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Results 401 - 450 of 969
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Sala M R - - 2005
Norovirus infection is associated with approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The objective of this study is to describe an outbreak of norovirus genogroup I gastroenteritis which affected workers in a hospital and was attributed to food prepared by an infected food handler. Forty cases were detected, of whom ...
Ochiai Hirotaka - - 2005
On February 13, 2002, a public health center in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, was notified that many individuals living at the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force base had symptoms resembling those of food poisoning. Self-administered questionnaires requesting information regarding meal consumption and symptoms were distributed to all 281 members at the base. ...
Papini R - - 2005
Faecal samples from 183 dogs living in three different shelters in the Rome metropolitan area were randomly collected and examined for the prevalence of giardiosis. Giardia infections were detected by a commercially available ELISA test (ProspecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Overall prevalence was 55.2%. Prevalence rates in single shelters were 74.3, ...
Ekdahl Karl - - 2005
Unlike salmonellosis with well-known routes of transmission, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear. Known risk factors such as ingestion of contaminated food and water, direct contact with infected animals and outdoor swimming could at most only explain half the recorded cases. We put forward the hypothesis that flies ...
Green Laura - - 2005
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness ...
Calci Kevin R - - 2005
Previous results demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV) could be inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (D. H. Kingsley, D. Hoover, E. Papafragkou, and G. P. Richards, J. Food Prot. 65:1605-1609, 2002); however, direct evaluation of HAV inactivation within contaminated oysters was not performed. In this study, we report confirmation ...
Brito Gerly A C - - 2005
Despite numerous scientific advances in the past few years regarding the pathogenesis, diagnostic tools and treatment of infectious enteritis, enteric infections remain a serious threat to health worldwide. With globalization of the food supply, the increase in travel, mass food processing and antibiotic resistance, infectious diarrhea has become a critical ...
Sarvghad M R - - 2005
Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff ...
Ng T L - - 2005
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of raw imported half-shelled frozen oysters occurred in Singapore between 16 Dec 2003 and 04 Jan 2004. A total of 305 cases were reported with clinical symptoms of diarrhoea (94%), abdominal cramps (72%), vomiting (69%) and fever (54%). The median incubation period was ...
Le Guyader Françoise S - - 2004
Following an acute foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in southern Sweden, stool specimens from five of nine ill patients were found positive for norovirus using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Epidemiological data pointed to raspberry cakes as the source of the outbreak. Using a combination of generic and patient-specific primers and novel ...
Brodie Jon - - 2005
The cause(s) of primary outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) are still subject to scientific controversy. The possibility of primary outbreaks being linked to terrestrial runoff has been postulated a number of times, suggesting that enhanced nutrient supply is critical for enhanced A. planci larval development. This paper ...
Gajadhar Alvin A - - 2004
This is the first of a series of review articles in a Special Issue publication on waterborne zoonotic parasites. A brief historical overview of the occurrence and importance of waterborne parasites, dating from early civilization is presented. The article considers the diversity of parasites including protozoa, nematodes, cestodes and trematodes ...
Grotto I - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NVs) are a predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks, but they are difficult to identify because they cannot be cultivated in cell culture. Therefore, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are widely used in the testing of clinical stool specimens for NV. However, testing of perianal swabs in ...
Allwood Paul B - - 2004
Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe ...
Abe Kazuo - - 2004
In gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by Salmonella-contaminated lunches at elementary, junior high, and nursery schools. outbreaks with long median incubation periods (i.e., 60 to 120 h) were observed frequently between 1990 and 1999 in Japan. We analyzed epidemiological data on 185 outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infection to study the factors underlying ...
McCabe-Sellers Beverly J - - 2004
Between 250 and 350 million Americans are estimated to suffer acute gastroenteritis annually, with 25% to 30% thought to be caused by foodborne illnesses. Most vulnerable to foodborne diseases are elderly people, pregnant women, immune-compromised people, and children. While bacterial causes such as Salmonella are widely recognized and monitored as ...
Albers Marilyn K - - 2004
Norovirus is the name for a group of Norwalk-like viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis of rapid onset. A recent outbreak at a tertiary care facility in Alberta provided an opportunityfor staff and management to review their outbreak protocol and improve their infection prevention and control procedures. The outbreak caused illness ...
Eriksen Hanne M - - 2004
Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, Sweden and Finland. The patient group was scheduled to stay until 8 November. A new group of ...
Mølbak K - - 2004
The paper reviews the lines of evidence which link the use of antimicrobial drugs for food animals with the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance in bacteria pathogenic to humans, with a particular focus on the public health aspects. Deductions from the epidemiology of food-borne infections, ecological studies, outbreak investigations, typing ...
Sivapalasingam Sumathi - - 2004
Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet. During the last three decades, the number of outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens associated with fresh produce consumption reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has increased. To identify trends, we analyzed data for 1973 through 1997 from ...
Butzler J-P - - 2004
After its successful isolation from stools in the 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni has rapidly become the most commonly recognised cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Reported cases of human campylobacteriosis represent only a small fraction of the actual number. In industrialised countries, the incidence of C. jejuni/Campylobacter coli infections peaks during ...
Matsui T - - 2004
A Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreak in Japan was investigated with an observational study, analytical epidemiology and bacteriological examination (including phage typing). The outbreak occurred among 96 schoolchildren, and was caused by SE phage type 1. The outbreak source was dessert buns served at a school lunch (RR 42.55, 95 % ...
Rzezutka Artur - - 2004
Human enteric pathogenic viruses can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials from infected persons, and be transmitted back to susceptible persons to continue the cycle of disease. Contamination of food with viruses may also promote disease outbreaks. A number of studies have investigated the survival characteristics of several ...
Prato Rosa - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses") being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about strains circulating in Italy. In April 2002 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in the province of Bari (South-east Italy), involving ...
Kasuga Fumiko - - 2004
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (former MHW) of Japan issued a Directive in 1997 advising restaurants and caterers to freeze portions of both raw food and cooked dishes for at least 2 weeks. This system has been useful for determining vehicle foods at outbreaks. Enumeration of bacteria in ...
Schlundt J - - 2004
Diarrhoeal diseases, almost all of which are caused by food-borne or waterborne microbial pathogens, are leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries, killing an estimated 1.9 million people annually at the global level. Even in developed countries, it is estimated that up to one third of the ...
Mitakakis T Z - - 2004
Cases of gastroenteritis were examined to identify if dietary intake prior to an episode and food-handling and storage practices in the home were risk factors for illness. Cases and controls completed a dietary questionnaire after an event or when well, and questionnaires concerning food-handling, storage and general food-hygiene practices. Comparing ...
MacKenzie A A - - 2004
This paper discusses food-borne zoonotic diseases by considering contemporary influences on food safety and examining pathogens at the human/animal interface. The authors also discuss the epidemiological surveillance of food-borne illnesses and the differences in disease statistics from one country to another. Before concluding with a number of recommendations, the paper ...
Rooney Roisin M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on ...
Steffen Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiologic data on travelers' diarrhea (TD) are essential for the evaluation of conventional and future prophylactic and therapeutic measures. METHODS: To determine the epidemiology, including risk factors, impact and quality-of-life evaluation of TD, a cross-sectional survey was conducted over 12 months at the airports of Mombasa (Kenya), Goa ...
Jay Michele T - - 2004
We investigated a multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Isolates from 13 case patients from California, Nevada, and Arizona were matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Five case patients (38%) were hospitalized, and 3 (23%) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome; none died. The median age was 12 years (range, 2-75 ...
Kimura Akiko C - - 2004
In 2000, shigellosis traced to a commercially prepared dip developed in 406 persons nationwide. An ill employee may have inadvertently contaminated processing equipment. This outbreak demonstrates the vulnerability of the food supply and how infectious organisms can rapidly disseminate through point-source contamination of a widely distributed food item.
Dworkin Mark S - - 2004
Although foodborne outbreaks of illness are relatively common, they are rarely caused by chemical agents. An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among students at two schools shortly after lunch was served. A cohort study, an environmental investigation, and microbiological and toxicological laboratory testing of food samples were performed. A case ...
Callaway T R - - 2004
Food-borne bacterial illnesses strike more than 76 million North Americans each year. Many of these illnesses are caused by animal-derived foodstuffs. Slaughter and processing plants do an outstanding job in reducing bacterial contamination after slaughter and during further processing, yet food-borne illnesses still occur at an unacceptable frequency. Thus, it ...
Majewska Anna C - - 2004
A total of 564 fecal specimens from 318 horses used for recreational riding, child hippotherapy, and racing at ten commercial and government-run stables in western Poland were tested for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by microscopic examination of Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears, enzyme immunoassay, and combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ ...
Davis Carisa R - - 2004
Molecular methods have become vital epidemiological tools in the detection and characterization of bacteria associated with a foodborne outbreak. We used both culture and real-time PCR to detect a Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolate associated with a foodborne outbreak. The outbreak occurred in July 2002 in Polk County, Florida, and originated at ...
Friedman Cindy R - - 2004
Campylobacter is a common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. We conducted a population-based case-control study to determine risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection. During a 12-month study, we enrolled 1316 patients with culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections from 7 states, collecting demographic, clinical, and exposure data using a standardized questionnaire. ...
Jones Timothy F - - 2004
To better understand factors associated with confirming the etiologic organism and identifying the food vehicle responsible for foodborne-disease outbreaks, we examined data from outbreaks reported in 1998 and 1999 through active surveillance by Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas in 7 states. In 71% of these outbreaks, no ...
Wagatsuma Yukiko - - 2004
An outbreak of dengue fever occurred among employees of a recreation club in Bangladesh. Occupational transmission was characterized by a 12% attack rate, no dengue among family contacts, and Aedes vectors in club areas. Early recognition of the outbreak likely limited its impact.
Wethington Holly - - 2004
The RUsick2 Foodborne Disease Forum at the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center increased reporting of foodborne diseases to more than four times the rate seen in the previous 2 years. Since November 2002, the Forum has allowed pilot-area residents with sudden-onset vomiting or diarrhea to share and compare information ...
Correia A M - - 2004
In October 2001, foodborne outbreaks (FBO) were included in the Portuguese alert and response surveillance system. Accordingly, the northern regional health authority (Delegado Regional de Saude do Norte--DRSN) began a surveillance programme of foodborne outbreaks. This report is a brief description of data generated from this programme in 2002. For ...
Páez Jiménez A - - 2004
On 3 September 2002, the Spanish national centre of epidemiology (Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia--CNE) was alerted to a high number of gastroenteritis cases in Spanish tourists who had travelled to a hotel in Punta Cana on different days during august 2002. Entamoeba hystolitica cysts have been visualised by microscopy in ...
Doyle A - - 2004
In January 2003, the Institut de Veille Sanitaire received notification of clusters of gastroenteritis (GE) thought to be associated with consumption of oysters harvested from Etang de Thau in the south of France. At the same time Italy reported an outbreak (200+ cases) associated with oysters from the Etang de ...
Reij M W - - 2004
Food products that have been submitted to an adequate heat-treatment during processing are free of vegetative pathogens and, depending on the treatments, of sporeformers and are generally regarded as safe. Processed products such as pâté, ice cream, infant formulae and others have nevertheless been responsible for food-borne illnesses. Thorough epidemiological ...
Fiore Anthony E - - 2004
Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route, either by direct contact with an HAV-infected person or by ingestion of HAV-contaminated food or water. Foodborne or waterborne hepatitis A outbreaks are relatively uncommon in the United States. However, food handlers with hepatitis A ...
Kobayashi Shinichi - - 2004
In February 2001, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Norovirus (NV) occurred among employees of 11 companies in Aichi Prefecture. The illness was strongly associated with eating a delivered box-lunch. The use of magnetic beads coated with the antibody to the baculovirus-expressed recombinant capsid proteins of the Chiba virus ...
Jones Roderick C - - 2004
Carnitas are fried chunks of pork frequently served in Mexican-origin households, food service establishments, and social gatherings. During 1995-2002, carnitas emerged as the most frequently implicated vehicle of transmission in foodborne disease outbreaks in Chicago. Five (6%) of 90 foodborne disease outbreaks investigated and reported in Chicago during this period ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2004
Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV ...
Munnoch Sally A - - 2004
In June 2003, Australian state and territory health departments were notified of an outbreak of Hepatitis A in people who had attended a five-day youth camp. Approximately 350 people attended the event in Central Australia between 24 and 28 April 2003. The public health investigation comprised of case identification, food ...
- - 2004
Salmonella incidence was increased during the quarter, similar to the first quarter of 2004. There were several outbreaks of different phage types of S. Typhimurium occurring in multiple Australian states. OzFoodNet held several discussions during the quarter to try to identify links between these increases. In total, Salmonella infections were ...
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