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Sarro-Ramírez Andrea - - 2013
The neurobiological mechanisms of feeding involve the activity of several brain areas as well as the engage of endogenous compounds such as ghrelin, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, neuropeptide Y, leptin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, among others. Furthermore, the family of food-intake modulators has been enlarged due to the inclusion of lipids ...
Pácha Jiří - - 2013
Many physiological functions exhibit a diurnal rhythmicity that is influenced by biological clocks and feeding rhythms. In this review, we discuss the growing evidence showing the important role of circadian rhythms in regulating intestinal mucosa. First, we introduce the molecular timing system and the interrelationship between the master biological clock ...
- - 2013
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or ``we'') is reopening the comment period for the interim final rule entitled "Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics'' that published in the Federal Register of July 14, 2004 (69 FR 42256). The interim final rule prohibited the use ...
Frickmann Hagen - - 2013
This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic ...
Venesky Matthew D MD Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. - - 2013
One prediction of optimal digestion theory is that organisms will increase the relative length of their digestive tracts when food resources become limited. We used theory of optimal digestion to test whether tadpoles can adjust the relative length of their intestines when challenged with the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). ...
Lee Young-Su - - 2013
Enzymatic bioconversion of rutin to quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q-3-G) by Penicillium decumbens naringinase was increased with reaction pH increased approximately to pH 6.0. It resulted in greater than 92% production of Q-3-G due to the removal of the terminal rhamnose at the controlled pH 6.0. The enzymatic bioconversion of rutin to Q-3-G ...
Rossetto O - - 2013
Few species of the anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium produce the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), which cause a disease of vertebrates known as botulism (Johnson and Montecucco, 2008). The flaccid paralysis and all the other symptoms of botulism are due to the BoNT induced inhibition of skeletal and autonomic peripheral ...
Holmstock Nico - - 2013
Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can ...
Eswaran Shanti - - 2013
Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the pathologic role of food in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Nevertheless, healthcare providers often avoid addressing diet with their patients because of a lack of training, guideline consensus, and high-quality data. Recent literature supports the existence of a subgroup of IBS patients with ...
Roberts Carol L - - 2013
Crohn's disease (CD) incidence has increased over the past fifty years but the explanation is unclear. CD can be brought into remission by liquid enteral feeding, but the mechanism for this response is unknown. We suggest that consumption of emulsifiers in processed foods may promote CD by increasing bacterial translocation. ...
Henare Sharon J - - 2013
Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet ...
Furtado Eduarda de Castro Ede - - 2013
To characterize of the intestinal microbiota of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) admitted to the Metabolic Unit of a University Hospital. Fecal samples were evaluated, and biochemical tests were conducted only in the case of SBS patients. The nutritional status was assessed via anthropometric measurements and evaluation of food ...
Wang Duochun - - 2013
Shewanella spp. is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. Following two outbreaks of food poisoning, eight Shewanella spp. strains were obtained from the fecal specimens of patients, food and food processing-related materials. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was identified in the culture supernatants of these strains, and the toxin's biological activity was detected using ...
Faria Ana Maria Caetano - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa is the major site of contact with antigens, and it houses the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. In physiological conditions, microbiota and dietary antigens are the natural sources of stimulation for the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and for the immune system as a whole. Germ-free models ...
Cupisti Adamasco - - 2013
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance ...
Riley Lee W LW Division of Infectious Disease and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, CA , - - 2013
The rapid increase in obesity prevalence in the United States in the last 20 years is unprecedented and not well explained. Here, we explore a hypothesis that the obesity epidemic may be driven by population-wide chronic exposures to low-residue antibiotics that have increasingly entered the American food chain over the same ...
Chauvin Armelle - - 2012
Ingested foreign bodies, food bolus impaction, migration or retention of medical devices are frequent, in children as well as in adults. Most of these foreign bodies will naturally pass through the gastro-intestinal tract. Complications are rare but sometimes severe (oesophageal perforations are the most frequent and most feared). We aimed ...
Merrifield Daniel L - - 2012
Nanoparticles (NPs) can be ingested by organisms, and NPs with antimicrobial properties may disrupt beneficial endogenous microbial communities and affect organism health. Zebrafish were fed diets containing Cu-NPs or Ag-NPs (500 mg kg(-1) food), or an appropriate control for 14 d. Intestinal epithelium integrity was examined by transmission electron microscopy, and microbial community ...
Lee Jaemin - - 2012
Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed a bidirectional interaction between the nervous and immune systems. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tract may be modulated by neuro-immune interactions, but little information about this interaction is available. Intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent neurons play an important role in this interaction because of ...
Engmann Jan - - 2012
From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to ...
Luttikhold Joanna - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A carbohydrate (CHO) drink given preoperatively changes the fasted state into a fed state. The ESPEN guidelines for perioperative care include preoperative CHO loading and re-establishment of oral feeding as early as possible after surgery. An intestinal ischaemia reperfusion (IR) animal model was used to investigate whether ...
Sanz-Penella Juan Mario - - 2012
Phytase activity was recently described in probiotic bifidobacterial strains, opening the possibilities for their use in foods, due to the generally regarded as safe/qualified presumption of safety status of these bacteria. Two raw materials for infant cereals (multicereal and gluten-free) were examined by measuring the myo-inositol phosphates content and the ...
Pollina G F - - 2012
Gallium (Ga) is under study for the treatment of osteolytic disorders in equines. Previous studies indicate that oral gallium maltolate (GaM) would provide a higher bioavailability than oral Ga salts. However, oral administration to adult horses of 2 mg/kg of GaM, in the form of a solution mixed with food, did ...
Kamisaka Yuko - - 2012
The effects of up to three days of food deprivation on the cholecystokinin (CCK)-producing cells in the Atlantic herring gut were assessed by quantifying the number of cells detected by in situ hybridization at three ontogenetic stages. In feeding larvae that still possessed yolk-sacs (2 and 8days after hatch, DAH), ...
Sanguansri Luz - - 2012
The intestinal absorption of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω(3) LCPUFA), [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], after consuming fish oil gelatine capsules or different food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil, was determined using human ileostomates. The total amount of ω(3) LCPUFA consumed per dose of fish ...
Henricsson C F - - 2012
Five adult volunteers participated in a biokinetic study of radioactive polonium. Portions of about 10Bq of (209)Po were orally administrated to four of the volunteers in a single ingestion. The fifth volunteer ingested a daily amount of 53mBq of 209Po for 243d to study the time to achieve equilibrium between ...
Taborda Aline Gamarra - - 2012
Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is a lesion in which metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells occurs for an intestinal phenotype. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a lesion associated with an increase in the risk of gastric carcinoma development. Epidemiologic studies indicate a relation between dietary habits and stomach cancer development, some ...
Zhang Jian Gang - - 2012
Weight regain after a long-term weight-loss program is a greater problem in obesity treatment than is weight reduction. Hence, the gut may elevate the absorption rate and nutrient transportation remarkably during chronic food restriction. The extension of gut absorption may be one possible reason for weight regain. But there is ...
Ceuppens Siele - - 2012
To study the gastrointestinal survival and enterotoxin production of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, an in vitro simulation experiment was developed to mimic gastrointestinal passage in 5 phases: (i) the mouth, (ii) the stomach, with gradual pH decrease and fractional emptying, (iii) the duodenum, with high concentrations of bile and ...
Keszthelyi D - - 2012
PURPOSE: Plant sterol (PS)-enriched food products are known to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol. The physiological responses induced by food intake in the gastrointestinal tract are all important factors in determining the overall effect of PS. The aim of this study was ...
Davanço T - - 2012
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the intestines, resulting in breakage of the intestinal barrier, pathological inflammation and nutritional disorders that encompass from trace elements deficiency to severe malnutrition. Nutritional interventions either alone or associated to drug therapy may be effective to achieve and maintain ...
Xiao Zhenlei - - 2012
Microgreens, (seedlings of edible green vegetables and herbs) have gained popularity as a new culinary trend over the past few years. Although small in size, microgreens can provide surprisingly intense flavors, vivid colors and crisp texture and can be served as an edible garnish or a new salad ingredient. However, ...
Marles Ma Susan - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Consumption of pulse crops, including field pea, is considered effective for a healthy diet. Hulls (seed coats) play an important role for protection of the cotyledon and embryo, but also as mediating positive effects on health outcomes. The biochemical attributes of field pea hulls were thus assessed to determine ...
Sternalski Audrey - - 2012
Abstract In many birds, nestlings exhibit brightly colored traits that are pigmented by carotenoids. Carotenoids are diet limited and also serve important health-related physiological functions. The proximate mechanisms behind the expression of these carotenoid-pigmented traits are still poorly known, especially in nestlings with sexual size dimorphism. In these nestlings, intrabrood ...
Cilla Antonio - - 2012
A study was made of the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatment (TT) on plant bioactive compounds (tocopherols, carotenoids and ascorbic acid) in 12 fruit-juice milk beverages, and of how the food matrix [whole milk-(JW), skimmed milk (JS) and soya milk (JSy)] modulates their bioaccessibility (%). HPP (400 ...
Geera Bhimalingeswarappa - - 2012
  The growing interest in natural alternatives to synthetic petroleum-based dyes for food applications necessitates looking at nontraditional sources of natural colors. Certain sorghum varieties accumulate large amounts of poorly characterized pigments in their nongrain tissue. We used High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy to characterize sorghum leaf sheath pigments ...
Shimizu Makoto M Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2012
Food contains a variety of substances than can modulate transport,barrier, detoxification, and immune functions of the intestines. Functional foods with those substances will be beneficial in promoting gut health, and eventually prevent lifestyle-related diseases.
Ojwang Leonnard O - - 2012
The structure of flavonoids in food plants affects bioactivity and important nutritional attributes, like micronutrient bioavailability. This study investigated flavonol and anthocyanin composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) of varying genotypes. Black, red, green, white, light brown and golden brown cowpea phenotypes were analyzed for anthocyanins and flavonols using UPLC-triple quadrupole ...
Lugtenburg Johan - - 2012
Carotenoids and their metabolites are essential factors for the maintenance of important life processes such as photosynthesis. Animals cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, they must obtain them via their food. In order to make intensive animal husbandry possible and maintain human and animal health synthetic nature identical carotenoids are presently ...
Kamau Paul - - 2012
Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, ...
Wang Rui - - 2012
Dietary ingestion constitutes a major pathway for mercury (Hg) accumulation in freshwater fish, thus the ingestion rate (IR) may greatly influence the Hg bioaccumulation through its effect on Hg influx and other biokinetic processes. To explore the complex influence of IR, we conducted long-term bioaccumulation experiments by accurately controlling the ...
Sugihara Hikaru - - 2012
The gastrointestinal transition of mucoadhesive drug carriers may be affected by food intake, since food changes the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, and the food content itself is a physical obstruction for the drug carriers. Here we investigated the effects of food intake on the gastrointestinal transition and mucoadhesive ...
Vojdani Aristo - - 2012
Enhanced intestinal permeability and food sensitivity are two of the many proven causes of gastrointestinal disorders. This present report describes a woman with no previous gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, who underwent dental root canal, bone graft, and implant procedures. Postsurgery she experienced an allergic reaction to the combined medications. In the ...
Háda Magdolna - - 2012
Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made ...
Ghorbani Abdolbaset - - 2012
Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing ...
Dagnew Mulat - - 2012
Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The ...
Matsuki Takuma - - 2012
Intestinal malrotation is an incomplete rotation of the intestine. Failure to rotate leads to abnormalities in intestinal positioning and attachment that leave obstructing bands across the duodenum and a narrow pedicle for the midgut loop, thus making it susceptible to volvulus. One of the important differential diagnoses for malrotation is ...
Ma Betty W - - 2012
The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute ...
Berni Canani Roberto R Department of Pediatrics, University of Naples "Federico II", 80131, Naples, Italy. - - 2012
Food allergy (FA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with 80-90% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of five years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of FA is changing, ...
Kirk Martyn D - - 2011
Abstract Food- or waterborne diseases in long-term care facilities (LTCF) can result in serious outcomes, including deaths, and they are potentially preventable. We analyzed data collected by OzFoodNet on food- and waterborne disease outbreaks occurring in LTCF in Australia from 2001 to 2008. We compared outbreaks by the number of ...
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