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Results 251 - 300 of 973
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Usuku Shuzo - - 2008
The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% ...
Todd Ewen C D - - 2008
In this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. Although workers have been implicated in ...
Wang D D Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, - - 2008
To evaluate the different tissues of naturally contaminated oyster for food-borne virus detection. The different tissues of 136 field oyster samples were analysed for norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RV) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. These viruses were detected in 20 samples (14.71%), ...
Ethelberg S - - 2008
An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and ...
Kijlstra Aize - - 2009
In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current antiparasitic treatment is disappointing. This has led to ...
Schmid D - - 2009
An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket ...
Havelaar Arie H - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the fraction of human cases of enterically transmitted illness by five major pathways (food, environment, direct animal contact, human-human transmission, and travel) and by 11 groups within the food pathway. METHODS: Food safety experts were asked to provide their estimates of the most likely range for each ...
Georgopoulou Ioanna - - 2008
The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant ...
Bi Peng - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The relationship between weather and food-borne diseases has been of great concern recently. However, the impact of weather variations on food-borne disease may vary in different areas with various geographic, weather and demographic characteristics. This study was designed to quantify the relationship between weather variables and Campylobacter infections in ...
Lomonaco S - - 2008
Aim: This study aimed to assess the applicability of a combined approach of traditional and molecular epidemiology in order to detect salmonellosis outbreaks in the Piedmont region (Italy), characterized by high Salmonella prevalence. Methods and Results: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used in real-time and in combination with clinical ...
Swaddiwudhipong Witaya - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiologic characteristics of a cholera outbreak involving mainly Myanmar migrants living in overcrowded conditions with poor sanitation in a Thai-Myanmar border district, in 2007. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Both passive and active case surveillances were carried out in Mae Sot District, Tak Province since the beginning of the ...
Jaine A M - - 2008
Food-borne outbreak modelling is a technique by which statistical methodologies and data are used to model various aspects of food contamination outbreaks, with the primary goal of helping to reduce the threat of food-borne illness. There are two primary approaches to such modelling: risk ranking and pathway analysis. These two ...
Lazensky Rebecca - - 2008
The Nassau County Health Department (NCHD) in Florida investigated an outbreak of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in a returning choral group who toured Ireland from May 24 to June 4, 2006. The travel group, consisting predominantly of retirees, had performed at several churches and at a dinner theater in Ireland. The ...
Akkoc N - - 2009
An outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Izmir, Turkey, between January and March 2004. The outbreak was caused by the consumption of raw meat balls made of beef deceptively mixed with pork infected with Trichinella britovi. A total of 1098 people who had consumed this food either in 14 restaurants or ...
D'Ortenzio E - - 2008
An outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 26 guests of a wedding dinner occurred in August 2007 in Réunion Island, a French Overseas Department. Salmonella was isolated in 61.5% of cases and the two isolates serotyped were of serovar Weltevreden. We believe this to be the first food-borne outbreak due to S. ...
Linhart Yifat - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Food-borne pharyngitis outbreaks causing substantial morbidity have been documented. OBJECTIVES: To investigate an outbreak of food-borne Streptococcus beta hemolyticus group A pharyngitis among employees of a hitech company. METHODS: We received a report on an unusually high rate of morbidity among employees of a company in September 2003. The ...
Sala M R - - 2009
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Norovirus have been recognized as the cause of sporadic cases or outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness in association with the ingestion of raw or improperly cooked seafood. This report describes a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both Norovirus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus following the consumption of raw seafood ...
Koo Hoonmo L - - 2008
Food is the primary vehicle of transmission for traveler's diarrhea. We evaluated coliform contamination of vegetables from popular restaurants in Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas. Contamination of vegetables in Guadalajara restaurants was widespread. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea by avoidance of "high-risk" foods may be unsuccessful, because contamination of foods may ...
Jain Seema - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In August and November 2004, 2 clusters of diarrhea cases occurred among patrons of 2 affiliated sushi restaurants (sushi restaurant A and sushi restaurant B) in Nevada. In August 2004, a stool sample from 1 ill sushi restaurant A patron yielded enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In December 2004, we ...
Macinga David R - - 2008
Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend ...
Verhoef L - - 2008
In the summer of 2006, several cruise-related viral gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported in Europe. One report came from a river-cruise, belonging to a ship-owner who had two other ships with outbreaks. This situation warranted onsite investigation in order to identify a potential common source of infection. A retrospective cohort study ...
Leong Hon Keong - - 2008
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal ...
Muir Rachel E - - 2008
We describe the pathogenic interaction between a newly described gram-positive bacterium, Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus strain TAN 31504, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. TAN 31504 pathogenesis on C. elegans is exerted primarily through infection of the adult nematode uterus. TAN 31504 enters the uterus through the external vulval opening, and ...
- - 2008
During January 1, 2006-December 31, 2007, CDC collaborated with public health officials in Pennsylvania, other states, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a prolonged multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund infections in humans. A total of 70 cases of S. Schwarzengrund infection with the outbreak strain ...
Spies Lori A - - 2008
Traveler's diarrhea is a condition that disrupts work and vacation, and affects many women traveling from developed countries to developing countries. Specific food and hygiene education may help to decrease the occurrence of this common food and water-borne gastrointestinal infection. Probiotics rather than antibiotics are now among the recommendations for ...
Trostle James A JA Anthropology Department, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106-3100, USA. - - 2008
Consuming contaminated food is a well-documented individual-level risk factor for diarrheal disease. The sharing of food also influences the distribution of diarrheal disease risk through a community and region. Understanding this social process at a population level is therefore an important dimension of risk not captured by standard individual-level analyses. ...
de Jong B - - 2008
Campylobacteriosis is the most common reported bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Sweden. Food-borne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Sweden are rather rare except for, usually rather small, family outbreaks. Water-borne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, however, have affected several thousand persons in the past.
Okabayashi Tamaki - - 2008
Norovirus (NV) is the most common causative agent of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Reports of surveillance of NV in facilities that reported outbreaks are frequently found in publications, but reports of that in facilities without outbreaks are not found. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of NV isolates derived from asymptomatic food handlers ...
Denny Justin - - 2008
This paper highlights findings from the first quarterly report on food- and waterborne diseases produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). In the past such reports had been generated by Enter-net, a Europe-based international surveillance network for the enteric infections. The quarterly reports are an important ...
Lavilla S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Commensal and opportunistic bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-PB) have undergone a broad and rapid spread within the general population; however, the routes of dissemination have not been totally elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether individuals involved in an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, in addition to ...
Zhou Peng - - 2008
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (FBPZs) cause death and serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and are of both public health significance and socioeconomic importance. The FBPZ problem is severe in mainland China, where approximately 150 million people are suffering from FBPZs and more people are at risk. Here, the current ...
Jones Sarah L - - 2008
Despite structured enforcement of food hygiene requirements known to prevent foodborne disease outbreaks, catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for outbreaks in the United Kingdom. In a matched case control study of catering businesses, 148 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with 148 control businesses. Hazard analysis ...
Nelson Jennifer M - - 2008
Foodborne illness is an important problem among the elderly. One risk factor for foodborne illness and diarrhea-associated mortality among the elderly is residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF); thus, these facilities must implement measures to ensure safe food. To assess safe food practices, knowledge, and policies, we used a ...
Vijgen SMC
The disease burden and the costs-of-illness associated with Cryptosporidium spp. are relatively small in comparison to other (foodborne) pathogens. The disease burden and the costs related to giardiasis are comparable to those related to the noro- and rotavirsuses. Those conclusions can be drawn from the current study, a continuation of ...
Malhotra Rahul - - 2008
The present study assessed change in knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported hand-washing practices of 136 food handlers 3 months after providing them health education using posters and interactive sessions using a flip chart. There was a significant change in the proportion of study participants who named food borne or waterborne diseases, ...
Martinez Ana - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. METHODS: In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis ...
Shinkawa Naomi - - 2008
Twelve outbreaks of food handler-associated gastroenteritis between November 2002 and March 2006 in Japan were examined for norovirus (NoV) using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. NoV was detected in 77 of 81 customers and 45 of 104 food handlers. Identical NoV sequences were detected in patients and food handlers in each ...
Wilson Daniel J - - 2008
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. It is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the US alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of US $4 billion. C. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by ...
Nyarango Robert M - - 2008
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk ...
Jepsen Jane U - - 2008
1. Range expansions mediated by recent climate warming have been documented for many insect species, including some important forest pests. However, whether climate change also influences the eruptive dynamics of forest pest insects, and hence the ecological and economical consequences of outbreaks, is largely unresolved. 2. Using historical outbreak records ...
- - 2007
In 2006, OzFoodNet sites reported 24,598 notifications of seven diseases or conditions that are commonly transmitted by food, representing an increase of 2.5% over the mean of the previous 5 years. The most frequently notified aetiological agents were Campylobacter (15,492 notifications) and Salmonella (8,331 notifications). Salmonella notifications increased in 2006 ...
Falkenhorst G - - 2008
We report a large foodborne outbreak due to group A streptococci (GAS), which caused acute tonsillo-pharyngitis in 200-250 patrons of a company canteen in Copenhagen, Denmark, in June 2006. A retrospective cohort study of canteen users showed that consumption of cold pasta was associated with an increased risk of illness ...
Ozawa Kazuhiro - - 2007
Noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. At present, norovirus genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII/4), strains are the most prevalent in many countries. In this study we investigated 55 outbreaks and 35 sporadic cases of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in food handlers in food-catering settings between 10 ...
Mysterud I - - 2007
The proposal that saponins produced by the lily bog asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum) may be the direct cause of the hepatogenous photosensitization disease alveld seen in Norwegian lambs was investigated by comparing sapogenin levels in two control and two toxic pastures, and in faeces from lambs grazing the four pastures in ...
Forssman Bradley - - 2007
Three cases of cholera in women aged 71, 72 and 84 years were notified in November 2006 in Sydney, New South Wales. This is the first reported cluster of cholera in Australia for over 30 years, and was an unusual outbreak in patients with no history of recent travel to ...
- - 2007
During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and ...
Todd Ewen C D - - 2007
In this article, the third in a series of several reviewing the role of food workers in 816 foodborne outbreaks, factors contributing to outbreaks and descriptions of different categories of worker involvement are discussed. All the outbreaks had worker involvement of some kind, and the majority of food workers were ...
McMullan R - - 2007
With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, ...
Skovgaard Niels - - 2007
The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several ...
- - 2007
On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce ...
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