le Vuong T - - 2004
Vegetables and fruits provide an array of microchemicals in the form of vitamins and secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) that may lower the risk of chronic disease. Tracing these phytochemicals at physiologic concentrations has been hindered by a lack of quantitative sensitivity for chemically equivalent tracers that could be used safely in ...
Sapir Nir - - 2004
Frugivorous migrants may select fruit-rich habitats en route to attain high food rewards, yet their stopover behavior may also be shaped by other considerations, such as predation risk. During 1996-2001 we investigated autumn stopover habitat use of three Sylvia warblers (sylviids; S. hortensis, S. atricapilla and S. curruca) and three ...
Dixon Helen - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetables, and barriers and opportunities for increasing consumption. DESIGN: Qualitative study with an experiential component. SETTING: Older adults' households. PARTICIPANTS: Six focus groups with 38 Australian adults aged 50 to 64 years who reported low vegetable consumption. INTERVENTION: Week 1: ...
Jackson Alison A - - 2004
Studies have shown that smokers rationalize smoking by self-exempting beliefs. This study explored lay beliefs about smoking in Kelantan, Malaysia, using focus groups among outpatients, medical students and staff, and a questionnaire survey of 193 male smokers. In focus groups, patients said they could do something to make smoking safe. ...
Yokoyama Victoria Y - - 2004
A dose-response relationship was not observed in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae exposed to acetic acid concentrations (0-2.5%) used in commercial brine solutions to cure olives. Immersion in a 1% acetic acid brine solution impeded emergence of the immature stages. A 1-wk exposure of olives infested with olive ...
Vereecken Carine A - - 2004
The main purpose of the present study is to examine whether differences in mothers' food parenting practices by educational level could explain differences in food consumption in Flemish preschool children. Three hundred and sixteen mothers of children aged 2.5-7 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Differences by educational level were found ...
Skuladottir Halla - - 2004
Recent reports have raised the question, whether the previously observed protective effects of high intake of fruit and vegetables on the risk of lung cancer were due to insufficient adjustment for smoking leading to residual confounding. Association of intake of fruit and vegetables on lung cancer risk was examined, using ...
Liu Chang-Shu - - 2004
Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. beta-Carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are precursors of vitamin A, a nutrient essential for human health. However, little is known about the bioavailability of carotenoids from whole foods. This study ...
Wu Xianli - - 2004
Both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a peroxyl radical generator on over 100 different kinds of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, dried fruits, spices, cereals, infant, and other foods. Most ...
Reimer Kathy - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between child-feeding strategies and the stage of change for fruit and vegetable consumption of low-income African American women. DESIGN: Mothers were asked to think aloud as they shopped for groceries and prepared a meal for their family. Verbalisations were audio-taped and transcribed. Transcripts were coded. ...
García-Closas Reina - - 2004
A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition to assess the principal food sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in an adult Spanish population. The study included 41446 healthy volunteers (25812 women and ...
Serdula Mary K - - 2004
We examined trends in fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States. A 6-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess consumption among 434 121 adults in 49 states and the District of Columbia who were sampled in random-digit-dialed telephone surveys administered in 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000. Although the ...
Satia-Abouta Jessie - - 2004
The disparities in colon cancer incidence between African-Americans and other U.S. ethnic groups are largely unexplained. This report examines associations of various food groups with colon cancer in African-Americans and Caucasians from a case-control study. Incident cases of histologically confirmed colon cancer, age 40-80 years, (n = 613) and matched ...
Tarozzi Andrea - - 2004
Data on the composition of phenolic antioxidant compounds present in food plants and assessment of their activity are essential for epidemiological explanation of the health benefits of fruit and vegetables. Various factors such as cultivation methods, industrial processing, and storage may affect the final concentrations of phytochemicals in food plants ...
He Min - - 2004
Many reactive electrophilic chemicals (e.g., acrylamide and hydrazine) occur in foods, and these could individually or cumulatively contribute to human cancer or other diseases. Glutathione (GSH) reacts with and detoxifies electrophilic compounds and is used physiologically to protect against a broad range of toxic and mutagenic compounds. To elucidate the ...
Bogers Rik P - - 2004
The reproducibility, relative validity, and responsiveness to change of an eight-item food frequency questionnaire designed to measure fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed among 157 women (mean age = 41 years) in the Netherlands from spring 2001 to spring 2002. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and total and specific carotenoids ...
Trask Jennifer R - - 2004
Understanding microbial pathogen transport patterns in overland flow is important for developing best management practices for limiting microbial transport to water resources. Knowledge about the effectiveness of vegetative filter strips (VFS) to reduce pathogen transport from livestock confinement areas is limited. In this study, overland and near-surface transport of Cryptosporidium ...
Stanner S A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The British Nutrition Foundation was recently commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to conduct a review of the government's research programme on Antioxidants in Food. Part of this work involved an independent review of the scientific literature on the role of antioxidants in chronic disease prevention, which is presented ...
Herrel A - - 2004
As more data have become available on lizard diets in the past few decades, researchers have stressed the importance of lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers. Whereas large body size has been traditionally put forward as a major biological factor "allowing" herbivory and frugivory in lizards, a recent review of ...
Schreiner Monika - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological studies show an inverse association between vegetable consumption and chronic diseases such as different types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Phytochemicals in vegetables are known to be responsible for this observed protective effect. Therefore, raising the levels of these health-promoting substances in vegetables and/or using phytochemicals as ...
Øverby Nina C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: It is debated whether the intake of added sugar displaces micronutrient-rich foods and dilutes the nutrient density of the diet, and whether there is a link between sugar and the increased rate of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of added sugar on the ...
Heber David - - 2004
The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and ...
Sengupta Archana - - 2004
The major food items of Indian cuisine include rice, wheat, diary products, and abundant fruits and vegetables. Beside these, there are several kinds of herbs and spices as important ingredients, containing many phytochemicals with medicinal properties, adding taste to Indian cuisine. An impressive body of data exists in support of ...
Koch R L - - 2004
The objective of this study was to assess the potential pest status of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) on autumn-ripening fruit. In autumn, H. axyridis has been observed feeding on pumpkins, apples, grapes, and raspberries in Minnesota. To determine whether H. axyridis can inflict primary feeding damage to fruit (i.e., breaking the ...
Cullen Karen W - - 2004
The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days ...
Ashfield-Watt P A L - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the amount of fruits and vegetables consumed depends on the serving size or on how often fruits and vegetables are eaten. DESIGN: Estimation of the weight of serving sizes and the number of fruits and vegetables eaten daily, using a validated food diary method. SETTING: Free-living ...
Bogers R P - - 2004
The influence of individuals' misconceptions in assessing fruit and vegetable consumption on the ability of the theory of planned behaviour to explain variance in the consumption of these foods was studied. Dutch women (mean age 41, n=159) completed a questionnaire assessing the theory's constructs with regard to the daily consumption ...
Miura Katsuyuki - - 2004
Information is sparse on the role of foods in long-term blood pressure (BP) change. The investigators examined relations of food intake to BP change in a prospective cohort study of 1,710 employed men in Chicago, Illinois, initially aged 41-57 years. In 1958 and 1959, BP was measured and nutrient intake ...
Arabbi Paola R - - 2004
The objective of this work was to quantify the flavonoids present in foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. The predominant flavonoids found in largest abundance in all of the analyzed vegetables were glycosides of quercetin. In lettuce, a small amount of luteolin was also detected. In sweet pepper, ...
Furtado Jeremy - - 2004
The intake of vegetables and fruits has been shown to reduce the risk of multiple diseases in many different populations. Various components of these foods have been investigated to explain the protective effects. Carotenoids, a class of phytochemicals found in these foods, have been investigated for links between their oxidative, ...
Svilaas Arne - - 2004
The consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of major chronic degenerative diseases. The active compounds and the mechanisms involved in this protective effect have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of various food groups to total antioxidant intake, and to ...
Potts Richard - - 2004
A bias favoring tree-dominated habitats and ripe-fruit frugivory has persisted in great ape evolution since the early Miocene. This bias is indicated by fossil ape paleoenvironments, molar morphology, dental microwear, the geographic pattern of extinctions, and extant apes' reliance on wooded settings. The ephemeral aspect of high-quality fruit has placed ...
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