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Results 351 - 400 of 963
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Hamilton Andrew J - - 2006
Quantitative microbial risk assessment models for estimating the annual risk of enteric virus infection associated with consuming raw vegetables that have been overhead irrigated with nondisinfected secondary treated reclaimed water were constructed. We ran models for several different scenarios of crop type, viral concentration in effluent, and time since last ...
Yoder Jonathan S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an emerging cause of foodborne outbreaks of infection in the United States, yet its epidemiology is not completely understood. METHODS: In September 2004, we investigated an outbreak of infection due to ETEC at an Illinois corporation following a meal served to approximately 700 employees. ...
McLaughlin Joseph B - - 2006
An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among at least 47 persons attending a school potluck. Illness was associated with consumption of ground beef (estimated odds ratio, 16.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 338.3). Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from infected individuals and the implicated ground beef revealed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and ...
Smith Huw V - - 2006
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are major public health concerns. The role of water and food in the epidemiology of these diseases is now well recognized. Molecular techniques are available to determine the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and to distinguish human from non-human pathogens. Validated methods to determine the ...
DuPont Andrew W - - 2006
Travelers' diarrhea occurs when persons move from industrialized regions to developing countries with reduced hygiene. Bacterial enteropathogens from ingested food are the primary causes. Although it is possible to reduce the occurrence of illness by careful selection of food and beverages, travelers do not seem willing to restrict their diets. ...
O'Brien S J - - 2006
Systematic national surveillance of outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) was introduced in England and Wales in 1992 to provide comprehensive information on causative organisms, sources or vehicles of infection and modes of transmission. We compared information from this system with that published in the peer-reviewed literature between 1 January ...
Busani Luca - - 2006
Foodborne infections are an important Public Health concern worldwide. Most of the pathogens that play a role in foodborne diseases have a zoonotic origin. The epidemiology of foodborne infections as well as the food production and distribution chains, have remarkably changed during the past ten years. Understanding of how pathogens ...
Warren B R - - 2006
Shigella, the causative agent of shigellosis or "bacillary dysentery," has been increasingly involved in foodborne outbreaks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), Shigella was the third most reported foodborne bacterial pathogen in 2002. Foods are most commonly contaminated ...
Asteberg Inger - - 2006
Beta-haemolytic group A streptococci (GAS) is a common cause of sore throat, usually spread person-to-person. Outbreaks related to infected food have more seldom been reported. The bacteria may originate from the throat or from wounds on the hands of persons handling the food. An outbreak in Sätila, Sweden, in April/May ...
Mazick A - - 2006
In May/June 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness occurred among company employees in Copenhagen. Cases were reported from seven of eight companies that received food from the same catering kitchen. Stool specimens from three patients from two companies were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. We performed a retrospective cohort study among ...
Schmid D - - 2006
We report an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella Enteritidis PT 21 associated with attending an annual traditional fair in a small Austrian village on 4 May 2005. The outbreak lasted from 4 to 8 May. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological investigations were conducted in order to determine the extent of ...
Nelson Warrick - - 2006
AIMS: New Zealand has a very high rate of seasonal, sporadic campylobacteriosis compared to other OECD countries. Can the seasonality of New Zealand cases fit with an explanation of food-borne transmission (especially by chicken meat), and where does the fly-transmission hypothesis fit? METHODS: Analysis of seasonal campylobacteriosis reports at the ...
Jelastopulu Eleni - - 2006
On the 20th September 2005, soldiers and staff at the Air Force base in Western Greece experienced an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the agent and the source of the outbreak in order to develop control measures and to avoid similar outbreaks in ...
- - 2006
In 2005, OzFoodNet sites recorded 25,779 notifications of seven potentially foodborne diseases, which was 12.5 per cent higher than the mean for the previous five years. Diseases with significant increases in 2005, when compared to historical reports include: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. The ...
Reller Megan E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Foodborne outbreaks of Shigella infection are uncommon and tomatoes are an unusual vehicle. We describe a large, multiple-restaurant outbreak of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a infection that was associated with tomatoes. METHODS: We conducted nationwide surveillance and a case-control study, collected fecal specimens for culture, and measured the survival of ...
Graham Christopher - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: A small outbreak of campylobacteriosis involving three cases was investigated in terms of Campylobacter types present in the suspect food (pre-cooked sausages) and clinical samples from the cases. METHOD: Foods and faecal samples from people involved in the incident, which occurred in Christchurch, New Zealand, were tested for the ...
Wilson Mary E - - 2005
Acute diarrheal illnesses in nontravelers are common and represent a significant health and economic burden in the United States and other developed countries. The likelihood of experiencing diarrhea is increased many fold during travel to developing countries. Extensive overlap exists in the pathogens that cause diarrhea in travelers and nontravelers, ...
Rayner Mike - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of ill health in the UK that can be attributed to food (the burden of food related ill health). DESIGN: Review and further analysis of the results of work concerned with estimates of the burden of disease measured as morbidity, mortality, and in financial ...
Friedman D S - - 2005
We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery ...
Shlim David R - - 2005
In the 50 years during which traveler's diarrhea has been studied, it has always been assumed that personal hygiene precautions can prevent or reduce the likelihood of developing traveler's diarrhea. However, 7 of 8 studies that specifically addressed this issue showed no correlation between the types of food selected and ...
Prato R - - 2006
We report an outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in the city of Bari (Apulian region) in June 2002. Overall, 26 cases were observed over a 4-week period. These were traced back to the index case, a food handler who prepared various food products for sale over the counter at ...
Bowen A - - 2006
Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet and is consumed in greater quantity in the United States than ever before. Consumption of cantaloupe has recently been associated with several large outbreaks of infections in North America, highlighting the need for a better understanding of practices and processes ...
Camps N - - 2005
A large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in Catalonia in June 2002 with 1435 cases and 117 hospitalizations. Consumption of a hard pastry with vanilla cream was strongly associated with illness. Stool samples from cases and food-handlers were analysed. The premises of the food manufacturer were inspected and food samples were ...
Kimura A C - - 2005
Foodborne transmission is estimated to account for 95% of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections reported in the United States; however, outbreaks of salmonellosis are rarely traced to food handlers. In August 2000, an increase in Salmonella serotype Thompson infection was noted in Southern California; most of the cases reported eating at a ...
Gillespie I A - - 2005
Foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) infection (n=497), reported to the Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre between 1992 and 2002, were compared with other pathogens (n=1148) to determine factors (season, setting, food vehicles, food safety faults) associated with this pathogen. Logistic regression was ...
Hammond Roberta M - - 2005
The task of measuring the effectiveness of food worker training has historically met with many challenges. This paper considers various approaches and utilizes trends in foodborne-outbreak contributing factors to evaluate a recent change in Florida's food worker training. Results show that subsequent to training, the relative incidence of many factors ...
Hamano Masako - - 2005
Noroviruses (called formerly "Norwalk-like viruses") cause food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These outbreaks were thought to be related to shellfish consumption, although non-shellfish related outbreaks also occurred frequently in Japan. To clarify the epidemiology of Norovirus outbreaks, 435 stool samples were collected from 60 acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring over 8 years ...
Hillel Oren - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea is the most common infectious disease afflicting travelers to developing countries. Most studies investigating the benefits of recommendations regarding the consumption of food and water have focused on short-term travelers. We investigated the benefits of adherence to the precautions from the World Health Organization (WHO) among long-term ...
Gerner-Smidt Peter - - 2005
PulseNet USA is the national molecular subtyping network system for foodborne disease surveillance. Sixty-four public health and food regulatory laboratories participate in PulseNet USA and routinely perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans, food, water, and the environment on a real-time basis. Clusters of infection ...
Dawson David - - 2005
This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Descriptions of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have become a prominent feature in scientific journals and other media such as the electronic reporting service 'promed'. A review of outbreak reports was done to further our understanding of the burden of disease, common and rare modes of transmission, complications, ...
Dierick Katelijne - - 2005
Bacillus cereus is a well-known cause of food-borne illness, but infection with this organism is not commonly reported because of its usually mild symptoms. A fatal case due to liver failure after the consumption of pasta salad is described and demonstrates the possible severity of the emetic syndrome.
Flint James A - - 2005
The burden of foodborne disease is not well defined in many countries or regions or on a global level. The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with other national public health agencies, is coordinating a number of international activities designed to assist countries in the strengthening of disease surveillance and ...
Schwaber Mitchell J - - 2005
We analyzed 865 diarrheal outbreaks with an identified bacterial pathogen or unknown cause that occurred in the Israeli military between 1988 and 2002. The number of outbreaks per year declined over the study period, as did the proportion of outbreaks with an identified pathogen. Shigella, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus species were ...
Ferguson D D - - 2005
Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks were identified in Minnesota in February 2003 involving seven persons and in Colorado in July 2003 involving 13 persons. Case isolates from the two states had matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Independent case-control studies linked infections in each outbreak with eating alfalfa sprouts that were ...
Yates Johnnie - - 2005
Acute diarrhea affects millions of persons who travel to developing countries each year. Food and water contaminated with fecal matter are the main sources of infection. Bacteria such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella are common causes of traveler's diarrhea. Parasites and viruses are less ...
Su Hsun-Pi - - 2005
How to reduce the occurrence of food-borne illness has always been one issue of great importance in Taiwan's disease prevention and control efforts, and it is important to determine, from survey results, whether the pathogens in Taiwan are the same or different from those in other countries. Accordingly, data on ...
- - 2005
Foodborne illnesses are a substantial health burden in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program collects data from 10 U.S. sites on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. FoodNet quantifies and monitors the incidence of these infections by conducting ...
Bos John - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A is the third leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, resulting annually in an estimated 250,000 cases of a typically mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal illness. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the cause of a small cluster of cases of ...
Broza Meir - - 2005
Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne bacterium native to the aquatic environment. There are over 200 known serogroups yet only two cause cholera pandemics in humans. Direct contact of human sewage with drinking water, sea-born currents and marine transportation, represent modes of dissemination of the bacteria and thus the disease. The ...
Jiménez M - - 2005
An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter infection was identified in May 2003 in a school in Madrid, Spain. Eighty one cases were identified in a total of 253 people studied. A retrospective cohort study showed that a custard made with ultra high temperature (UHT) milk was associated with illness ...
Hirakata Yoichi - - 2005
A series of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NVs) among tourist groups from several prefectures was associated with eating a lunch prepared by a restaurant in Nagasaki City, Japan, on 18 and 19 November 2003. A retrospective cohort study was performed to estimate the magnitude of the outbreak and identify ...
Werber Dirk - - 2005
This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of ...
van Duynhoven Y T H P - - 2005
In 2002, in The Netherlands a national study of gastroenteritis outbreaks was performed. Epidemiological information was collected by the Public Health Services (PHS) and the Food Inspection Services (FIS) using standardized questionnaires. Stool samples were collected for diagnostic testing. For foodborne outbreaks, food samples were taken. In total, 281 gastroenteritis ...
Sala M R - - 2005
Norovirus infection is associated with approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The objective of this study is to describe an outbreak of norovirus genogroup I gastroenteritis which affected workers in a hospital and was attributed to food prepared by an infected food handler. Forty cases were detected, of whom ...
Ochiai Hirotaka - - 2005
On February 13, 2002, a public health center in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, was notified that many individuals living at the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force base had symptoms resembling those of food poisoning. Self-administered questionnaires requesting information regarding meal consumption and symptoms were distributed to all 281 members at the base. ...
Papini R - - 2005
Faecal samples from 183 dogs living in three different shelters in the Rome metropolitan area were randomly collected and examined for the prevalence of giardiosis. Giardia infections were detected by a commercially available ELISA test (ProspecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Overall prevalence was 55.2%. Prevalence rates in single shelters were 74.3, ...
Ekdahl Karl - - 2005
Unlike salmonellosis with well-known routes of transmission, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear. Known risk factors such as ingestion of contaminated food and water, direct contact with infected animals and outdoor swimming could at most only explain half the recorded cases. We put forward the hypothesis that flies ...
Green Laura - - 2005
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness ...
Calci Kevin R - - 2005
Previous results demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV) could be inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (D. H. Kingsley, D. Hoover, E. Papafragkou, and G. P. Richards, J. Food Prot. 65:1605-1609, 2002); however, direct evaluation of HAV inactivation within contaminated oysters was not performed. In this study, we report confirmation ...
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