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Results 501 - 550 of 940
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Bonner C - - 2001
Surveillance of general outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis was introduced in 1998 by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI), in co-operation with the eight health boards. A total of 67 general outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland were reported to the FSAI in 1998 and 1999. Over 1900 people were ill ...
Weber D J - - 2001
New and emerging infectious diseases pose a threat to public health and may be responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that have caused nosocomial infections via person-to-person transmission, environmental contamination, or contaminated water or food. Helicobacter pylori has been transmitted via inadequately disinfected endoscopes. ...
Cruz M A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the usefulness of restaurant inspections in predicting food-borne outbreaks in Miami-Dade County, Fla. METHODS: Inspection reports of restaurants with outbreaks in 1995 (cases; n = 51) were compared with those of randomly selected restaurants that had no reported outbreaks (controls; n = 76). RESULTS: ...
Karas J A JA Karas, Isaacson and Associates, PO Box 14566, Hatfield, 0028 - - 2001
To describe an outbreak of food poisoning at a major international sports event in Johannesburg and to determine the likely cause and source of the outbreak. A descriptive, case-control study. An international sports event in Johannesburg. A questionnaire survey of involved children was used to conduct a case-control study. Microbiological ...
Frost F J - - 2001
In 1996, serological responses to two Cryptosporidium antigens were determined for 200 Las Vegas (LV), Nevada, and 200 Albuquerque, New Mexico, blood donors to evaluate associations between endemic infections, water exposures, and other risk factors. LV uses chlorinated filtered drinking water from Lake Mead while Albuquerque uses chlorinated ground water. ...
Winquist A G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: In August 1997, campylobacteriosis was diagnosed in four older persons in one Connecticut town. We investigated this outbreak to determine its cause and to identify appropriate preventive measures. We also analyzed surveillance data to assess the impact of campylobacteriosis among persons age 65 years and older in Connecticut. DESIGN: ...
Briley R T - - 2001
On October 29, 1998, The Garland Health Department in Texas investigated seven illnesses at a church day school. The six children and one adult had handled hydrated, orange-colored rice before consuming a meal. B. cereus organisms were found in the rice at an estimated concentration of 5.6 x 10(5) per ...
Angelillo I F - - 2001
A survey was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes and related behavior on foodborne diseases and food-handling practices among consumers in one region of Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a random sample of mothers of children attending public schools. Of the 394 responding mothers, 36% knew about all the ...
Effler P - - 2001
Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, and Hawaii has the highest rate of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the nation. A case-control study was conducted to determine indigenous exposures that contribute to the high incidence of sporadic C. jejuni infection in Hawaii. A ...
Izumiyama S - - 2001
Fecal samples from 232 weaned piglets (1 and 3 months old) and 252 fattening porkers (6 months old) in 8 stock-raising farms located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from June 1998 to June 2000 were examined to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Detection of oocysts was performed using the ethyl ...
Tomaru Y - - 2001
Mass mortalities of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii have widely occurred in western Japan since 1994. The causes of these mass mortalities are at present not thoroughly understood. In this study, we investigated oyster survival in relation to some environmental factors such as water temperature, concentration of chlorophyll ...
Cacciò S - - 2001
Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be transmitted to humans by contaminated food and water, resulting in large outbreaks of diarrheal disease. Sensitive methods for detecting these parasites are needed to control and prevent infection. However, this issue is complicated by the fact that there is still uncertainty about the role played ...
Kadoi K - - 2001
Since human caliciviruses are responsible for viral gastroenteritis transmitted by contaminated foods and the viruses barely propagate in cell culture, feline caliciviruses were employed as a model for the measurement of their stability in marine water. Survival of four strains of feline calicivirus in marine water was measured when the ...
Ombui J N - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of foodborne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. STUDY SUBJECTS: Foodborne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter ...
Anantaphruti M T - - 2001
There is a wide variety of food products that may be contaminated with one or more parasites and consequently enabling transmission to human beings. The prevalence of specific parasites in food supplies varies between countries and regions. Sources of food-borne products contaminated with parasites are pigs, cattle, fish, crabs, crayfish, ...
Graczyk T K - - 2001
Fasciolopsiasis, endemic to the Orient and Southeast Asia, is a snail-transmitted, intestinal, food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by a trematode, Fasciolopsis buski, which also infects farm pigs. Fasciolopsiasis remains a public health problem despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, and environmental alterations. The ...
Khan A S - - 2001
Deliberate food and water contamination remains the easiest way to distribute biological or chemical agents for the purpose of terrorism, despite the national focus on dissemination of these agents as small-particle aerosols or volatile liquids. Moreover, biological terrorism as a result of sabotage of our food supply has already occurred ...
- - 2000
During 1999-2000, outbreaks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa dermatitis and otitis externa associated with swimming pool and hot tub use occurred in Colorado and Maine. This report summarizes these outbreaks and provides recommendations for swimming pool and hot tub operation and maintenance, particularly when using offsite monitoring of water disinfectant and pH ...
Palmer S - - 2000
In developing public policy on food safety, systematic identification and thorough investigation of all general outbreaks is necessary in order to avoid bias towards highly publicised outbreaks. In Wales, from 1986 to 1998, 87 general foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis were identified. Most outbreaks occurred at functions or were associated with ...
dos Santos S M - - 2000
This work describes the epidemic profile of outbreaks of food infection caused by Salmonella enteritidis, serogroup D, in the city of Blumenau, Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during the period between February, 1994, and June, 1997. Ninety-six outbreaks were observed, and 79 (82%) were investigated, involving 7,802 people with ...
Kohl K S - - 2000
An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among 63 wedding participants. The outbreak was investigated through cohort, laboratory, and environmental studies. Consumption of rice-dressing made from a commercially cooked, meat-based, rice-dressing mix was strongly associated with illness. Nineteen patient isolates, six company/grocery store isolates cultured from the rice-dressing mix, and one environmental ...
Olsen S J - - 2001
In 1998, an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections occurred in Kansas among persons attending a school luncheon; community cases were also reported. In a cohort study of luncheon attendees, 27 (17%) of 161 persons reported illness. Consuming gravy (relative risk [RR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-11.7) or pineapple (RR, ...
Van Loock F F Scientific Institute of Public Health-(IPH), Brussels. - - 2000
Foodborne disease represents a major problem for public health in industrialized countries, albeit with a low lethality. Foodborne diseases are defined as a group of viral, bacterial or parasitic gastrointestinal infections transmitted by means of food. Proper food-hygiene practices and surveillance of individual diseases and in particular outbreaks are the ...
Urfer E - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiologic, clinical and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis due to the ingestion of meat pies highly contaminated with Salmonella braenderup. METHODS: In October 1993, we observed an outbreak of Salmonella braenderup gastroenteritis that occurred in the Lausanne area, Canton de Vaud, Switzerland. Cultures ...
Maurer A M - - 2000
An outbreak of gastro-enteritis occurred in La Neuveville, township with 3358 inhabitants. A retrospective cohort study of 1915 participants showed that 1607 (84%) had been ill. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 28 patient faecal samples, Shigella sonnei from 21 patients and small round structured viruses (SRSV) from 6 patients. More ...
Lindqvist R - - 2000
Reports of foodborne disease incidents in Sweden from 1992 to 1997 are summarized. The results are based on reports from the municipal environmental and public health authorities to the National Food Administration and from medical authorities to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Diseases Control. A total of 555 incidents, of ...
Panisello P J - - 2000
Five-hundred and thirty general foodborne outbreaks of food poisoning reported in England and Wales between 1992 and 1996 were reviewed to study their application to the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. Retrospective investigations of foodborne disease outbreaks provided information on aetiological agents, food vehicles and factors that contributed to ...
Baumgartner A - - 2000
Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum is not routinely done in laboratories of clinical microbiology and there is no obligation to communicate isolations of this pathogen to health authorities. For these reasons, frequency of cryptosporidiosis and sources of infection are only poorly known in Switzerland. To obtain more concise information in this ...
Huerta M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Over a period of 4 days between May 18-21, 1998, a multifocal outbreak of diarrhea, involving 175 Israel Defence Force soldiers and at least 54 civilians, occurred in the Golan Heights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stool samples from 40 affected soldiers were collected for microbiological testing. In addition, a rapid ...
Slifko T R - - 2000
The incidence of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated low-pH fruit juices is increasing. With recent mandatory pasteurization of apple juice and the industry's concerns of food safety, fruit juice processors are showing more interest in alternative nonthermal technologies that can kill >99.99% of microbial pathogens present in foods. The ...
Svensson L - - 2000
A significant global problem is the microbiological contamination of foods and water. The microorganisms associated with about half of the foodborne disease outbreaks still go unrecognized, primarily as a result of inadequate diagnostic methods and sampling. A significant amount of food- and waterborne diseases are associated with viruses, information that ...
Fleet G H - - 2000
Norwalk-like virus contamination of oysters and orange juice, and hepatitis A virus contamination of oysters have been responsible for large outbreaks of foodborne viral disease in Australia. Rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus and other enteroviruses also contribute to the incidence of gastroenteritis in this country but the role of foods and ...
Wallace D J - - 2000
In 1997, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Program (FoodNet) conducted active surveillance for culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium in five Emerging Infections Program sites. FoodNet is a collaborative effort of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for ...
Ejidokun O O - - 2000
Four outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 occurred among guests at functions for which a single commercial caterer supplied food. Retrospective cohort studies were used to describe the epidemiology of three of these outbreaks and identify the vehicle(s) responsible. Of 172 guests at these three events, 47 fitted ...
Pradier C - - 2000
A case-control study was conducted to establish the source of a community outbreak of typhoid fever in Utelle, France, a village located in the Alpes-Maritimes district of the French Riviera. Thirteen confirmed cases of typhoid fever and 41 confirmed community controls were included in the study. Cases and controls did ...
Rodrigues A - - 2000
Epidemiological studies have shown that food plays an important role in the transmission of Vibrio cholerae, and different foods have been incriminated in many epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Storing contaminated meals at ambient temperatures allows growth of V. cholerae. Some ingredients such as lime juice may inhibit the survival of ...
Monro J A JA Food Industry Science Centre, New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research, Palmerston North, New - - 2000
Bulk in the distal colon provides protection against a range of large bowel disorders, but a simple standardized measure of the relative bulking efficacy of foods, for use in dietary management of distal colonic bulk, has not been available. This paper describes a faecal bulking index (FBI) for standardized measurement ...
McLauchlin J - - 2000
Thirty-five Clostridium perfringens isolates from patients and foods implicated in seven outbreaks of suspected Cl. perfringens food poisoning together with five unrelated incidents were analysed by serotyping and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Despite minor band differences, AFLP was found to be highly reproducible and 16 different profiles (each unique ...
Balter S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of nephritis have been rare since the 1970s. From December, 1997, to July, 1998, 253 cases of acute nephritis were identified in Nova Serrana, Brazil. Seven patients required dialysis, and three patients died. We did a case-control study to investigate the cause of the outbreak. METHODS: Using a ...
Spieler P - - 2000
The medical services of the German contingent of the Stabilization Forces in Bosnia maintain a high-standard-preventive health care system. Because knowledge about German food and water surveillance laboratories is not widespread, these and the methods used for sample examinations as well as their analytical capacities are introduced. From July to ...
Michino H - - 2000
We reviewed records of all outbreaks of food-borne illnesses due to schoollunch in Japan from 1987 through 1996 to determine the risk factors causing these outbreaks. Major hazards in 269 outbreaks were Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Foods including uncooked or partially cooked items, salad or ...
Ackers M L - - 2000
In October 1995, an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections occurred in the Upper Valley of Vermont and New Hampshire. Ten patients were identified, median age 9 years (range, 6 months-44 years). Three patients were hospitalized; 1 underwent an appendectomy. Consumption of bottled pasteurized milk from a local dairy was ...
Glass R I - - 2000
In the United States, acute gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly noted illnesses on hospital discharge records and death certificates, yet few of these cases have an etiologic diagnosis. The application of new molecular diagnostic methods has shown caliciviruses (previously referred to as the Norwalk family of viruses or ...
Lee M B - - 2000
Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that ...
Sattar S A - - 2000
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible for considerable morbidity and economic losses worldwide, and is the only reportable, foodborne viral pathogen in Canada. Outbreaks caused by it occur more frequently in settings such as hospitals, daycare centres, schools, and in association with foods and food service establishments. In recent years, ...
Charbonneau D L - - 2000
In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, ...
Daniels N A - - 2000
In March 1998, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred among students at a Texas university. Overall, 125 ill students sought medical care. Case-control studies revealed that illness was significantly associated with eating foods from the university's main cafeteria deli bar on 9 and 10 March. Stool specimens from 9 (50%) ...
Macpherson C N - - 2000
Estimates suggest that almost half of the population of the world is affected by water-borne and food-borne infections. Parasitic food-borne and water-borne zoonoses contribute to this statistic by inflicting a heavy toll on human health and causing serious direct and indirect losses to the agricultural industry. The inability of non-industrialised ...
Lyytik?inen O - - 2000
Between December 1997 and January 1998 an increase in the number of isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a serotype rarely causing indigenous infections in Finland, was detected. This included two clusters of gastroenteritis following funeral meals. An inquiry via Enter-net revealed a concomitant increase in cases of S. Newport ...
Ewald D - - 2000
In April 1998 an outbreak of gastroenteritis affected visitors, but none of the Aboriginal residents, at a Territory Health Services luncheon in a rural Aboriginal community in Central Australia. The epidemiological features and identification of Small Round Structured Virus (SRSV) from two participants suggest that this was an outbreak caused ...
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