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Brown C A - - 2010
Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when ...
Rupnik Maja - - 2010
Clostridium difficile has been recognized as an important human pathogen for several decades, but its importance as an agent of animal disease was established only recently. The number of reports on C. difficile in food is rising, but the findings vary among studies. In North America, the prevalence of contamination ...
Yamamoto Ryo - - 2010
Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or ...
Kakar Faizullah - - 2010
Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with ...
Gurley Emily S - - 2010
An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness ...
Painter John A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: To better understand the sources of foodborne illness, we propose a scheme for categorizing foods implicated in investigations of outbreaks of foodborne diseases. Because nearly 2000 foods have been reported as causing outbreaks in the United States, foods must be grouped for meaningful analyses. METHODS: We defined a hierarchy ...
Unicomb Leanne E - - 2009
The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of Campylobacter outbreaks in Australia and determine common transmission routes and vehicles. Summary and unit data on Campylobacter outbreaks that occurred between January 2001 and December 2006 were systematically collected and analyzed. Data from Campylobacter mandatory notifications for the same ...
Dreyfuss Moshe S - - 2009
This study examined the association of norovirus with foodborne disease outbreaks linked to food handlers and foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with norovirus, in comparison to Salmonella foodborne gastroenteritis. Comparative analysis using chi(2)-tests showed no similarity between the outbreaks from norovirus and those from Salmonella. Odds ratios also showed ...
Sotir Mark J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Human outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been attributed to a variety of food vehicles. Processed snack foods are increasingly consumed by children. In May 2007, state and local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated human infections from Salmonella Wandsworth, an extremely rare serotype. MATERIALS ...
- - 2009
In 2008, OzFoodNetsites reported 25,260 notifications of 9 diseases or conditions that are commonly transmitted by food. The most frequently notified infections were Campylobacter (15,535 notifications) and Salmonella (8,310 notifications). Public health authorities provided complete serotype and phage type information on 94% of all Salmonella infections in 2008. The most ...
Macarisin Dumitru - - 2010
Cryptosporidium parvum is a cosmopolitan microscopic protozoan parasite that causes severe diarrheal disease (cryptosporidiosis) in mammals, including humans and livestock. There is growing evidence of Cryptosporidium persistence in fresh produce that may result in food-borne infection, including sporadic cases as well as outbreaks. However, drinking and recreational waters are still ...
Hedican Erin - - 2009
Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States; approximately half of Salmonella outbreaks occur in restaurant settings. In February 2008, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that five cases had eaten at the same ...
Jacob C J - - 2009
Foodservice professionals, politicians, and the media are often cited making claims as to which locations most often expose consumers to foodborne pathogens. Many times, it is implied that most foodborne illnesses originate from food consumed where dishes are prepared to order, such as restaurants or in private homes. The manner ...
Vernile Anna - - 2009
In late 19 century, great interest has arisen for food quality. This is referred as absence of pathogens in food (safety for consumers) and as nutritional quality of food (organoleptic characteristics). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is, among the molecular techniques developed in the last years, one of the most reliable, ...
DeGolier Laura - - 2009
Cases of non-cholera Vibrio illness are typically associated with exposure to shellfish from marine coastal areas (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 2009), not landlocked states such as Colorado. In 2004, a 2.8-fold increase in the incidence of non-cholera Vibrio cases in the Tri-County ...
Bartuliene A - - 2009
An outbreak of trichinellosis due to wild boar meat was detected in Lithuania in June 2009. The outbreak affected 107 people all of whom had consumed sausages made of wild boar meat. Inspection of food samples confirmed the presence of Trichinella larvae in the meat.
Zomer T P - - 2010
Over 400 office workers from the same unit of a manufacturing company in Stockholm County, Sweden, fell ill with gastroenteritis. A retrospective cohort study of office workers in the affected unit demonstrated that canteen visitors on one day had an increased risk of illness [risk ratio (RR) 27.1, 95% confidence ...
Lund Barbara M - - 2009
Cases and outbreaks of foodborne infection in healthcare settings can result in serious illness, wastage of expensive medical treatments, spread of infection to other patients and staff and disruption of services. Providing nutritious meals for vulnerable people in healthcare settings involves a systematic approach to microbiological safety, as provided by ...
Ravel A - - 2009
Human illness attribution has been recently recognized as an important tool to better inform food safety decisions. Analysis of outbreak data sets has been used for that purpose. This study was conducted to explore the usefulness of three comprehensive Canadian foodborne outbreak data sets covering 30 years for estimating food ...
Domínguez A - - 2009
Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a major cause of disease and death, but their etiologies are not always known. Factors associated with determination of the etiologic agent of FBD outbreaks reported to the Department of Health in Catalonia (Spain) during 2002 to 2005 were studied. For each outbreak, the year, number ...
Cheong Sooryun - - 2009
Enteric viruses are the major cause of outbreaks of foodborne viral disease worldwide, and vegetables and fruits are considered significant vectors of virus transmission. In this study, we compared viral elution concentration methods in strawberry and lettuce and tested the secondary concentration step for concentrating viruses from large volumes of ...
Mayr Constanze - - 2009
In the course of a rotavirus outbreak in a mother and child sanatorium 74 food samples from the sanatorium kitchen were taken and tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus particles were isolated from 25 g food samples by a simple method including ultrafiltration, originally designed for the detection of norovirus in various ...
Singh Emily - - 2009
Travelers' diarrhea affects more than 10 million people per year and is usually contracted through the ingestion of microbially contaminated food or water. Although most cases resolve in 3 to 5 days, chronic conditions are associated with acute infections. Prevention encompasses avoidance of ingesting contaminated products and, in certain situations, ...
Boxman Ingeborg - - 2009
Recently, environmental swabs from kitchen and bathroom surfaces have been described as an additional tool for the detection of norovirus in outbreak settings. This article describes an outbreak investigation in response to the reporting of gastroenteritis in three unrelated groups of 6, 12, and 13 adults approximately 30 h after ...
Shah Lena - - 2009
Investigations of community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis are challenged by case-patients' poor recall of exposure resulting from lags in detection and the stealthy nature of food vehicles. We combined multiple techniques, including early consultation with food regulators, traceback of suspected items, and grocery store loyalty card records, to identify a single ...
- - 2009
Foodborne illnesses are a major health burden in the United States. Most of these illnesses are preventable, and analysis of outbreaks helps identify control measures. Although most cases are sporadic, investigation of the portion that occur as part of recognized outbreaks can provide insights into the pathogens, food vehicles, and ...
Dorny P - - 2009
Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic ...
Lysén Maria - - 2009
A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. ...
Giraudon I - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 (PT1) infection associated with a fast food premises, and to identify the causative factors leading to an acute outbreak with high attack rate and severe illness including hospital admission. STUDY DESIGN: Integrated descriptive study of epidemiology, ...
Morton Vanessa - - 2009
This study used histo-blood group antigen-conjugated beads to detect norovirus (NoV) in contaminated strawberries, green onions, lettuce, and deli ham. In addition, multiple strains of NoV from genogroups I and II were recovered. This provides an effective protocol for food testing in the investigation of suspected NoV outbreaks.
Mokhtari Amirhossein - - 2009
It is widely recognized that the human noroviruses (HuNoV) are responsible for a large proportion of the world's foodborne disease burden. These viruses are transmitted by human fecal contamination and frequently make their way into foods because of poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers. This paper describes a probabilistic ...
- - 2009
Foodborne diseases remain an important public health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program collects data from 10 U.S. states on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. FoodNet is an active, population-based surveillance system for these laboratory-confirmed ...
- - 2009
Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its ...
Mattison Kirsten - - 2009
Many food and waterborne outbreaks of infectious disease are caused by viruses. While numerous methods exist and are being developed to test food and water for the presence of enteric viruses, there is no standard control for the comparison of different methods. Potential control viruses should be well characterized, share ...
Pieleanu Ioana - - 2009
A conversion of an old bank building in Boston's tony South End to a mixed-use building featuring retail on the ground floor and luxury condominiums above was completed in 2007. More recently, a new restaurant (garnering awards for its interior design and rave reviews for its food) has opened in ...
Gupta Surender Nikhil - - 2009
On 28(th) June, 2006, 55 cases of the gastroenteritis were reported among the hostellers of the Tibetan Transit School, Dharamshala. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, propose control and preventive measures. We defined a case of the gastroenteritis as the occurrence of more than three smelly loose motions ...
Baert L - - 2009
During the last decade an increased incidence of infections and outbreaks attributed to foodborne viruses, in particular noroviruses (NoV), was observed world wide. The awareness of the presence of viruses on food emphasized the need to acquire knowledge regarding the effect of preservation methods upon viruses. Most foodborne viruses cannot ...
Bruun T - - 2009
In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of ...
Lee Jib Ho - - 2009
Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, ...
Lee Vernon J - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are important causes of bacterial food-borne infection, especially in institutional settings. An outbreak of gastrointestinal infection occurred in a military camp in January 2007, and an epidemiological outbreak investigation was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted on soldiers in the camp on their clinical symptoms, ...
Soberano Gustavo - - 2009
After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to ...
Rowe Stacey L - - 2009
Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission occurs by the faecal-oral route, either by direct contact with an HAV-infected person or by ingestion of HAV-contaminated food or water. Hepatitis A outbreaks are uncommon in Australia. In 2008, Victoria experienced an outbreak of hepatitis A due to ...
Valiente Moro Claire - - 2009
The poultry red mite, D. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. Nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. Consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account ...
Beatty M E - - 2009
In March 2002, an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections occurred at a convention centre in Dallas, Texas and continued for 6 weeks. We conducted epidemiological studies, obtained clinical and environmental cultures, and interviewed employees to identify risk factors for infection. From 17 March-25 April 2002, the implicated hotel kitchen ...
Makary P - - 2009
Multiple gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred between 25 and 31 July 2006 in 10 workplace canteens in south-western Finland. One vegetable processing plant provided raw vegetables to all the canteens. We conducted cohort studies in the three most visited canteens and environmental investigations in the kitchens and the plant. Patients' stools, food, ...
Baert L - - 2009
The Belgian data for foodborne norovirus (NoV) outbreaks became available for the first time with the introduction of an extraction and detection protocol for NoV in the National Reference Laboratory for foodborne outbreaks in September 2006. In 2007, 10 NoV foodborne outbreaks were reported affecting 392 persons in Belgium. NoV ...
Lewis H C - - 2009
We investigated an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn from one packing shed in Thailand. We reviewed nationwide surveillance and undertook case finding, food trace-back and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. A recall of baby corn and sugar snaps ...
Whittaker P J - - 2009
A national outbreak of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection affected five English regions and Wales. Twelve cases were associated with lemon-and-coriander chicken wrap from a single supermarket chain consumed over a 5-day period. An outbreak investigation aimed to identify the source of infection. Descriptive epidemiology and phenotypic and genotypic tests ...
Stein-Zamir Chen - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Foodborne Salmonella enterica outbreaks constitute both a threat to public health and an economic burden worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pathogen(s) involved and possible source of infection of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a banqueting hall in Jerusalem. METHODS: We conducted interviews of guests and employees of the ...
Cates Sheryl C - - 2009
Restaurants are associated with a significant number of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States. Certification of kitchen managers through an accredited training and testing program may help improve food safety practices and thus prevent foodborne illness. In this study, relationships between the results of routine restaurant inspections and the ...
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