Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 940
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Vivancos Roberto - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is commonly associated with gastrointestinal infection. It is normally transmitted person-to-person or from contaminated surfaces, although food-borne transmission is possible. METHODS: We conducted environmental, epidemiological, and microbiological investigations to ascertain the route of transmission of two linked outbreaks of NoV associated with events where food was consumed. ...
de Oliveira Rubens Marona - - 2009
In July 2004, an anemia outbreak was identified in our hemodialysis (HD) unit. The dialysate chloramine levels had risen from <0.1 mg/mL in May to 0.27 mg/mL in August 2004. Other parameters of water quality were within accepted standards. Hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) returned to basal values after one ...
Kuo Hung-Wei - - 2009
A foodborne norovirus outbreak occurred after a pre-Christmas celebration among a group of local foresters in Austria in December 2007. A total of 66 persons, 60 participants of the Christmas party and 6 kitchen staff members of the restaurant where the party took place, were identified as the at-risk cohort. ...
Todd Ewen C D - - 2009
This article, the sixth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, describes the source and means of pathogen transfer. The transmission and survival of enteric pathogens in the food processing and preparation environment through human and raw food sources is reviewed, with the main objective ...
King L A - - 2009
A family cluster of three cases of type E botulism were identified in south-east France in September 2009. The suspected food source of infection was a vacuum packed hot-smoked whitefish of Canadian origin purchased by the family during a visit to Finland and consumed several weeks later in France on ...
Kuo Hung-Wei - - 2009
Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. ...
Konstantinidou Katerina - - 2009
During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating ...
Boxman Ingeborg L A - - 2009
In this study, we investigated whether environmental swabs can be used to demonstrate the presence of norovirus in outbreak settings. First, a procedure was set up based on viral RNA extraction using guanidium isothiocyanate buffer and binding of nucleic acids to silica. Subsequently, environmental swabs were taken at 23 Dutch ...
Malek Mark - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Norovirus is often transmitted by infected food handlers at the point of service, whereas reports of food contamination before wholesale distribution are rare. In September 2005, we investigated reports of gastroenteritis among rafters who went on unrelated trips on the Colorado River. METHODS: We surveyed all companies that launched ...
Gottstein Bruno - - 2009
Throughout much of the world, Trichinella spp. are found to be the causative agents of human trichinellosis, a disease that not only is a public health hazard by affecting human patients but also represents an economic problem in porcine animal production and food safety. Due to the predominantly zoonotic importance ...
Verhoef Linda P B - - 2009
Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting ...
Fullerton Kathleen - - 2008
In 2007, OzFoodNet sites reported 27,332 notifications of 8 diseases or conditions that are commonly transmitted by food. The most frequently notified infections were Campylobacter (16,984 notifications) and Salmonella (9,484 notifications). Public health authorities provided complete serotype and phage type information on 96% of all Salmonella infections in 2007. The ...
Stephens Nicola - - 2008
Large egg-associated outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium 135 (STm135) that were associated with inadequate food safety practices but also linked to a common poultry farm occurred in Tasmania in 2005. A series of public health interventions were implemented to prevent further occurrences but 2 more egg-associated outbreaks in Tasmania in March ...
Young Megan K - - 2008
Investigation and management of a possible foodborne outbreak notified to the Brisbane Northside Population Health Unit aimed to determine the likely source of the outbreak and prevent the same scenario from recurring. Environmental health officers inspected the implicated premises and collected legal samples prior to the 1st outbreak control team ...
- - 2008
On June 6, 2007, a cluster of four human Salmonella serotype I 4,5,12:i:-* infections sharing a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and reported to PulseNet. Initial investigations conducted during June--September 2007 by state and local health departments in collaboration with CDC did ...
Sipsas N V - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although the risk factors for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in immunocompromised hosts are well described and associated with the net state of immunosuppression, much less is written on the effects of lifestyle on the risk of IFIs in the general population. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Current Contents ...
- - 2008
On May 16, 2008, CDC reported on a 2006-2007 multistate outbreak of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund that was associated with dry dog food. At the time of that report, a total of 70 cases had been reported from 19 states, with the last case identified on October 1, ...
Kurdova-Mintcheva R - - 2009
Human trichinellosis is a major food-borne zoonosis in Bulgaria with a high health, social, and economic impact. Every year outbreaks and sporadic cases are registered in the country. Epidemiological data based on standard protocols for epidemiological surveillance and control of human trichinellosis for each region in the country were collected ...
Wang D - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate the different tissues of naturally contaminated oyster for food-borne virus detection. Methods and RESULTS: The different tissues of 136 field oyster samples were analysed for norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RV) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. These viruses were detected ...
Usuku Shuzo - - 2008
The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% ...
Todd Ewen C D - - 2008
In this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. Although workers have been implicated in ...
Ethelberg S - - 2008
An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list analyses, analyses of food samples from patient's homes, trace-back analyses and ...
Kijlstra Aize - - 2009
In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current antiparasitic treatment is disappointing. This has led to ...
Schmid D - - 2009
An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket ...
Havelaar Arie H - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the fraction of human cases of enterically transmitted illness by five major pathways (food, environment, direct animal contact, human-human transmission, and travel) and by 11 groups within the food pathway. METHODS: Food safety experts were asked to provide their estimates of the most likely range for each ...
Georgopoulou Ioanna - - 2008
The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant ...
Bi Peng - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The relationship between weather and food-borne diseases has been of great concern recently. However, the impact of weather variations on food-borne disease may vary in different areas with various geographic, weather and demographic characteristics. This study was designed to quantify the relationship between weather variables and Campylobacter infections in ...
Lomonaco S - - 2008
Aim: This study aimed to assess the applicability of a combined approach of traditional and molecular epidemiology in order to detect salmonellosis outbreaks in the Piedmont region (Italy), characterized by high Salmonella prevalence. Methods and Results: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used in real-time and in combination with clinical ...
Swaddiwudhipong Witaya - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiologic characteristics of a cholera outbreak involving mainly Myanmar migrants living in overcrowded conditions with poor sanitation in a Thai-Myanmar border district, in 2007. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Both passive and active case surveillances were carried out in Mae Sot District, Tak Province since the beginning of the ...
Jaine A M - - 2008
Food-borne outbreak modelling is a technique by which statistical methodologies and data are used to model various aspects of food contamination outbreaks, with the primary goal of helping to reduce the threat of food-borne illness. There are two primary approaches to such modelling: risk ranking and pathway analysis. These two ...
Lazensky Rebecca - - 2008
The Nassau County Health Department (NCHD) in Florida investigated an outbreak of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in a returning choral group who toured Ireland from May 24 to June 4, 2006. The travel group, consisting predominantly of retirees, had performed at several churches and at a dinner theater in Ireland. The ...
Akkoc N - - 2009
An outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Izmir, Turkey, between January and March 2004. The outbreak was caused by the consumption of raw meat balls made of beef deceptively mixed with pork infected with Trichinella britovi. A total of 1098 people who had consumed this food either in 14 restaurants or ...
D'Ortenzio E - - 2008
An outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 26 guests of a wedding dinner occurred in August 2007 in Réunion Island, a French Overseas Department. Salmonella was isolated in 61.5% of cases and the two isolates serotyped were of serovar Weltevreden. We believe this to be the first food-borne outbreak due to S. ...
Linhart Yifat - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Food-borne pharyngitis outbreaks causing substantial morbidity have been documented. OBJECTIVES: To investigate an outbreak of food-borne Streptococcus beta hemolyticus group A pharyngitis among employees of a hitech company. METHODS: We received a report on an unusually high rate of morbidity among employees of a company in September 2003. The ...
Sala M R - - 2009
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Norovirus have been recognized as the cause of sporadic cases or outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness in association with the ingestion of raw or improperly cooked seafood. This report describes a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by both Norovirus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus following the consumption of raw seafood ...
Koo Hoonmo L - - 2008
Food is the primary vehicle of transmission for traveler's diarrhea. We evaluated coliform contamination of vegetables from popular restaurants in Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas. Contamination of vegetables in Guadalajara restaurants was widespread. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea by avoidance of "high-risk" foods may be unsuccessful, because contamination of foods may ...
Jain Seema - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In August and November 2004, 2 clusters of diarrhea cases occurred among patrons of 2 affiliated sushi restaurants (sushi restaurant A and sushi restaurant B) in Nevada. In August 2004, a stool sample from 1 ill sushi restaurant A patron yielded enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In December 2004, we ...
Macinga David R - - 2008
Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend ...
Verhoef L - - 2008
In the summer of 2006, several cruise-related viral gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported in Europe. One report came from a river-cruise, belonging to a ship-owner who had two other ships with outbreaks. This situation warranted onsite investigation in order to identify a potential common source of infection. A retrospective cohort study ...
Leong Hon Keong - - 2008
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal ...
Muir Rachel E - - 2008
We describe the pathogenic interaction between a newly described gram-positive bacterium, Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus strain TAN 31504, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. TAN 31504 pathogenesis on C. elegans is exerted primarily through infection of the adult nematode uterus. TAN 31504 enters the uterus through the external vulval opening, and ...
- - 2008
During January 1, 2006-December 31, 2007, CDC collaborated with public health officials in Pennsylvania, other states, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a prolonged multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund infections in humans. A total of 70 cases of S. Schwarzengrund infection with the outbreak strain ...
Trostle James A - - 2008
Consuming contaminated food is a well-documented individual-level risk factor for diarrheal disease. The sharing of food also influences the distribution of diarrheal disease risk through a community and region. Understanding this social process at a population level is therefore an important dimension of risk not captured by standard individual-level analyses. ...
Spies Lori A - - 2008
Traveler's diarrhea is a condition that disrupts work and vacation, and affects many women traveling from developed countries to developing countries. Specific food and hygiene education may help to decrease the occurrence of this common food and water-borne gastrointestinal infection. Probiotics rather than antibiotics are now among the recommendations for ...
de Jong B - - 2008
Campylobacteriosis is the most common reported bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Sweden. Food-borne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Sweden are rather rare except for, usually rather small, family outbreaks. Water-borne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, however, have affected several thousand persons in the past.
Okabayashi Tamaki - - 2008
Norovirus (NV) is the most common causative agent of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Reports of surveillance of NV in facilities that reported outbreaks are frequently found in publications, but reports of that in facilities without outbreaks are not found. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of NV isolates derived from asymptomatic food handlers ...
Denny Justin - - 2008
This paper highlights findings from the first quarterly report on food- and waterborne diseases produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). In the past such reports had been generated by Enter-net, a Europe-based international surveillance network for the enteric infections. The quarterly reports are an important ...
Lavilla S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Commensal and opportunistic bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-PB) have undergone a broad and rapid spread within the general population; however, the routes of dissemination have not been totally elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether individuals involved in an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, in addition to ...
Zhou Peng - - 2008
Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (FBPZs) cause death and serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and are of both public health significance and socioeconomic importance. The FBPZ problem is severe in mainland China, where approximately 150 million people are suffering from FBPZs and more people are at risk. Here, the current ...
Jones Sarah L - - 2008
Despite structured enforcement of food hygiene requirements known to prevent foodborne disease outbreaks, catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for outbreaks in the United Kingdom. In a matched case control study of catering businesses, 148 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with 148 control businesses. Hazard analysis ...
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