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Lied Gülen Arslan - - 2013
Majority of the patients with perceived food hypersensitivity have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and a significant proportion of IBS patients also attribute their gastrointestinal complaints to food items. Different factors such as disturbed intestinal fermentation, enteric dysmotility, post-infectious changes and altered microbial flora in the colon as well as psychological ...
Hessel Stefanie - - 2013
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known food contaminants comprising compounds with carcinogenic properties. Pyrene (PYR) is an important non-carcinogenic PAH because its metabolites are frequently used as biomarkers to assess human PAH exposure. This study investigated for the first time the formation and transport of PYR metabolites in the human ...
De Vadder Filipe - - 2013
Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are known to influence food intake at the brain level, through their involvement in the food reward system. MOR agonists stimulate food intake. On the other hand, MOR antagonists suppress food intake. MORs are also active in peripheral organs, especially in the small intestine where they control ...
Maurer J M - - 2013
ColoPulse tablets are an innovative development in the field of oral drug delivery and are characterized by a colon-specific release. Until now ColoPulse dosage forms (only capsules) have been studied in healthy volunteers having a standardized breakfast three hours after administration but not in specific patient groups and not with ...
Borel P P a INSERM, UMR1062, Nutrition, Obesity and Risk of Thrombosis , F-13385 , Marseille , - - 2013
Abstract There has been renewed interest in vitamin D since numerous recent studies have suggested that besides its well-established roles in bone metabolism and immunity, vitamin D status is inversely associated with the incidence of several diseases, e.g. cancers, cardio-vascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is very little data ...
Liu Tianlong - - 2013
Recent advances in design and controllable synthesis of rattle-type silica nanoparticles have led to a dramatic expansion of their potential drug delivery application. However, the relationship between physico-chemical parameters and bio-effects of silica nanoparticles is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of particle size on acute ...
Price Dwan D Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. ; NeuroAllergy Research Laboratory, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, - - 2013
The increase in the incidence of food allergy is a growing problem for the western world. This review will focus on the findings from several macromolecular epithelial transport experiments and drug permeability studies to provide a recent comprehension of food allergen intestinal epithelial cell transport and the allergen-epithelial relationship. Specifically, ...
Koskimies Pasi - - 2013
Objective: To assess the effect of concomitant food intake on the relative bioavailability of ospemifene and its main metabolite, 4-hydroxyospemifene, after single oral dosing. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, balanced, two-treatment (fed vs. fasted), two-period, two-sequence cross-over study in 24 healthy male subjects. Single 60-mg doses of ospemifene were ...
Lee Han-Seung - - 2013
Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distict from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to mostly thrive at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and ...
Liu Z-Q - - 2013
B lymphocytes are an important cell population of the immune regulation; their role in the regulation of food allergy has not been fully understood yet. This study aims to investigate the role of a subpopulation of tolerogenic B cells (TolBC) in the generation of regulatory T cells (Treg) and in ...
Kannen Vinicius - - 2013
Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide ...
Price Edwin R - - 2013
In situations of increased energy demand/food intake, animals can often acclimate within several days. The intestine generally responds to elevated digestive demand by increasing in size. However, there is likely a limit to how quickly the intestine can grow to meet the new demand. We investigated the immediate and longer ...
Järvinen Kirsi M KM Division of Allergy & Immunology and Center for Immunology & Microbial Diseases, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA. - - 2013
Children with food allergy have been shown to have increased small intestinal permeability (IP) following ingestion of the offending food as well as during elimination diets. We investigated IP in asymptomatic food allergic children during an elimination diet to identify clinical characteristics associated with altered IP. Urinary recovery ratios of ...
Shin H S - - 2013
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and specifically the most distal part of the small intestine, the ileum, has become a renewed focus of interest for mechanisms targeting appetite suppression. The 'ileal brake' is stimulated when energy-containing nutrients are delivered beyond the duodenum and jejunum and into the ileum, and is named ...
Castellazzi Anna Maria - - 2013
The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" ...
Hendriks W H - - 2013
The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets was compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and ...
Machorro-Méndez I A - - 2013
Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are a group of compounds formed during processing and storage of foods from animal origin. After ingestion, COPs are absorbed in the intestine and can be distributed to serum and various tissues, potentially promoting a variety of toxic effects. Therefore, inhibition of their intestinal absorption may ...
Mu Wanmeng - - 2013
Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods ...
Wang Chia-Chi - - 2013
Arecae semen, the dried slice of areca nuts, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat intestinal parasitosis, rectal tenesmus and diarrhea. Areca nuts contain a rich amount of polyphenols that have been shown to modulate the functionality of mast cells and T cells. The objective of this study is ...
Udyawer Vinay - - 2013
Entanglement in derelict fishing gear and other marine debris is a major threat to the survival of large marine wildlife like cetaceans, seabirds and sea turtles. However, no previous reports of entanglement or entrapment have been recorded in sea snakes (Hydrophiinae). We report here on a sea snake (Hydrophis elegans) ...
Heinen Christian - - 2013
In the current study the involvement of ion pair formation between bile salts and trospium chloride (TC), a positively charged Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III substance showing a decrease in bioavailability upon coadministration with food (negative food effect) was investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry provided evidence of a reaction between ...
Leffers Larissa - - 2013
Whereas inorganic arsenic is classified as a human carcinogen, risks to human health related to the presence of arsenosugars in marine food are still unclear. Since studies indicate that human inorganic arsenic metabolites contribute to inorganic arsenic induced carcinogenicity, a risk assessment for arsenosugars should also include a toxicological characterization ...
Landin-Olsson Mona - - 2013
The incidence of type 1 diabetes among children has almost doubled during the last decades in Sweden. Type 1 diabetes is considered as an autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Here we propose that the immune reaction may be initiated by food-derived mechanisms. The incidence of diabetes parallels an increased consumption ...
Berin M Cecilia MC Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Box 1198, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. - - 2013
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune ...
Rao Jiajia - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Carotenoids, such as β-carotene, are widely used in foods and beverages as natural colorants and nutraceuticals. We investigated the influence of carrier oil composition (ratio of digestible to indigestible oil) on the physical stability, microstructure, and bioaccessibility of β-carotene nanoemulsions using a simulated gastrointestinal tract model. RESULTS: β-carotene nanoemulsions ...
Leffers Larissa - - 2013
SCOPE: In their recently published Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a risk assessment for arsenosugars is currently not possible, largely because of the lack of relevant toxicological data. To address this issue, we carried out a toxicological in vitro characterization of two ...
Petrujkić Branko T - - 2013
Food-producing animals are reservoirs of Campylobacter, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. The natural product thymol can reduce the survivability of Campylobacter, but its rapid absorption in the proximal gastrointestinal tract may preclude its use as a feed additive to reduce intestinal colonization of these pathogens. This work ...
Slavin Joanne - - 2013
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were ...
Roman Sabine - - 2013
Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa. Food and aero-allergens are involved in its pathogenesis. Dysphagia and food impaction are the dominant symptoms in adult with eosinophilic oesophagitis. However, a wide range of symptoms has been noticed such as chest pain or ...
Desmarchelier Charles - - 2013
SCOPE: Vitamin E is present in feed and food mainly as d-α-tocopherol (d-α-TOL) but also as all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (rac-α-TAC) through supplementation. Its absorption efficiency is low compared to that of triacylglycerols. The aim of this work was thus to study the fate of TAC during digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using ...
Wu Shan-Gong - - 2013
The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the ...
Lappi Jenni - - 2013
Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 ...
Erk T - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are thought to play important roles in human nutrition and health but these health effects are dependent on their bioavailability. This study is one of a series with the aim of determining possible effects of food matrices on caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) bioavailability using ileostomy volunteers. METHODS: After a ...
Emadi Shaibani Mina - - 2013
Effect of starvation and refeeding on the structure of pyloric caeca was studied in the juveniles of Caspian Sea salmon. Juveniles (average body weight 12±0.1g) were subjected to four levels of feeding: full-fed for 6 weeks (FFF), 3 weeks fed and 3 weeks following starvation (FS), 3 weeks starved and ...
Sarro-Ramírez Andrea - - 2013
The neurobiological mechanisms of feeding involve the activity of several brain areas as well as the engage of endogenous compounds such as ghrelin, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, neuropeptide Y, leptin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, among others. Furthermore, the family of food-intake modulators has been enlarged due to the inclusion of lipids ...
Pácha Jiří - - 2013
Many physiological functions exhibit a diurnal rhythmicity that is influenced by biological clocks and feeding rhythms. In this review, we discuss the growing evidence showing the important role of circadian rhythms in regulating intestinal mucosa. First, we introduce the molecular timing system and the interrelationship between the master biological clock ...
- - 2013
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or ``we'') is reopening the comment period for the interim final rule entitled "Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics'' that published in the Federal Register of July 14, 2004 (69 FR 42256). The interim final rule prohibited the use ...
Frickmann Hagen - - 2013
This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic ...
Venesky Matthew D MD Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. - - 2013
One prediction of optimal digestion theory is that organisms will increase the relative length of their digestive tracts when food resources become limited. We used theory of optimal digestion to test whether tadpoles can adjust the relative length of their intestines when challenged with the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). ...
Lee Young-Su YS Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of - - 2013
Enzymatic bioconversion of rutin to quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q-3-G) by Penicillium decumbens naringinase was increased with reaction pH increased approximately to pH 6.0. It resulted in greater than 92% production of Q-3-G due to the removal of the terminal rhamnose at the controlled pH 6.0. The enzymatic bioconversion of rutin to Q-3-G ...
Rossetto O - - 2013
Few species of the anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium produce the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), which cause a disease of vertebrates known as botulism (Johnson and Montecucco, 2008). The flaccid paralysis and all the other symptoms of botulism are due to the BoNT induced inhibition of skeletal and autonomic peripheral ...
Holmstock Nico - - 2013
Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can ...
Eswaran Shanti S Dr. Eswaran is a Clinical Lecturer at the University of Michigan Health System in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Dr. Goel is a Resident Physician in the Department of Internal Medicine at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University in New York, New York. Dr. Chey is a Professor of Medicine, Director of the GI Physiology Laboratory, Co-Director of the Michigan Bowel Control Program, and H. Marvin Pollard Institute Scholar, all at the University of Michigan Health System in Ann Arbor, - - 2013
Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the pathologic role of food in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Nevertheless, healthcare providers often avoid addressing diet with their patients because of a lack of training, guideline consensus, and high-quality data. Recent literature supports the existence of a subgroup of IBS patients with ...
Roberts Carol L - - 2013
Crohn's disease (CD) incidence has increased over the past fifty years but the explanation is unclear. CD can be brought into remission by liquid enteral feeding, but the mechanism for this response is unknown. We suggest that consumption of emulsifiers in processed foods may promote CD by increasing bacterial translocation. ...
Henare Sharon J - - 2013
Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet ...
Furtado Eduarda de Castro Ede - - 2013
To characterize of the intestinal microbiota of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) admitted to the Metabolic Unit of a University Hospital. Fecal samples were evaluated, and biochemical tests were conducted only in the case of SBS patients. The nutritional status was assessed via anthropometric measurements and evaluation of food ...
Wang Duochun - - 2013
Shewanella spp. is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. Following two outbreaks of food poisoning, eight Shewanella spp. strains were obtained from the fecal specimens of patients, food and food processing-related materials. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was identified in the culture supernatants of these strains, and the toxin's biological activity was detected using ...
Faria Ana Maria Caetano - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa is the major site of contact with antigens, and it houses the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. In physiological conditions, microbiota and dietary antigens are the natural sources of stimulation for the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and for the immune system as a whole. Germ-free models ...
Riley Lee W LW Division of Infectious Disease and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, CA , - - 2013
The rapid increase in obesity prevalence in the United States in the last 20 years is unprecedented and not well explained. Here, we explore a hypothesis that the obesity epidemic may be driven by population-wide chronic exposures to low-residue antibiotics that have increasingly entered the American food chain over the same ...
Cupisti Adamasco A Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, - - 2013
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance ...
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