Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 940
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Kimura A C - - 2005
Foodborne transmission is estimated to account for 95% of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections reported in the United States; however, outbreaks of salmonellosis are rarely traced to food handlers. In August 2000, an increase in Salmonella serotype Thompson infection was noted in Southern California; most of the cases reported eating at a ...
Gillespie I A - - 2005
Foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) infection (n=497), reported to the Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre between 1992 and 2002, were compared with other pathogens (n=1148) to determine factors (season, setting, food vehicles, food safety faults) associated with this pathogen. Logistic regression was ...
Hammond Roberta M - - 2005
The task of measuring the effectiveness of food worker training has historically met with many challenges. This paper considers various approaches and utilizes trends in foodborne-outbreak contributing factors to evaluate a recent change in Florida's food worker training. Results show that subsequent to training, the relative incidence of many factors ...
Hamano Masako - - 2005
Noroviruses (called formerly "Norwalk-like viruses") cause food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These outbreaks were thought to be related to shellfish consumption, although non-shellfish related outbreaks also occurred frequently in Japan. To clarify the epidemiology of Norovirus outbreaks, 435 stool samples were collected from 60 acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring over 8 years ...
Hillel Oren - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea is the most common infectious disease afflicting travelers to developing countries. Most studies investigating the benefits of recommendations regarding the consumption of food and water have focused on short-term travelers. We investigated the benefits of adherence to the precautions from the World Health Organization (WHO) among long-term ...
Gerner-Smidt Peter - - 2005
PulseNet USA is the national molecular subtyping network system for foodborne disease surveillance. Sixty-four public health and food regulatory laboratories participate in PulseNet USA and routinely perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans, food, water, and the environment on a real-time basis. Clusters of infection ...
Dawson David - - 2005
This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Descriptions of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have become a prominent feature in scientific journals and other media such as the electronic reporting service 'promed'. A review of outbreak reports was done to further our understanding of the burden of disease, common and rare modes of transmission, complications, ...
Dierick Katelijne - - 2005
Bacillus cereus is a well-known cause of food-borne illness, but infection with this organism is not commonly reported because of its usually mild symptoms. A fatal case due to liver failure after the consumption of pasta salad is described and demonstrates the possible severity of the emetic syndrome.
Flint James A - - 2005
The burden of foodborne disease is not well defined in many countries or regions or on a global level. The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with other national public health agencies, is coordinating a number of international activities designed to assist countries in the strengthening of disease surveillance and ...
Schwaber Mitchell J - - 2005
We analyzed 865 diarrheal outbreaks with an identified bacterial pathogen or unknown cause that occurred in the Israeli military between 1988 and 2002. The number of outbreaks per year declined over the study period, as did the proportion of outbreaks with an identified pathogen. Shigella, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus species were ...
Ferguson D D - - 2005
Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks were identified in Minnesota in February 2003 involving seven persons and in Colorado in July 2003 involving 13 persons. Case isolates from the two states had matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Independent case-control studies linked infections in each outbreak with eating alfalfa sprouts that were ...
Yates Johnnie - - 2005
Acute diarrhea affects millions of persons who travel to developing countries each year. Food and water contaminated with fecal matter are the main sources of infection. Bacteria such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella are common causes of traveler's diarrhea. Parasites and viruses are less ...
Su Hsun-Pi - - 2005
How to reduce the occurrence of food-borne illness has always been one issue of great importance in Taiwan's disease prevention and control efforts, and it is important to determine, from survey results, whether the pathogens in Taiwan are the same or different from those in other countries. Accordingly, data on ...
- - 2005
Foodborne illnesses are a substantial health burden in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program collects data from 10 U.S. sites on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. FoodNet quantifies and monitors the incidence of these infections by conducting ...
Bos John - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A is the third leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, resulting annually in an estimated 250,000 cases of a typically mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal illness. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the cause of a small cluster of cases of ...
Broza Meir - - 2005
Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne bacterium native to the aquatic environment. There are over 200 known serogroups yet only two cause cholera pandemics in humans. Direct contact of human sewage with drinking water, sea-born currents and marine transportation, represent modes of dissemination of the bacteria and thus the disease. The ...
Jiménez M - - 2005
An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter infection was identified in May 2003 in a school in Madrid, Spain. Eighty one cases were identified in a total of 253 people studied. A retrospective cohort study showed that a custard made with ultra high temperature (UHT) milk was associated with illness ...
Hirakata Yoichi - - 2005
A series of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NVs) among tourist groups from several prefectures was associated with eating a lunch prepared by a restaurant in Nagasaki City, Japan, on 18 and 19 November 2003. A retrospective cohort study was performed to estimate the magnitude of the outbreak and identify ...
Werber Dirk - - 2005
This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of ...
van Duynhoven Y T H P - - 2005
In 2002, in The Netherlands a national study of gastroenteritis outbreaks was performed. Epidemiological information was collected by the Public Health Services (PHS) and the Food Inspection Services (FIS) using standardized questionnaires. Stool samples were collected for diagnostic testing. For foodborne outbreaks, food samples were taken. In total, 281 gastroenteritis ...
Sala M R - - 2005
Norovirus infection is associated with approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The objective of this study is to describe an outbreak of norovirus genogroup I gastroenteritis which affected workers in a hospital and was attributed to food prepared by an infected food handler. Forty cases were detected, of whom ...
Ochiai Hirotaka - - 2005
On February 13, 2002, a public health center in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, was notified that many individuals living at the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force base had symptoms resembling those of food poisoning. Self-administered questionnaires requesting information regarding meal consumption and symptoms were distributed to all 281 members at the base. ...
Papini R - - 2005
Faecal samples from 183 dogs living in three different shelters in the Rome metropolitan area were randomly collected and examined for the prevalence of giardiosis. Giardia infections were detected by a commercially available ELISA test (ProspecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Overall prevalence was 55.2%. Prevalence rates in single shelters were 74.3, ...
Ekdahl Karl - - 2005
Unlike salmonellosis with well-known routes of transmission, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear. Known risk factors such as ingestion of contaminated food and water, direct contact with infected animals and outdoor swimming could at most only explain half the recorded cases. We put forward the hypothesis that flies ...
Green Laura - - 2005
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness ...
Calci Kevin R - - 2005
Previous results demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV) could be inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (D. H. Kingsley, D. Hoover, E. Papafragkou, and G. P. Richards, J. Food Prot. 65:1605-1609, 2002); however, direct evaluation of HAV inactivation within contaminated oysters was not performed. In this study, we report confirmation ...
Brito Gerly A C - - 2005
Despite numerous scientific advances in the past few years regarding the pathogenesis, diagnostic tools and treatment of infectious enteritis, enteric infections remain a serious threat to health worldwide. With globalization of the food supply, the increase in travel, mass food processing and antibiotic resistance, infectious diarrhea has become a critical ...
Sarvghad M R - - 2005
Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff ...
Ng T L - - 2005
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of raw imported half-shelled frozen oysters occurred in Singapore between 16 Dec 2003 and 04 Jan 2004. A total of 305 cases were reported with clinical symptoms of diarrhoea (94%), abdominal cramps (72%), vomiting (69%) and fever (54%). The median incubation period was ...
Le Guyader Françoise S - - 2004
Following an acute foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in southern Sweden, stool specimens from five of nine ill patients were found positive for norovirus using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Epidemiological data pointed to raspberry cakes as the source of the outbreak. Using a combination of generic and patient-specific primers and novel ...
Brodie Jon - - 2005
The cause(s) of primary outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) are still subject to scientific controversy. The possibility of primary outbreaks being linked to terrestrial runoff has been postulated a number of times, suggesting that enhanced nutrient supply is critical for enhanced A. planci larval development. This paper ...
Gajadhar Alvin A - - 2004
This is the first of a series of review articles in a Special Issue publication on waterborne zoonotic parasites. A brief historical overview of the occurrence and importance of waterborne parasites, dating from early civilization is presented. The article considers the diversity of parasites including protozoa, nematodes, cestodes and trematodes ...
Grotto I - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NVs) are a predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks, but they are difficult to identify because they cannot be cultivated in cell culture. Therefore, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are widely used in the testing of clinical stool specimens for NV. However, testing of perianal swabs in ...
Allwood Paul B - - 2004
Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe ...
Abe Kazuo - - 2004
In gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by Salmonella-contaminated lunches at elementary, junior high, and nursery schools. outbreaks with long median incubation periods (i.e., 60 to 120 h) were observed frequently between 1990 and 1999 in Japan. We analyzed epidemiological data on 185 outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infection to study the factors underlying ...
McCabe-Sellers Beverly J - - 2004
Between 250 and 350 million Americans are estimated to suffer acute gastroenteritis annually, with 25% to 30% thought to be caused by foodborne illnesses. Most vulnerable to foodborne diseases are elderly people, pregnant women, immune-compromised people, and children. While bacterial causes such as Salmonella are widely recognized and monitored as ...
Albers Marilyn K - - 2004
Norovirus is the name for a group of Norwalk-like viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis of rapid onset. A recent outbreak at a tertiary care facility in Alberta provided an opportunityfor staff and management to review their outbreak protocol and improve their infection prevention and control procedures. The outbreak caused illness ...
Eriksen Hanne M - - 2004
Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, Sweden and Finland. The patient group was scheduled to stay until 8 November. A new group of ...
Mølbak K - - 2004
The paper reviews the lines of evidence which link the use of antimicrobial drugs for food animals with the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance in bacteria pathogenic to humans, with a particular focus on the public health aspects. Deductions from the epidemiology of food-borne infections, ecological studies, outbreak investigations, typing ...
Sivapalasingam Sumathi - - 2004
Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet. During the last three decades, the number of outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens associated with fresh produce consumption reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has increased. To identify trends, we analyzed data for 1973 through 1997 from ...
Butzler J-P - - 2004
After its successful isolation from stools in the 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni has rapidly become the most commonly recognised cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Reported cases of human campylobacteriosis represent only a small fraction of the actual number. In industrialised countries, the incidence of C. jejuni/Campylobacter coli infections peaks during ...
Matsui T - - 2004
A Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) outbreak in Japan was investigated with an observational study, analytical epidemiology and bacteriological examination (including phage typing). The outbreak occurred among 96 schoolchildren, and was caused by SE phage type 1. The outbreak source was dessert buns served at a school lunch (RR 42.55, 95 % ...
Rzezutka Artur - - 2004
Human enteric pathogenic viruses can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials from infected persons, and be transmitted back to susceptible persons to continue the cycle of disease. Contamination of food with viruses may also promote disease outbreaks. A number of studies have investigated the survival characteristics of several ...
Prato Rosa - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses") being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about strains circulating in Italy. In April 2002 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in the province of Bari (South-east Italy), involving ...
Kasuga Fumiko - - 2004
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (former MHW) of Japan issued a Directive in 1997 advising restaurants and caterers to freeze portions of both raw food and cooked dishes for at least 2 weeks. This system has been useful for determining vehicle foods at outbreaks. Enumeration of bacteria in ...
Schlundt J - - 2004
Diarrhoeal diseases, almost all of which are caused by food-borne or waterborne microbial pathogens, are leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries, killing an estimated 1.9 million people annually at the global level. Even in developed countries, it is estimated that up to one third of the ...
Mitakakis T Z - - 2004
Cases of gastroenteritis were examined to identify if dietary intake prior to an episode and food-handling and storage practices in the home were risk factors for illness. Cases and controls completed a dietary questionnaire after an event or when well, and questionnaires concerning food-handling, storage and general food-hygiene practices. Comparing ...
MacKenzie A A - - 2004
This paper discusses food-borne zoonotic diseases by considering contemporary influences on food safety and examining pathogens at the human/animal interface. The authors also discuss the epidemiological surveillance of food-borne illnesses and the differences in disease statistics from one country to another. Before concluding with a number of recommendations, the paper ...
Rooney Roisin M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on ...
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