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Results 601 - 650 of 972
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Kodama K - - 1999
A case-control study was conducted to investigate how basic habits of life including dietary habit, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and drinking, are involved in the development of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Collection of cases was entrusted to the clinical research group of DCM, and national pooled controls established by sex ...
Manuel D G - - 1999
Prior to 1996, sporadic cases of cyclosporiasis in Canada were most often associated with foreign travel and outbreaks throughout the world were associated with contaminated drinking water. In May 1996, the North York Public Health Department was notified of three laboratory-confirmed cases of cyclosporiasis among persons who attended a luncheon ...
Michino H - - 1999
In July 1996, an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection occurred among schoolchildren in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan. This outbreak developed in 13 North-East District and 34 Middle-South District elementary schools in the city. All children hospitalized on July 17-19 had presented on July 8 (North-East District) and July 9 ...
- - 1999
During the early 20th century, contaminated food, milk, and water caused many foodborne infections, including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, botulism, and scarlet fever. In 1906, Upton Sinclair described in his novel The Jungle the unwholesome working environment in the Chicago meat-packing industry and the unsanitary conditions under which food was produced. ...
Satterthwaite P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify major risk factors for Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) and identify measures to reduce YE infections. METHODS: A prospective case control study, group age matched, using 186 cases of YE identified by community pathology laboratories and 379 randomly selected controls. Conducted between April 1995 and June 1996 in Auckland, ...
Rose J B - - 1999
While the risk from pathogenic microorganisms in foods has been recognized for hundreds of years, bacterial agents are generally implicated as the contaminants. Although many outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by protozoan pathogens have occurred, it is only in the last 3 years that attention has focused on protozoan association with ...
Powell J L - - 1999
Vibrios are an important cause of human food-borne illness associated with the consumption of seafood worldwide, and contaminated food and drinking water in developing countries. Clinical syndromes induced by vibrios such as Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and others range from mild, self-limiting gastroenteritis to life-threatening primary septicemia. As ...
Leber A L - - 1999
Although the intestinal amebae that infect humans are not thought of as classic agents of food-borne disease, food plays an important role in the transmission of these protozoa. This is particularly true for areas of the world where the organisms are endemic. Transmission of most intestinal protozoa occurs by the ...
Fields P I - - 1999
Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequently diagnosed bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant and, in particular, of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni infections in Europe and the United States, temporally associated with the approval of use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine, is an important public ...
Threlfall E J - - 1999
In February 1996 Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection in a patient in the North Tyneside area was attributed to consumption of cooked chicken bought from a supermarket hot food outlet. Isolates from the patient, leftover food, and environmental samples were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE also demonstrated ...
Gilligan P H - - 1999
There are at least four different ways in which E. coli can cause diarrheal disease: invasion of the intestinal epithelium, enterotoxin production, STx production, and adherence with disruption of the normal functioning of the intestinal epithelium. Fecally contaminated food and water are the source of E. coli infections in humans. ...
Hardy M E - - 1999
Despite the lack of a cell culture or animal model system, the past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of NLV. Prior to 1990, the only nucleotide sequence information for caliciviruses was from viruses isolated from animals. There are now sequences available for more than 100 NLV isolates ...
Bruckner D A - - 1999
The importance of food-borne helminthic infections is not well recognized and has not received the same attention as food-borne bacterial infections. Poverty, overpopulation, and cultural practices contribute to conditions that maintain food-borne helminthic infections. The development of better means of transportation and the ease of reaching otherwise inaccessible markets have ...
Merritt A - - 1999
An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis among staff on a resort island in north Queensland is reported. Untreated rainwater and food from the staff dining room were initially suspected as possible sources of infection but Campylobacter species were not isolated from any environmental samples. Faecal contamination was detected in four rainwater ...
Nylen G - - 1999
We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis involving at least 19 British tourists returning from one hotel in another European country. A retrospective cohort study of 47 hotel guests identified lasagne as the most likely vehicle of transmission (RR 11.5; 95% CI 3.0-44.1; P < 0.0001). However, difficulties in information ...
Tallis G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and ascertain the source of a nursing home outbreak of gastroenteritis in Melbourne in 1997. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study. We obtained fecal and food samples and environmental swabs, and reviewed food handling. RESULTS: There were 25 cases, and 21 of these had their meals pureed (liquidised). ...
Goodman L - - 1999
Infectious diarrhea is an extremely common illness that affects millions of Americans annually. For most patients, the illness is a self-limited one. Its major risk is dehydration. However, for some patients, diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration or be associated with bacteremia and metastatic infection. Patients with these conditions require ...
Lee A A Department of Community and Family Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4th Floor Lek Yuen Health Centre, Shatin, New Territories, Hong - - 1999
To study the sero-epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) among adolescents in Hong Kong and analyse the changing patterns of the infection rates. Cross sectional study. Secondary school students. One thousand, five hundred and eighty students were randomly selected from 12 schools in four regions of Hong Kong. Anti-HAV status. ...
Richards G P - - 1999
Enteric viruses, including hepatitis A, Norwalk, and Snow Mountain viruses, Hawaii agent, and rotaviruses have been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. Classical culturing procedures are available for poliovirus; however, hepatitis A, Norwalk, and many of the other viruses and agents cannot be propagated in cell culture, therefore, molecular biological ...
Ponka A - - 1999
Small round structured viruses (SRSVs - for example, calici-, astro-, and entero-viruses) are the commonest causes of outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Transmission of SRSVs by water and by various foods - including salads, bakery prod
Hedberg C W - - 1999
Laboratory-based surveillance of salmonella isolates serotyped at four state health departments (Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin) led to the identification of multistate outbreaks of salmonella infections during 1990 (176 cases of S. javiana) and 1993 (100 cases of S. montevideo). Community-based case-control studies and product traceback implicated consumption of tomatoes ...
Evans M R - - 1999
During July 1995, an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 170, an unusual strain, occurred in South Wales. A case-control study found that illness was associated with eating kebabs (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.002), doner kebabs (odds ratio 7.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.5-20.5, P = 0.02) and ...
Desenclos J-C. - - 1999
The free circulation of people, goods, and foods within the European Union (EU) states has increased the opportunity for international outbreaks of foodborne infections despite prevention efforts to reduce microbiological contamination of foodstuffs. The
Brennan P - - 1999
In April 1998 an outbreak of salmonellosis amongst guests at a wedding feast was investigated. Of the 58 attendees interviewed 38 (66%) subsequently developed gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool cultures from 7 cases grew Salmonella Typhimurium RDNC A045. Food samples were culture-negative for Salmonella spp. A cohort study implicated spatchcock (RR 2.5, ...
McNeil M M - - 1999
In May 1996, the Georgia Division of Public Health was notified about a cluster of persons with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Waycross, Georgia. A matched pair case-control study to determine risk factors for illness found a statistically significant association of SE infection with a history of having eaten at ...
Altekruse S F - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, foodborne infections cause an estimated 6.5-33 million illnesses a year. Also included in the burden of foodborne illnesses are sequelae such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and reactive arthritis. Surveillance for risky food-handling and food-consumption practices can be used to identify high-risk populations, develop ...
Kenny B - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To identify the source and intervention methods for an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 12 in South Australia. METHOD: Ten cases of S. Typhimurium phage type (PT) 12 infection were notified in South Australia in a four-week period from 7 May 1998. Nine cases and 27 controls were ...
- - 1999
From October 1997 through October 1998, 16 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness associated with eating burritos occurred in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. All but one outbreak occurred in schools, and most of the approximately 1700 persons affected were children. This report summarizes investigations of two of ...
Massoudi M S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The recommended criteria for public notification of a hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected foodhandler include assessment of the foodhandler's hygiene and symptoms. In October 1994, a Kentucky health department received a report of a catering company foodhandler with hepatitis A. Patrons were not offered immune globulin because the foodhandler's hygiene ...
Rabbani G H - - 1999
Cholera has been recognized as a killer disease since earliest time. Since 1817, six pandemics have swept over the world, and the seventh one is in progress. The disease is caused by infection of the small intestine by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 and is characterized by massive acute diarrhoea, ...
Shapiro R - - 1999
In October 1996, we investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson infections associated with Restaurant A in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and conducted two cohort studies among persons who ate at luncheons catered by Restaurant A. Fifty-two Salmonella Thompson infections were identified between 29 September and 14 October 1996. Infections ...
Brugha R - - 1999
In August 1994, 30 of 135 (23%) bakery plant employees and over 100 people from South Wales and Bristol in the United Kingdom, were affected by an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological studies of employees and three community clusters found illness in employees to be associated with drinking cold water at ...
Fone D L - - 1999
Eighty of the 460 patients and staff (attack rate 22%) in a long-stay hospital for patients with learning difficulties became ill in a general outbreak of gastrointestinal infection that followed a buffet style party on one ward. Illness in the cohort of 47 resident patients, relations, and staff who attended ...
Powell S C - - 1999
The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene has recommended the adoption of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) as the basis for food safety control. To provide an objective basis for the construction of HACCP systems, epidemiological data are required. The data should be accurate, up-to-date, and identify emerging pathogens, ...
Gent R N - - 1999
Twelve cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection were identified on a university campus in the first 12 days of November 1997. Consumption of food from a single outlet, where poor food handling practices were identified, was statistically associated with infection. The epidemiological evidence suggested that what presented as a point source ...
Mahon B E - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact in Georgia of a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak caused by ice cream products and the effectiveness of the subsequent warning against eating the implicated products. METHODS: A telephone survey of 250 randomly selected Georgia customers of the ice cream producer was conducted 13 to 17 ...
Parashar U D - - 1998
Although food handlers are often implicated as the source of infection in outbreaks of food-borne viral gastroenteritis, little is known about the timing of infectivity in relation to illness. We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak among employees of a manufacturing company and found an association (RR = 14.1, 95% CI = ...
Schalch B - - 1998
Bacteriocin typing, plasmid profiling and ribotyping were used to type 34 food and patient Clostridium perfringens isolates from 10 food poisoning cases, respectively, outbreaks. In nine cases/outbreaks bacteriocin patterns showed identical main groups. Subgroups differed within all cases/outbreaks. Plasmid profiles were identical for all isolates within each of three outbreaks. ...
Evans M R - - 1998
Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 6 (PT6) increased dramatically in the United Kingdom during 1997. The sharp rise suggests that PT6 contamination has spread rapidly throughout a basic food commodity; however, the source and food vehicle remain unknown. We present evidence from three outbreaks suggesting a possible link between PT6 and ...
Roels T H - - 1998
We report a foodborne outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection in a summer camp. Outbreak-related cases occurred in 79 persons including 3 secondary cases in campers. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from stool specimens from 16 of 21 patients who submitted a sample; 13 viable isolates were serotyped and all were serotype ...
Taylor J P - - 1998
The number of Salmonella agona isolates reported annually in Texas from 1992 through 1994 ranged from 14 to 21. An increase in incidence of S. agona infections was noted in the fall of 1995. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis identified prospectively two possible cryptic outbreaks caused by an indistinguishable strain ...
Altekruse S F - - 1998
To identify contributing factors for cheese-associated outbreaks, we reviewed all cheese-associated outbreaks of human illness reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with onsets during 1973 to 1992. The infrequency of large, cheese-associated outbreaks was notable because such outbreaks had been a frequent public health problem before ...
Evans M R - - 1998
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting 12 of 29 customers of a 'Hawaiian' theme restaurant specializing in stir-fried food occurred in Cardiff, Wales in February 1997. Campylobacter jejuni serotype HS50 phage type 49 (PT49) was isolated from 5 cases. A total of 47 isolates of C. jejuni HS50 PT49 were ...
al-Ahmadi K S - - 1998
In May 1996, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among customers who bought dinner from a restaurant that specialised in fried chicken in Abha city, south-west Saudi Arabia. The median incubation period was 10 hours (range: 3 to 27 hours). Of the 10 food items served, only mayonnaise (RR 2.52; 95% ...
Mahon C R - - 1998
Millions of people suffer from foodborne illness yearly. While most experience self-limiting events, others suffer from more serious forms of the disease. During the past 20 years, the epidemiology of foodborne diseases has evolved as new pathogens emerged. Factors that have been attributed to the increased risk for foodborne illness ...
Synnott M B - - 1998
An outbreak of Salmonella agona phage type (PT) 15 infection in North Staffordshire in September 1996 was associated with consumption of precooked turkey meat. The shops from which five of the six cases had bought turkey meat were supplied by the same distributor. S. agona phage type 15 was isolated ...
Baker D F - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a multi-state outbreak of Salmonella bredeney. DESIGN: Case interviews followed by an age and neighbourhood matched case control study. PARTICIPANTS: People with laboratory-confirmed S. bredeney and controls matched on age and geographical location in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Queensland and Victoria. RESULTS: We identified ...
Buchanan R - - 1998
The Risk Assessment Subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria in Foods has prepared a generic document on the principles of risk assessment as applied to biological agents that can cause human foodborne disease. Typical biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa, algae, parasites, and the toxic ...
Headrick M L - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the epidemiology of raw milk-associated outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1973 through 1992. METHODS: Surveillance data for each reported raw milk-associated outbreak were reviewed. A national survey was conducted to determine the legal status of intrastate raw milk sales for ...
Angulo F J - - 1998
In April 1994, the largest outbreak of botulism in the United States since 1978 occurred in El Paso, Texas. Thirty persons were affected; 4 required mechanical ventilation. All ate food from a Greek restaurant. The attack rate among persons who ate a potato-based dip was 86% (19/22) compared with 6% ...
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