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Results 401 - 450 of 940
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Steffen Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiologic data on travelers' diarrhea (TD) are essential for the evaluation of conventional and future prophylactic and therapeutic measures. METHODS: To determine the epidemiology, including risk factors, impact and quality-of-life evaluation of TD, a cross-sectional survey was conducted over 12 months at the airports of Mombasa (Kenya), Goa ...
Jay Michele T - - 2004
We investigated a multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Isolates from 13 case patients from California, Nevada, and Arizona were matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Five case patients (38%) were hospitalized, and 3 (23%) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome; none died. The median age was 12 years (range, 2-75 ...
Kimura Akiko C - - 2004
In 2000, shigellosis traced to a commercially prepared dip developed in 406 persons nationwide. An ill employee may have inadvertently contaminated processing equipment. This outbreak demonstrates the vulnerability of the food supply and how infectious organisms can rapidly disseminate through point-source contamination of a widely distributed food item.
Dworkin Mark S - - 2004
Although foodborne outbreaks of illness are relatively common, they are rarely caused by chemical agents. An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among students at two schools shortly after lunch was served. A cohort study, an environmental investigation, and microbiological and toxicological laboratory testing of food samples were performed. A case ...
Callaway T R - - 2004
Food-borne bacterial illnesses strike more than 76 million North Americans each year. Many of these illnesses are caused by animal-derived foodstuffs. Slaughter and processing plants do an outstanding job in reducing bacterial contamination after slaughter and during further processing, yet food-borne illnesses still occur at an unacceptable frequency. Thus, it ...
Majewska Anna C - - 2004
A total of 564 fecal specimens from 318 horses used for recreational riding, child hippotherapy, and racing at ten commercial and government-run stables in western Poland were tested for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by microscopic examination of Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears, enzyme immunoassay, and combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ ...
Davis Carisa R - - 2004
Molecular methods have become vital epidemiological tools in the detection and characterization of bacteria associated with a foodborne outbreak. We used both culture and real-time PCR to detect a Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolate associated with a foodborne outbreak. The outbreak occurred in July 2002 in Polk County, Florida, and originated at ...
Friedman Cindy R - - 2004
Campylobacter is a common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. We conducted a population-based case-control study to determine risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection. During a 12-month study, we enrolled 1316 patients with culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections from 7 states, collecting demographic, clinical, and exposure data using a standardized questionnaire. ...
Jones Timothy F - - 2004
To better understand factors associated with confirming the etiologic organism and identifying the food vehicle responsible for foodborne-disease outbreaks, we examined data from outbreaks reported in 1998 and 1999 through active surveillance by Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas in 7 states. In 71% of these outbreaks, no ...
Wagatsuma Yukiko - - 2004
An outbreak of dengue fever occurred among employees of a recreation club in Bangladesh. Occupational transmission was characterized by a 12% attack rate, no dengue among family contacts, and Aedes vectors in club areas. Early recognition of the outbreak likely limited its impact.
Wethington Holly - - 2004
The RUsick2 Foodborne Disease Forum at the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center increased reporting of foodborne diseases to more than four times the rate seen in the previous 2 years. Since November 2002, the Forum has allowed pilot-area residents with sudden-onset vomiting or diarrhea to share and compare information ...
Correia A M - - 2004
In October 2001, foodborne outbreaks (FBO) were included in the Portuguese alert and response surveillance system. Accordingly, the northern regional health authority (Delegado Regional de Saude do Norte--DRSN) began a surveillance programme of foodborne outbreaks. This report is a brief description of data generated from this programme in 2002. For ...
Páez Jiménez A - - 2004
On 3 September 2002, the Spanish national centre of epidemiology (Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia--CNE) was alerted to a high number of gastroenteritis cases in Spanish tourists who had travelled to a hotel in Punta Cana on different days during august 2002. Entamoeba hystolitica cysts have been visualised by microscopy in ...
Doyle A - - 2004
In January 2003, the Institut de Veille Sanitaire received notification of clusters of gastroenteritis (GE) thought to be associated with consumption of oysters harvested from Etang de Thau in the south of France. At the same time Italy reported an outbreak (200+ cases) associated with oysters from the Etang de ...
Reij M W - - 2004
Food products that have been submitted to an adequate heat-treatment during processing are free of vegetative pathogens and, depending on the treatments, of sporeformers and are generally regarded as safe. Processed products such as pâté, ice cream, infant formulae and others have nevertheless been responsible for food-borne illnesses. Thorough epidemiological ...
Fiore Anthony E - - 2004
Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route, either by direct contact with an HAV-infected person or by ingestion of HAV-contaminated food or water. Foodborne or waterborne hepatitis A outbreaks are relatively uncommon in the United States. However, food handlers with hepatitis A ...
Kobayashi Shinichi - - 2004
In February 2001, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Norovirus (NV) occurred among employees of 11 companies in Aichi Prefecture. The illness was strongly associated with eating a delivered box-lunch. The use of magnetic beads coated with the antibody to the baculovirus-expressed recombinant capsid proteins of the Chiba virus ...
Jones Roderick C - - 2004
Carnitas are fried chunks of pork frequently served in Mexican-origin households, food service establishments, and social gatherings. During 1995-2002, carnitas emerged as the most frequently implicated vehicle of transmission in foodborne disease outbreaks in Chicago. Five (6%) of 90 foodborne disease outbreaks investigated and reported in Chicago during this period ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2004
Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV ...
Munnoch Sally A - - 2004
In June 2003, Australian state and territory health departments were notified of an outbreak of Hepatitis A in people who had attended a five-day youth camp. Approximately 350 people attended the event in Central Australia between 24 and 28 April 2003. The public health investigation comprised of case identification, food ...
- - 2004
Salmonella incidence was increased during the quarter, similar to the first quarter of 2004. There were several outbreaks of different phage types of S. Typhimurium occurring in multiple Australian states. OzFoodNet held several discussions during the quarter to try to identify links between these increases. In total, Salmonella infections were ...
Dippold Laura - - 2003
Describing the system components of norovirus outbreaks is important in understanding how to prevent future outbreaks. Investigation of these components includes environmental, epidemiologic, and laboratory perspectives. This study describes how an investigation from these three perspectives was conducted and the significance of each component in understanding norovirus outbreaks. On May ...
Giorgi Rossi Paolo - - 2003
Information about risk ratios, exposures, and vehicles for foodborne diseases tends to be more reliable when it is obtained from outbreak surveillance than when it is obtained from disease notifications. In 1997, guidelines for methods of investigating foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) were implemented in the Lazio region. To evaluate the ...
de Wit Matty A S - - 2003
Viral pathogens are the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. To identify modes of transmission and opportunities for prevention, a case-control study was conducted and risk factors for gastroenteritis attributable to norovirus (NV), Sapporo-like virus (SLV), and rotavirus were studied. For NV gastroenteritis, having a household member with ...
Lamps Laura W - - 2003
Although naturally occurring food-borne pathogens cause more than 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5000 deaths annually in the United States, many more infections are unrecognized and unreported. In addition, mass production and distribution of food, on a global rather than a local scale, make it possible for localized instances ...
Haegebaert S - - 2003
When applicable, case-crossover studies may be quicker and cheaper to complete than case-control studies. Because time is a major issue in outbreak investigations, we evaluated the interest of this design during a continuous common source food-borne outbreak of salmonellosis for which the vehicle (hamburgers) was also implicated by environmental and ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2003
The importance of foodborne viral infections is increasingly recognized. Food handlers can transmit infection during preparation or serving; fruit and vegetables may be contaminated by fecally contaminated water used for growing or washing. And the globalization of the food industry mean that a contaminated food item may not be limited ...
Marlet M V L - - 2003
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known to be endemic in Somalia along the basins of the (Middle) Shebelle and (Lower) Juba rivers, and in Kenya in parts of the Rift Valley, on the border with Uganda and the Eastern Provinces. From May 2000 to August 2001, we diagnosed 904 patients with ...
Laprevotte Ivan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was described in the United Kingdom. It is often claimed that it is caused by consumption of food infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, this remains open to question because the number of cases of the variant is, at the ...
Gaze Rosangela - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5%) from Belém, 123 ...
- - 2003
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted typically from person to person by the fecal-oral route. Foodborne transmission occurs when an HAV-infected food handler contaminates food during preparation or when food is contaminated during harvesting or processing before reaching the food service establishment or home. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with immune globulin ...
Cowden J - - 2003
An outbreak of salmonellosis, involving cases of infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage types (PT) 5c and 6a, occurred across Scotland between May and August 2000. In total, 70 outbreak cases were microbiologically confirmed. Preliminary investigation suggested that consumption of food, especially chicken dishes, from Chinese restaurants or take-aways (food businesses) ...
Matson David O - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caliciviruses are a major cause of human illness, and are listed as category B pathogens according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases classification of pathogens important for biodefense. Caliciviruses are commonly encountered in contaminated food and water, and a large variety has been implicated ...
Nimri Laila F - - 2003
Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis have emerged as important causes of epidemic and endemic diarrhea in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The exact modes of transmission in certain rural areas are still unclear. Reports of water-borne and food-borne outbreaks suggest that fecally contaminated water or food acts as a vehicle of ...
Peterson Michael C - - 2003
An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis occurred among people who had attended a meal where raw milk was served. A case control study was conducted using instances of illness as cases; those who attended the event but did not become ill served as controls. Thirteen of 20 people who had ...
Tansel Ozlem - - 2003
This study was designed to define the epidemiology of a food-borne outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis that affected only one squadron of a military battalion located in the vicinity of the city of Edirne in Turkey. The outbreak was analyzed by a standard surveillance form of the Centers for Disease ...
Heggestad Torhild - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of choosing different time-intervals of observation when using unplanned readmissions as an outcome indicator. DESIGN: A conceptual model was developed based on the risk curve. The model assigned readmissions above a background level as 'related' to the earlier episode of illness. The characteristics of the ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2003
Worldwide, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) have been recognized as the cause of many sporadic cases or major outbreaks of human illnesses involving consumption of contaminated meat, especially beef. Although sheep products have not been linked to reported human illnesses, their role as a food safety risk factor should not be ...
Djordjevic M - - 2003
Over the past decade, eastern Europe has experienced a resurgence of trichinellosis. A recent outbreak in Serbia, Yugoslavia, from December 2001 to January 2002, involving 309 people, revealed many of the causes for this reemergence. Epidemiological investigations indicate that the immediate cause of the recent outbreak was the consumption of ...
Naimi Timothy S - - 2003
In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, ...
Linneberg Allan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Seropositivity to food-borne and orofecal microorganisms (hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, and Toxoplasma gondii ), which are considered to be markers of poor hygiene, has been reported to be associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. In contrast, colonization of the gut with Clostridium difficile, a potential intestinal bacterial ...
Hayes Celia - - 2003
Public health and food safety experts estimate that millions of episodes of illnesses annually can be traced to contaminated food and water. Food and water safety is extremely important to persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A compromised immune system causes people ...
Horby P W - - 2003
Between 1 August and 15 September 2000, 361 cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, spectinomycin and tetracycline (R-type ACSSuSpT), were identified in England and Wales residents. Molecular typing of 258 isolates of S. Typhimurium DT104 R-type ACSSuSpT showed that, ...
Gill Christopher J - - 2003
Based on in vitro data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends chemical disinfection of raw sprout seeds to reduce enteric pathogens contaminating the seed coats. However, little is known about the effectiveness of decontamination at preventing human disease. In 1999, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka occurred in ...
Hutin Yvan - - 2003
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for cholera during an outbreak in Nigeria. Cases were defined as recent onset of acute diarrhoea with dehydration in a patient hospitalised at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kano City. Meningitis patients admitted concurrently at the same hospital were ...
Levy Michael - - 2003
An outbreak of tonsillopharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes occurred among inmates of a rural correctional center in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 72 (28%) of 256 inmates became ill in December 1999. S. pyogenes type M-75, T-25, which was opacity factor positive, was isolated from throat swab specimens ...
Mao Ying - - 2003
Foodborne infections are estimated to affect one in four Americans each year. Most these (67%) are caused by the Norwalk-like viruses, but Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonellae together account for about one fourth of cases of illness in which a pathogen can be detected. Less common bacterial infections, such as with ...
Cartwright R Y - - 2003
The surveillance and prevention of food and waterborne infections in package holiday tourists relies more on common sense and experience rather than evidence based scientific facts. In spite of the major economic value to both sending and receiving countries it is a problem that is largely ignored by health departments ...
Faustini A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: More thorough information about risks, exposures and vehicles of food borne diseases can be obtained from epidemiological field investigations than from infectious disease reports or laboratory data. METHODS: We analysed the results of 410 field investigations of food borne disease outbreaks reported from 1996 to 2000 and conducted as ...
Hollmén Tuula E - - 2003
We examined 10 common eider (Somateria mollissima) males found dead in 1998 during a die-off in the northern Baltic Sea off the southwestern coast of Finland. We diagnosed impaction of the posterior small intestine with mucosal necrosis as the cause of death in all 10 and isolated adenoviruses from cloacal ...
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