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Results 501 - 550 of 973
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Lukinmaa Susanna - - 2002
From 1975 to 1999, Clostridium perfringens caused 238 food-borne disease outbreaks in Finland, which is 20% of all such reported outbreaks during these years. The fact that C. perfringens is commonly found in human and animal stools and that it is also widespread in the environment is a disadvantage when ...
Kasowski Eric J - - 2002
Foodborne illnesses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, primarily as gastroenteritis but occasionally as other syndromes as well. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of widely known infectious agents, principally viruses, and are probably the result of common mistakes in food handling ...
Daniels Nicholas A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks in schools and to identify where preventive measures could be targeted. METHODS: Reports by state and local health departments of foodborne disease outbreaks occurring in primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities from January 1, ...
Wiedmann Martin - - 2002
Phenotype-based and DNA-based subtyping methods allow for differentiation of bacterial isolates beyond the species and subspecies level. Bacterial subtyping methods not only have improved our ability to detect and track foodbome disease outbreaks, but also represent tools to track sources of bacterial contamination throughout the food system. The use of ...
Katz Dolores J - - 2002
An outbreak of typhoid fever in Florida involving at least 16 persons during the winter of 1998-99 was investigated using case-control, environmental, and laboratory methods. The genomic profiles of Salmonella serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) isolates from the 15 confirmed case subjects were identical. Consumption of fruit shakes made with frozen ...
Longini Ira M IM - - 2002
Despite nearly 200 years of study, the mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of endemic cholera and the causes of periodic epidemics remain poorly understood. To investigate these patterns, cholera data collected over 33 years (1966-1998) in Matlab, Bangladesh, were analyzed. Time-lagged autocorrelations were stratified by Vibrio cholerae serogroup, serotype, and ...
Shane A L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: In late 1996, a multinational investigation was launched following an outbreak of diarrheal illness that caused the disruption of an international scientific conference at a first-class hotel in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all American and to selected international attendees. Additional copies of the questionnaire ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2002
Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a ...
Peipins Lucy A - - 2002
In May and June 1999, an outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness occurred among long-distance hikers on the Appalachian Trail between Catawba and Troutville, Virginia. An investigation found that 45 out of 70 hikers had become ill within two days of arriving in Catawba, Virginia. Water samples were collected from a ...
Muscarella Lawrence F - - 2002
The routine sampling of environmental surfaces within a healthcare facility is generally not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), and several other healthcare organizations. There are a few circumstances, however, for which some organizations do recommend this ...
Rodriguez-Canul R - - 2002
The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of ...
Sobel Jeremy - - 2002
Deliberate contamination of food with biological agents has already been perpetrated in the USA. The US food supply is increasingly characterised by centralised production and wide distribution of products. Deliberate contamination of a commercial food product could cause an outbreak of disease, with many illnesses dispersed over wide geographical areas. ...
Isonhood Jamie H - - 2002
Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, ...
Bellido-Blasco Juan B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There are few studies about the effect of alcoholic beverages in food-borne disease outbreaks. METHODS: We studied this effect during an outbreak of Salmonella ohio infection that occurred in Castellón (Spain) in May 2000. S. ohio was isolated in stools of patients and also in implicated foods. RESULTS: Analysis ...
Meftahuddin T - - 2002
This paper examines the trend and possible contributing factors for the occurrence of the food borne diseases outbreaks in Malaysia. These diseases mainly are cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, dysentery and food poisoning. The outbreaks still occur sporadically in certain high risk areas throughout the country. The incidence rate of ...
Johansson P J Hugo - - 2002
An outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting 158 of 219 (72%) guests and employees at a hotel is described. Food served at the hotel restaurant is believed to have been the source of the outbreak and to have been contaminated by sick employees working in the restaurant. A secondary attack rate of ...
Hanson Jennifer A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To measure the association among Health Belief Model (HBM) variables and safe food-handling behaviors among older adults. DESIGN: A mail survey using Dillman's Total Design Method. SETTING: In October 1999, a survey was sent to volunteers from a preexisting cohort of noninstitutionalized older adults living throughout Nevada. Data collection ...
Wei H L - - 2002
On 6 May 2000, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at a high school, affecting 10 of the 356 students who attended the breakfast. Twenty-seven Staphylococcus aureus isolates, producing enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB-, or non-SEA-E, were recovered from 7 patients, 2 food handlers and left-overs. To investigate the outbreak, we ...
Buchholz U - - 2002
The majority of local health departments perform routine restaurant inspections. In Los Angeles County (LAC), California, approximately $10 million/year is spent on restaurant inspections. However, data are limited as to whether or not certain characteristics of restaurants make them more likely to be associated with foodborne incident reports. We used ...
Götz Hannelore - - 2002
In March 1999, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred affecting 30 day-care centres served by the same caterer. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 13 randomly selected day-care centres to determine the source and mode of transmission. Electron microscopy and PCR were used to verify the diagnosis. The overall attack ...
Stafford Russell J - - 2002
Between 30 May and 1 June 2001, 10 cases of Salmonella Bovismorbificans infection were reported to Public Health Services, Queensland Health. Investigations included enhanced surveillance, case interviews, a matched case control study, environmental audit and microbiological testing of faecal isolates (phage typing) and implicated food products. Forty-one cases of S. ...
Hundy Rebecca L - - 2002
In December 2001, the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch investigated an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness linked to a Korean style restaurant in metropolitan Adelaide. Twenty-eight people were identified as having experienced gastrointestinal symptoms subsequent to dining at the restaurant between 9 and 12 December 2001. A case-control study implicated ...
Smerdon W J - - 2001
Between 1992 and 1999, 1,426 foodborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) were reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC). Sixteen percent were linked with the consumption of red meat. Over 5,000 people were affected, with 186 hospital admissions and nine deaths. Beef ...
Kassa H - - 2001
In 1999, in Toledo, Ohio, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among people who had attended a Christmas dinner banquet and had eaten food prepared by a local caterer. Overall, 93 of the 137 attendees (67.9 percent) reported illness. Eight sought medical care, and one was hospitalized. Case-control studies revealed that ...
Lima A A - - 2001
Traveller's diarrhoea is the most common illness acquired by visitors to developing countries, affecting 20-50% of the 35 million people who travel from industrialized countries each year. Important risk factors include point of origin and destination of the traveller, host factors, and exposure to contaminated food and water. The most ...
Yarnell E - - 2001
The folk admonition to starve a fever may have a scientific basis. Fevers due to infectious organisms that produce neuraminidase (sialidase) may contribute to the pathophysiology of autoimmune conditions. Neuraminidase unmasks host cellular lectins that interact with food lectins and can induce human leukocyte antigen type II (HLA II) expression. ...
Katzenell U - - 2001
The purpose of this article is to define the distinguishing characteristics of food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis by reviewing the literature. The main cause of this infection lies in poor handling and preservation of cold salads, usually those which contain eggs and are prepared some hours before serving. A shorter incubation period ...
Moe C L - - 2001
Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are transmitted by fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, and person-to-person contact. They are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis epidemics in industrialized countries. NLV outbreaks are characterized by a 12- to 48-hour incubation period; nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea for 24 to 72 hours; and high secondary attack ...
Gulati B R - - 2001
Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are important causes of foodborne gastroenteritis in restaurant-related outbreaks. Efficacy of common disinfection methods against these viruses on food-contact surfaces and fresh produce is not known partially because of their nonculturability. Seven commercial disinfectants for food-contact surfaces and three sanitizers for fruits and vegetables were ...
Kalantan K A - - 2001
Identify the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers, and test the effectiveness of the current pre-employment screening policy. A cross sectional survey was carried out in the catchment areas of seven primary health care centres (PHCCs) to represent various sections of Riyadh city. A total of 700 ...
Mohle-Boetani J C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In California, from 1996 through 1998, more than 50% of multicounty outbreaks with confirmed food vehicles were related to alfalfa or clover sprouts. OBJECTIVE: To summarize investigations of sprout-associated outbreaks. DESIGN: Matched case-control studies. SETTING: California. PATIENTS: Outbreak-associated patients and matched population controls. MEASUREMENTS: Matched odds ratios and 95% ...
Richards G P - - 2001
Hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk-like caliciviruses, and astroviruses are among the enteric viruses known to cause food- and waterborne illness. These viruses are spread by the fecal-oral route and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Foods may be contaminated at any time pre- or post-harvest; ...
Schlundt J - - 2001
The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing. While in many developing nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths, the underlying problems have not been solved. In these countries, the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is ...
Bonner C - - 2001
Surveillance of general outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis was introduced in 1998 by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI), in co-operation with the eight health boards. A total of 67 general outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland were reported to the FSAI in 1998 and 1999. Over 1900 people were ill ...
Weber D J - - 2001
New and emerging infectious diseases pose a threat to public health and may be responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that have caused nosocomial infections via person-to-person transmission, environmental contamination, or contaminated water or food. Helicobacter pylori has been transmitted via inadequately disinfected endoscopes. ...
Cruz M A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the usefulness of restaurant inspections in predicting food-borne outbreaks in Miami-Dade County, Fla. METHODS: Inspection reports of restaurants with outbreaks in 1995 (cases; n = 51) were compared with those of randomly selected restaurants that had no reported outbreaks (controls; n = 76). RESULTS: ...
Karas J A JA Karas, Isaacson and Associates, PO Box 14566, Hatfield, 0028 - - 2001
To describe an outbreak of food poisoning at a major international sports event in Johannesburg and to determine the likely cause and source of the outbreak. A descriptive, case-control study. An international sports event in Johannesburg. A questionnaire survey of involved children was used to conduct a case-control study. Microbiological ...
Frost F J - - 2001
In 1996, serological responses to two Cryptosporidium antigens were determined for 200 Las Vegas (LV), Nevada, and 200 Albuquerque, New Mexico, blood donors to evaluate associations between endemic infections, water exposures, and other risk factors. LV uses chlorinated filtered drinking water from Lake Mead while Albuquerque uses chlorinated ground water. ...
Winquist A G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: In August 1997, campylobacteriosis was diagnosed in four older persons in one Connecticut town. We investigated this outbreak to determine its cause and to identify appropriate preventive measures. We also analyzed surveillance data to assess the impact of campylobacteriosis among persons age 65 years and older in Connecticut. DESIGN: ...
Briley R T - - 2001
On October 29, 1998, The Garland Health Department in Texas investigated seven illnesses at a church day school. The six children and one adult had handled hydrated, orange-colored rice before consuming a meal. B. cereus organisms were found in the rice at an estimated concentration of 5.6 x 10(5) per ...
Angelillo I F - - 2001
A survey was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes and related behavior on foodborne diseases and food-handling practices among consumers in one region of Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a random sample of mothers of children attending public schools. Of the 394 responding mothers, 36% knew about all the ...
Effler P - - 2001
Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, and Hawaii has the highest rate of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the nation. A case-control study was conducted to determine indigenous exposures that contribute to the high incidence of sporadic C. jejuni infection in Hawaii. A ...
Izumiyama S - - 2001
Fecal samples from 232 weaned piglets (1 and 3 months old) and 252 fattening porkers (6 months old) in 8 stock-raising farms located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from June 1998 to June 2000 were examined to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Detection of oocysts was performed using the ethyl ...
Tomaru Y - - 2001
Mass mortalities of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii have widely occurred in western Japan since 1994. The causes of these mass mortalities are at present not thoroughly understood. In this study, we investigated oyster survival in relation to some environmental factors such as water temperature, concentration of chlorophyll ...
Cacciò S - - 2001
Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be transmitted to humans by contaminated food and water, resulting in large outbreaks of diarrheal disease. Sensitive methods for detecting these parasites are needed to control and prevent infection. However, this issue is complicated by the fact that there is still uncertainty about the role played ...
Kadoi K - - 2001
Since human caliciviruses are responsible for viral gastroenteritis transmitted by contaminated foods and the viruses barely propagate in cell culture, feline caliciviruses were employed as a model for the measurement of their stability in marine water. Survival of four strains of feline calicivirus in marine water was measured when the ...
Ombui J N - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of foodborne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. STUDY SUBJECTS: Foodborne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter ...
Anantaphruti M T - - 2001
There is a wide variety of food products that may be contaminated with one or more parasites and consequently enabling transmission to human beings. The prevalence of specific parasites in food supplies varies between countries and regions. Sources of food-borne products contaminated with parasites are pigs, cattle, fish, crabs, crayfish, ...
Graczyk T K - - 2001
Fasciolopsiasis, endemic to the Orient and Southeast Asia, is a snail-transmitted, intestinal, food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by a trematode, Fasciolopsis buski, which also infects farm pigs. Fasciolopsiasis remains a public health problem despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, and environmental alterations. The ...
Khan A S - - 2001
Deliberate food and water contamination remains the easiest way to distribute biological or chemical agents for the purpose of terrorism, despite the national focus on dissemination of these agents as small-particle aerosols or volatile liquids. Moreover, biological terrorism as a result of sabotage of our food supply has already occurred ...
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