Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 963
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Marlet M V L - - 2003
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known to be endemic in Somalia along the basins of the (Middle) Shebelle and (Lower) Juba rivers, and in Kenya in parts of the Rift Valley, on the border with Uganda and the Eastern Provinces. From May 2000 to August 2001, we diagnosed 904 patients with ...
Laprevotte Ivan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was described in the United Kingdom. It is often claimed that it is caused by consumption of food infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, this remains open to question because the number of cases of the variant is, at the ...
Gaze Rosangela - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5%) from Belém, 123 ...
- - 2003
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted typically from person to person by the fecal-oral route. Foodborne transmission occurs when an HAV-infected food handler contaminates food during preparation or when food is contaminated during harvesting or processing before reaching the food service establishment or home. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with immune globulin ...
Cowden J - - 2003
An outbreak of salmonellosis, involving cases of infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage types (PT) 5c and 6a, occurred across Scotland between May and August 2000. In total, 70 outbreak cases were microbiologically confirmed. Preliminary investigation suggested that consumption of food, especially chicken dishes, from Chinese restaurants or take-aways (food businesses) ...
Matson David O - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caliciviruses are a major cause of human illness, and are listed as category B pathogens according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases classification of pathogens important for biodefense. Caliciviruses are commonly encountered in contaminated food and water, and a large variety has been implicated ...
Nimri Laila F - - 2003
Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis have emerged as important causes of epidemic and endemic diarrhea in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The exact modes of transmission in certain rural areas are still unclear. Reports of water-borne and food-borne outbreaks suggest that fecally contaminated water or food acts as a vehicle of ...
Peterson Michael C - - 2003
An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis occurred among people who had attended a meal where raw milk was served. A case control study was conducted using instances of illness as cases; those who attended the event but did not become ill served as controls. Thirteen of 20 people who had ...
Tansel Ozlem - - 2003
This study was designed to define the epidemiology of a food-borne outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis that affected only one squadron of a military battalion located in the vicinity of the city of Edirne in Turkey. The outbreak was analyzed by a standard surveillance form of the Centers for Disease ...
Heggestad Torhild - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of choosing different time-intervals of observation when using unplanned readmissions as an outcome indicator. DESIGN: A conceptual model was developed based on the risk curve. The model assigned readmissions above a background level as 'related' to the earlier episode of illness. The characteristics of the ...
Hussein Hussein S - - 2003
Worldwide, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) have been recognized as the cause of many sporadic cases or major outbreaks of human illnesses involving consumption of contaminated meat, especially beef. Although sheep products have not been linked to reported human illnesses, their role as a food safety risk factor should not be ...
Djordjevic M - - 2003
Over the past decade, eastern Europe has experienced a resurgence of trichinellosis. A recent outbreak in Serbia, Yugoslavia, from December 2001 to January 2002, involving 309 people, revealed many of the causes for this reemergence. Epidemiological investigations indicate that the immediate cause of the recent outbreak was the consumption of ...
Naimi Timothy S - - 2003
In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, ...
Linneberg Allan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Seropositivity to food-borne and orofecal microorganisms (hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, and Toxoplasma gondii ), which are considered to be markers of poor hygiene, has been reported to be associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. In contrast, colonization of the gut with Clostridium difficile, a potential intestinal bacterial ...
Hayes Celia - - 2003
Public health and food safety experts estimate that millions of episodes of illnesses annually can be traced to contaminated food and water. Food and water safety is extremely important to persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A compromised immune system causes people ...
Horby P W - - 2003
Between 1 August and 15 September 2000, 361 cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, spectinomycin and tetracycline (R-type ACSSuSpT), were identified in England and Wales residents. Molecular typing of 258 isolates of S. Typhimurium DT104 R-type ACSSuSpT showed that, ...
Gill Christopher J - - 2003
Based on in vitro data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends chemical disinfection of raw sprout seeds to reduce enteric pathogens contaminating the seed coats. However, little is known about the effectiveness of decontamination at preventing human disease. In 1999, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka occurred in ...
Hutin Yvan - - 2003
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for cholera during an outbreak in Nigeria. Cases were defined as recent onset of acute diarrhoea with dehydration in a patient hospitalised at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kano City. Meningitis patients admitted concurrently at the same hospital were ...
Levy Michael - - 2003
An outbreak of tonsillopharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes occurred among inmates of a rural correctional center in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 72 (28%) of 256 inmates became ill in December 1999. S. pyogenes type M-75, T-25, which was opacity factor positive, was isolated from throat swab specimens ...
Mao Ying - - 2003
Foodborne infections are estimated to affect one in four Americans each year. Most these (67%) are caused by the Norwalk-like viruses, but Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonellae together account for about one fourth of cases of illness in which a pathogen can be detected. Less common bacterial infections, such as with ...
Cartwright R Y - - 2003
The surveillance and prevention of food and waterborne infections in package holiday tourists relies more on common sense and experience rather than evidence based scientific facts. In spite of the major economic value to both sending and receiving countries it is a problem that is largely ignored by health departments ...
Faustini A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: More thorough information about risks, exposures and vehicles of food borne diseases can be obtained from epidemiological field investigations than from infectious disease reports or laboratory data. METHODS: We analysed the results of 410 field investigations of food borne disease outbreaks reported from 1996 to 2000 and conducted as ...
Hollmén Tuula E - - 2003
We examined 10 common eider (Somateria mollissima) males found dead in 1998 during a die-off in the northern Baltic Sea off the southwestern coast of Finland. We diagnosed impaction of the posterior small intestine with mucosal necrosis as the cause of death in all 10 and isolated adenoviruses from cloacal ...
Tsai Ming-Jun - - 2003
BACKGROUND: On December 26, 2002, 124 dinners took ill while eating lunch at a seafood restaurant in the town of Chiching in Kaohsiung municipality of Taiwan. Sixty-nine people were sent to the emergency departments of the Municipal Chiching Hospital and Yuan's General Hospital. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical symptoms, detailed ...
Bloomfield Sally F - - 2003
The need to place "prevention through hygiene" at the core of strategies for infection prevention has been emphasised by recent events. Indications are that re-evaluation of current practice and the promotion of improved hygiene in the domestic setting could have a significant impact in reducing infectious disease. If the public ...
Cruz Licea Verónica - - 2003
Blastocystis hominis is a pathogenic protozoon that lives in the human bowel and causes diarrhea: the mode of transmission is a passive one, through the ingestion of stool-contaminated water or foods that contain infective forms of the parasite. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of Blastocystis ...
Allerberger F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although the microbiological safety of food has improved, food-borne disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis attributed to chicken meat, affecting five out of six people attending a private barbecue party in Germany. Patients ...
Raupach Jane C A - - 2003
Campylobacter infection is one of the most commonly reported foodborne diseases in Australia however, reported Campylobacter outbreaks are rare. This report describes such an outbreak among delegates attending a 10 day international academic meeting in South Australia during May 2001. A retrospective cohort study of the 29 delegates who attended ...
- - 2002
Three multistate outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Poona infections associated with eating cantaloupe imported from Mexico occurred in the spring of consecutive years during 2000-2002. In each outbreak, the isolates had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns; the PFGE patterns observed in the 2000 and 2002 outbreaks were indistinguishable, but the ...
Gelli Dilma Scala - - 2002
Laboratory investigation of botulism from 1982 to 2001 confirmed the occurrence of eight positive outbreaks/cases of botulism in Brazil. From those, type A botulism was observed in seven of them. Biological material of one case (serum and feces) was positive in the first step of the bioassay, but the amount ...
Kohl K S - - 2002
Salmonellosis is the leading cause of death caused by foodborne bacterial pathogens in the United States. Approximately 90% of salmonella infections are sporadic, but most of what is known about salmonellosis has come from outbreak investigations. We studied the risk for sporadic salmonellosis among 115 persons aged > or = ...
Haddock Robert L - - 2002
During April, 2000, the island of Pohnpei began experiencing an outbreak of cholera and during June and July of the same year four cases of cholera representing 3 separate introduction events were identified on Guam. Two of these events were associated with eating reef fish imported from Pohnpei. Following the ...
Döller Peter C - - 2002
This outbreak is the first foodborne cyclosporiasis outbreak reported from central Europe. The illness was reported in 34 persons who attended luncheons at a German restaurant. The overall attack rate was 85% (34/40). The only foods associated with significant disease risk were two salad side dishes prepared from lettuce imported ...
Mullen Laura A - - 2002
Two outbreaks of infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage types 5c and 6a occurred in a number of Scottish health board areas between May 2000 and January 2001. A case-control study of food businesses was subsequently carried out to ascertain whether the scores derived from Environmental Health Officers' inspections prior to ...
Henrick Clive A - - 2002
Evidence that amphibian deformities are on the rise has prompted a number of researchers to question a variety of natural and man-made substances, including chemicals such as s-methoprene (trademark Altosid), an insect growth regulator applied to water bodies for mosquito control. Despite conclusions reached by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ...
Gaulin Colette - - 2002
In the aftermath of a party, 70% (25 of 36) of attendees had gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were to identify a risk factor associated with the food during the banquet and to identify measures of control for avoiding this kind of outbreak in the future. A retrospective cohort ...
Bresee Joseph S - - 2002
Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are estimated to be the most common causes of foodborne disease in the United States, accounting for two-thirds of all food-related illnesses. The epidemiologic features and disease burden associated with NLVs have, until recently, been poorly understood because of the lack of sensitive detection assays and the ...
Buchholz Udo - - 2002
CONTEXT: On January 5, 1999, the California Department of Health Services was notified of the repeated occurrence (December 21, 1998, and January 2, 1999) of gastrointestinal tract illness among patrons at a Thai restaurant in central California. OBJECTIVE: To identify the source of the outbreak. DESIGN: Case-control study; microbiological and ...
Dillingham Rebecca A - - 2002
Cryptosporidium was first recognized in humans in 1976 and came to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s as a cause of severe diarrheal illness in patients with AIDS. Its hardy, chlorine-resistant oocysts, tiny size, low infectious dose, fully infectious development when shed and zoonotic potential make it a threat in ...
Ho Alice Y - - 2002
An outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred in attendees of a wedding reception held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on June 10, 2000. In a retrospective cohort study, 54 (68.4%) of the 79 interviewed guests and members of the wedding party met the case definition. The wedding cake, which had a cream filling that ...
Lukinmaa Susanna - - 2002
From 1975 to 1999, Clostridium perfringens caused 238 food-borne disease outbreaks in Finland, which is 20% of all such reported outbreaks during these years. The fact that C. perfringens is commonly found in human and animal stools and that it is also widespread in the environment is a disadvantage when ...
Kasowski Eric J - - 2002
Foodborne illnesses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, primarily as gastroenteritis but occasionally as other syndromes as well. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of widely known infectious agents, principally viruses, and are probably the result of common mistakes in food handling ...
Daniels Nicholas A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks in schools and to identify where preventive measures could be targeted. METHODS: Reports by state and local health departments of foodborne disease outbreaks occurring in primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities from January 1, ...
Wiedmann Martin - - 2002
Phenotype-based and DNA-based subtyping methods allow for differentiation of bacterial isolates beyond the species and subspecies level. Bacterial subtyping methods not only have improved our ability to detect and track foodbome disease outbreaks, but also represent tools to track sources of bacterial contamination throughout the food system. The use of ...
Katz Dolores J - - 2002
An outbreak of typhoid fever in Florida involving at least 16 persons during the winter of 1998-99 was investigated using case-control, environmental, and laboratory methods. The genomic profiles of Salmonella serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) isolates from the 15 confirmed case subjects were identical. Consumption of fruit shakes made with frozen ...
Longini Ira M IM - - 2002
Despite nearly 200 years of study, the mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of endemic cholera and the causes of periodic epidemics remain poorly understood. To investigate these patterns, cholera data collected over 33 years (1966-1998) in Matlab, Bangladesh, were analyzed. Time-lagged autocorrelations were stratified by Vibrio cholerae serogroup, serotype, and ...
Shane A L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: In late 1996, a multinational investigation was launched following an outbreak of diarrheal illness that caused the disruption of an international scientific conference at a first-class hotel in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all American and to selected international attendees. Additional copies of the questionnaire ...
Koopmans Marion - - 2002
Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a ...
Peipins Lucy A - - 2002
In May and June 1999, an outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness occurred among long-distance hikers on the Appalachian Trail between Catawba and Troutville, Virginia. An investigation found that 45 out of 70 hikers had become ill within two days of arriving in Catawba, Virginia. Water samples were collected from a ...
Muscarella Lawrence F - - 2002
The routine sampling of environmental surfaces within a healthcare facility is generally not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), and several other healthcare organizations. There are a few circumstances, however, for which some organizations do recommend this ...
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