Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 983
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van Strien Tatjana - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To improve our understanding of possible mechanisms underlying emotional overeating this study examined the effects of a distress manipulation on food intake in relation to alexithymia and impulsivity. METHOD: Participants were 86 females who were subjected to a distress manipulation (the anticipation of a public speaking task) prior to ...
Friederich Hans-Christoph - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Abnormal perceptions of food and shape underpin the cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to investigate motivational processing of disorder-specific and standard emotional cues in anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) using startle eyeblink modulation (SEM). SEM was used because it is ...
Hetherington Marion M - - 2006
Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone ...
Worsfold Denise - - 2006
The purpose of this investigation was to improve the understanding of the public's perception of hygiene standards in eating places and their knowledge of the inspection system. A telephone survey found that despite many claiming experience of food poisoning, and a widely held belief that using eating places may result ...
Geier Andrew B - - 2006
People seem to think that a unit of some entity (with certain constraints) is the appropriate and optimal amount. We refer to this heuristic as unit bias. We illustrate unit bias by demonstrating large effects of unit segmentation, a form of portion control, on food intake. Thus, people choose, and ...
Stevenson Clifford - - 2007
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. ...
Whiteside Ursula - - 2007
The current study evaluated whether difficulties regulating emotions explained unique variance in binge eating and examined which types of emotion regulation difficulties are most strongly associated with binge eating. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were completed by 695 undergraduates. Hierarchical regression results indicated ...
van den Bos Ruud - - 2006
Evolutionary explanations of overeating in modern society emphasize that humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is available. The present paper challenges the idea that eating is driven by the availability of food only and proposes that it is regulated by strategic anticipatory behaviour in service ...
Galloway Amy T AT Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA. - - 2006
The authors examined whether pressuring preschoolers to eat would affect food intake and preferences, using a repeated-measures experimental design. In the experimental condition, children were pressured to eat by a request to finish their food. We collected intake data, heights and weights, child-feeding practices data, and children's comments about the ...
Audebert Olivier - - 2006
Iron-deficient young women who are at risk of anaemia should be advised to eat red meat, a good food source of iron. However, red meat is known to elicit negative attitudes among young women, which could lead to low meat consumption. Several factors can contribute to meat attitudes. We therefore ...
Gibson Edward Leigh EL Clinical and Health Psychology Research Centre, School of Human and Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College, Holybourne Avenue, London SW15 4JD, UK. - - 2006
Sensory, physiological and psychological mechanisms are reviewed that underlie emotional influences on food choice. Both moods and emotions are considered. Eating a meal will reliably alter mood and emotional predisposition, typically reducing arousal and irritability, and increasing calmness and positive affect. However, this depends on the meal size and composition ...
Lennie Terry A - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Promoting adequate nutritional intake of patients with heart failure (HF) is an essential component of comprehensive management. This goal can be hampered by decreased appetite, as well as psychological, social, and HF-related factors that can affect food intake. Factors related to aging may also affect food ...
van Strien Tatjana - - 2006
In 4 empirical studies, E. Stice, M. Fisher, and M. R. Lowe calculated the correlations between some widely used dietary restraint scales and food intake. Failing to find substantial negative correlations, they concluded that these scales were invalid. The current article challenges this conclusion. For one thing, there is some ...
Ciangherotti S - - 2006
Eating behaviour was studied, between 1985 and 2000, in three groups of volunteers, homogeneous in age and sex. Groups comprised 320 young, 450 adult and 230 elderly University students. Frequency of meals, food portion consumption and preferences, nutritional status, anthropometric indices and physical activity were assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2006
Decreased variety within a meal reduces intake, which is hypothesized to be due to sensory-specific satiety. This study examined whether reduced variety across days also influences food hedonics and intake. Twenty-one, non-obese, college-aged, dietarily unrestrained males were randomized to one of two conditions: a Same Snack condition in which they ...
Outila Terhi A - - 2006
In this study we have developed a new way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods. In the developed method, ready-to-eat foods were classified into specific product categories, and the nutritional quality of classified foods was analysed using the national dietary recommendations and the national dietary survey as a basis ...
Esch Tobias T Division of Integrative Health Promotion, University of Applied Sciences, Coburg, - - 2006
Over the last decades, the importance of food in the development of chronic diseases has been examined, as well as the medical value of eating healthy. The contribution of the eating process itself to health and well-being, however, has not been questioned until most recently. Biology has linked eating to ...
Monro Fiona J - - 2006
This study examined the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's eating behavior. The study compared the effects for high and low self-objectifiers. 72 female university students participated in this experiment. Six magazine advertisements featuring idealized female models were used as the experimental stimuli, and the same six advertisements ...
Hetherington Marion M - - 2006
Variety stimulates intake by as much as 40% following both simultaneous and sequential presentations. Varying sensory and other characteristics of foods could sustain interest in eating and delay the development of satiation. Two experiments set out to explore this by investigating the effect of introducing different foods to taste and ...
Foley, Wendy Lynne
Approaching the diabetes problem through an in-depth, multi-generational study of&#13;Indigenous Australians&#146; food practices and experiences of nutrition promotion for&#13;diabetes management, this socially situated research contrasts with the individualistic&#13;biomedical dietary discourse presented in much of the literature. Dietary change is&#13;mostly discussed in the literature abstracted from the domestic struggles that such&#13;change ...
Foley, Wendy Lynne
Approaching the diabetes problem through an in-depth, multi-generational study of Indigenous Australians’ food practices and experiences of nutrition promotion for diabetes management, this socially situated research contrasts with the individualistic biomedical dietary discourse presented in much of the literature. Dietary change is mostly discussed in the literature abstracted from the ...
Yannakoulia Mary - - 2006
Nutrition intervention is an integral part of type 2 diabetes care. Dietary management entails a series of eating behavior changes regarding meal planning, food selection, food preparation, dining out, portion control, as well as appropriate responses to eating challenges. Diabetic patients encounter several difficulties in complying with the dietary regime. ...
Drummond Sandra - - 2006
Conflicting messages about diet in the media, including publicity for "fad" diets, tend to distort the public's understanding of healthy eating. Several myths also persist, such as "skipping meals is a good way to lose weight," "all fats are bad" or "carbohydrates should be limited when trying to lose weight" ...
Fox Mary Kay - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To examine average portion sizes consumed per eating occasion by infants and toddlers. Average portions reported for toddlers were compared to average portions for comparably aged children reported in the 1994 to 1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. In addition, reported average portions were compared ...
Shtonda Boris Borisovich BB Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. - - 2006
Animals have evolved diverse behaviors that serve the purpose of finding food in the environment. We investigated the food seeking strategy of the soil bacteria-eating nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans bacterial food varies in quality: some species are easy to eat and support worm growth well, while others do not. ...
Geliebter Allan A Department of Medicine, New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025, USA. - - 2006
Functional neuroimaging was employed to study 10 obese and 10 lean healthy young right-handed women, divided equally into binge and non-binge eaters. Subjects were presented with visual and auditory stimuli of binge type foods, non-binge type foods, and non-food stimuli in the fMRI scanner. Brain areas activated by both the ...
Hubel R - - 2006
The universal eating monitor (UEM) of Kissileff for laboratory measurement of food intake was modified and used with a newly developed special software to compute cumulative intake data. To explore the measurement precision of the UEM an investigation of test-retest-reliability of food intake parameters was conducted. The intake characteristics of ...
Elfhag K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviour in obese patients. METHOD: The participants were 45 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39 kg/m2. Eating behaviour was measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) also taking the subscales Flexible Control and Rigid Control ...
Lands William E M - - 2005
Every year, more young people start the slow progressive injury that eventually becomes cardiovascular disease and death. It could be prevented with nutrition education, but medical efforts focus more on treatments for older people than on preventing primary causes of disease in young people. Two avoidable risks are prevented by ...
Levitsky David A - - 2005
Few doubt that human feeding behavior is part of larger biology regulatory system of energy stores, but the extent to which eating behavior is controlled by these biology systems and how much is due to responses to environmental stimuli is presently under debate. The results of a series of studies ...
Rozin Paul - - 2005
Humans are biologically adapted to their ancestral food environment in which foods were dispersed and energy expenditure was required to obtain them. The modern developed world has a surplus of very accessible, inexpensive food. Amid the enormous variety of different foods are "super" foods, such as chocolate, which are particularly ...
Lewinsohn Peter M PM Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA. - - 2005
We incorporated selected items from several existing instruments to create a comprehensive multifactorial instrument to measure problematic eating behaviors in young children and to examine the prevalences and correlates of these behaviors. A community sample of young mothers (N = 93) completed the inventory of problematic eating behaviors for their ...
Shafran Roz R Oxford University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. - - 2006
The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high ...
Shepherd J - - 2006
A systematic review was conducted to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, healthy eating among young people (11-16 years). The review focused on the wider determinants of health, examining community- and society-level interventions. Seven outcome evaluations and eight studies of young people's views were included. The effectiveness of the ...
Herman C Peter - - 2005
Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. ...
Addessi Elsa - - 2005
Social influences have been shown to be very important to overcome food neophobia in young children. However, there is no experimental evidence about whether social influences on food acceptance are specific, that is if models eating the same food as the child are more effective in promoting food acceptance than ...
Dubé Laurette - - 2005
It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and ...
Herscovici Cecile R - - 2005
The objective of this paper is to describe the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in Argentina, in a randomly assigned national community-based sample of 1,231 girls and 740 boys in primary care, aged 10 to 19.9. A two-stage design was followed; subjects were screened with a self-report measure (EDE-Q4), and ...
Boggiano Mary M - - 2005
The authors developed an animal model of binge eating where history of caloric restriction with footshock stress (R + S) causes rats to consume twice the normal amount of palatable food. The authors tested the hypothesis that binge eating is mediated by changes in opioid control of feeding by comparing ...
Rousset S - - 2005
Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which is itself determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust with red meat is common in women and can lead to reduced meat consumption. We tested the hypothesis that low meat intake is related to different negative ...
Herman C Peter - - 2005
Dyads composed of unacquainted females watched a video while snacking on pizza. Their extraversion and self-monitoring scores were used to predict the extent to which individuals within dyads matched each other's food intake. Matching of intake was high irrespective of the personality composition of the dyad. We consider elements of ...
Corwin Rebecca L RL Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 126 S. Henderson, University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2006
Intermittent excessive behaviors (IEB) characterize a variety human disorders including binge eating, drug abuse, alcoholism, aberrant sexual conduct, and compulsive gambling. Clinical co-morbidity exists among IEB, and limited treatment options are available. The use of behavioral models of bingeing and other feeding protocols is beginning to clarify neural similarities and ...
Smith Kyle S KS Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. - - 2005
How are natural reward functions such as sucrose hedonic impact and the motivation to eat generated within the ventral pallidum (VP)? Here, we used a novel microinjection and functional mapping procedure to neuroanatomically localize and neurochemically characterize substrates in the VP that mediate increases in eating behavior and enhancements in ...
Scherwitz Larry - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To broaden the perspective on the causes of overeating, overweight, and obesity and provide cross-cultural, comprehensive treatment approaches. BACKGROUND: Through food-related research into the world's wisdom traditions, cultural traditions, Eastern healing systems, and Western nutritional science, the authors present recurrent themes derived from ways in which cultures regarded, experienced, ...
Bernstein Daniel M - - 2005
We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ...
Ristovski-Slijepcevic S - - 2005
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although considered to be an important component of food choice, perceptions and practices regarding healthy eating vary between people and change over the life-course. The purpose of this paper is to examine integration and individuality in healthy eating meanings, values, and approaches of individuals in childless, dual ...
Hall Denise M - - 2005
In well-controlled feeding studies, participants are expected to adhere to a strict diet by consuming only and all foods provided by the research kitchen. They may find adherence more of a challenge with certain study design features. To assess this we mailed a post-study anonymous questionnaire to participants who had ...
Hancock Stephanie D - - 2005
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by intermittent, discrete periods of uncontrollable consumption during which huge quantities of high-fat food are eaten. The onset of BED occurs most frequently in adolescent or young adult females and is often associated with a history of dieting and psychological stress. Animal research suggests ...
Stutts Jane - - 2005
Unobtrusive video camera units were installed in the vehicles of 70 volunteer drivers over 1-week time periods to study drivers' exposure to distractions. The video data were coded based on a detailed taxonomy of driver distractions along with important contextual variables and driving performance measures. Results show distractions to be ...
Wudy Stefan A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), studies investigating body mass index (BMI) or parameters of satiety regulation are scarce, and studies analyzing eating behavior are lacking. METHODS: We recruited 214 children (123 index cases and 91 siblings) with ISS from 123 families. Affected children had to have a ...
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