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Results 301 - 350 of 981
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Schwarz Judith - - 2007
There is an acknowledged difficulty in distinguishing between some morally and legally accepted acts that hasten dying, such as refusing life-sustaining treatment, and other acts that also hasten dying that are labeled as acts of "suicide." Recent empirical findings suggest that most terminally ill and suffering patients who voluntarily chose ...
Kluge Michael - - 2007
The second generation antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine frequently induce weight gain. Randomized studies investigating abnormal eating behavior (food craving, binge eating) possibly associated with weight gain are lacking. Thirty patients with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder were included in this randomized, double-blind, parallel study comparing abnormal eating behavior using a ...
Elfhag Kristina - - 2008
Personality traits can give a fuller understanding for eating behaviors in obesity. The objective was to describe eating behavior (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) in terms of the Big Five personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) in obesity patients (n=442). Emotional eating was strongly positively associated to Neuroticism, in particular impulsiveness and ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session ...
Downey La Vonne A - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The use of restraints to manage patients in the emergency department (ED) is controversial. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO) and numerous advocacy groups have pushed for the use of alternatives to restraints. The need to protect the patients' rights while also reducing the risks they ...
Boakes Robert A - - 2007
Rats given the combination of unrestricted access to an activity wheel and restricted access to food can lose weight to the extent that they will die unless removed from these conditions. Although this has been known for forty years, why this happens has remained unclear. The phenomenon is paradoxical in ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2008
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 ...
Kissileff Harry R HR St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10025, USA. hrk2@columbia.edu - - 2008
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate ...
Gomel Jessica N - - 2007
Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to ...
Dovey Terence M - - 2008
Two factors have been shown to contribute to rejection or acceptance of fruits and vegetables: food neophobia and 'picky/fussy' eating. Food neophobia is generally regarded as the reluctance to eat, or the avoidance of, new foods. In contrast, 'picky/fussy' eaters are usually defined as children who consume an inadequate variety ...
Therrien Fanny - - 2008
Awakening cortisol response was measured in 78 men and women, on 3 mornings within a 2-month period. Psychosocial and eating behavior variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires on anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), body esteem (Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults), and eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating ...
Lohse Barbara - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Assess validity of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI) to measure eating competence (EC). DESIGN: Concurrent administration of ecSI with validated measures of eating behaviors using on-line and paper-pencil formats. SETTING: The on-line survey was completed by 370 participants; 462 completed the paper version. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 863 adults with 832 ...
Satter Ellyn - - 2007
The evidence- and practice-based Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) outlines an inclusive definition of the interrelated spectrum of eating attitudes and behaviors. The model is predicated on the utility and effectiveness of biopsychosocial processes: hunger and the drive to survive, appetite and the need for subjective reward and the biological ...
Ouwens M A - - 2007
The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and hardly ever in studies that used ...
Stotts Jodi L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI), a measure of eating competence. DESIGN: Self-report questionnaires were administered in person or by mail. Retesting occurred 2 to 6 weeks after completion of the first questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Both administrations of the questionnaire were completed by 259 participants who were ...
Levine Marc S - - 2007
The purpose of our investigation was to assess the stomachs of a world-class speed-eating champion and of a control subject during a speed-eating test in our gastrointestinal fluoroscopy suite to determine how competitive speed eaters are able to eat so much so fast. Our observations suggest that successful speed eaters ...
Desmet Pieter M A - - 2008
Emotions experienced by healthy individuals in response to tasting or eating food were examined in two studies. In the first study, 42 participants reported the frequency with which 22 emotion types were experienced in everyday interactions with food products, and the conditions that elicited these emotions. In the second study, ...
Van Strien Tatjana - - 2008
The present study addressed the possible mediating effects of overeating tendencies in (a) the relationship of dietary restraint with intake of energy and (b) the relationships of changes in dietary restraint and changes in intake of energy and (saturated) fat across a 4-year period. Participants were patients with newly diagnosed ...
Salvy Sarah-Jeanne SJ Department of Pediatrics, Division of Behavioral Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York 14214-3000, USA. - - 2008
Although most eating occurs in a social context, the impact of peer influence on child food consumption and selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks has not been the object of systematic experimental study. The present experiment assessed the effects of peer interaction on energy intake and food choices in 18 ...
Ashcroft J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To discover whether eating behaviour traits show continuity and stability over childhood. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Mothers of 428 twin children from the Twins Early Development Study participated in a study of eating and weight in 1999 when the children were 4 years old. Families were contacted again in 2006 when the ...
Mills Jennifer S - - 2008
The present study examined the effects of the perceived caloric content of a preload on the eating behaviour of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions in which they ingested an isocaloric milkshake preload presented as either high or low in calories, ...
Markman Arthur B - - 2007
In this study, the authors examined (a) the effect of changes in the need to eat on expressed preferences for foods that are appropriate for different times of day and (b) whether that need is directed toward food in general or foods contextually appropriate to the time of day. Previous ...
Roblin Lynn - - 2007
The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie ...
Moore Julie - - 2007
ISSUE ADDRESSED: The aim of this paper was to examine the eating behaviours, physical exercise and television viewing of secondary school students, and to investigate their relationship with parental monitoring and family cohesion. METHOD: The study was conducted at a secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2005. Questionnaires were ...
Mayer Birgit - - 2008
In the present study, the hypothesized causal relationship between disgust and eating pathology was investigated. Female undergraduates were either assigned to an experimental condition in which feelings of disgust were induced by means of a bad smelling odorant, or to a control condition in which no such disgust manipulation was ...
Macht Michael - - 2008
Despite the importance of affective processes in eating behaviour, it remains difficult to predict how emotions affect eating. Emphasizing individual differences, previous research did not pay full attention to the twofold variability of emotion-induced changes of eating (variability across both individuals and emotions). By contrast, the present paper takes into ...
Nordgren Loran F - - 2007
Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to ...
Nitzke Susan - - 2007
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. ...
McNamara Caroline - - 2008
We aimed to assess and compare emotional responses to different foods in relationship to eating disorder and associated features, across gender and age groups. We hypothesized that negative emotional responses to images of foods would be higher in (i) those with higher body dissatisfaction and (ii) older females. Five hundred ...
Sims Regina - - 2008
Previous studies have reported that psychological stress is associated with greater food consumption, particularly consumption of high fat foods. We are unaware of any studies that have examined stress-induced eating among African Americans (AAs). The goals of the current study were to examine the relationship between perceived stress and high ...
Mohr Philip - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify key predictors of fast-food consumption from a range of demographic, attitudinal, personality and lifestyle variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a nationwide survey (n = 20 527) conducted in Australia by Nielsen Media Research. Items assessing frequency of fast-food consumption at (1) eat in and (2) take ...
Liu Chunhong - - 2007
The aim of the study was to explore the association between perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency. A self-administered questionnaire that included the perceived stress scale, the depression scale and dietary intake was used in the baseline survey of a cohort study of 2579 local college students over 7 ...
Akamatsu Rie - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine how Japanese workers (n= 391) think about "eating a balanced diet" daily. Respondents were 263 men and 128 women whose mean age was 43.1 yr. (SD= 10.9). Content analysis was used to analyze qualitatively responses to a survey. Responses were categorized into ...
Cowan Jennifer - - 2008
Dysfunctional eating patterns and excessive weight gains have been observed during recovery from drug and alcohol addictions. Yet, little is known about food choice behaviors among substance abusers and the role that food plays in their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand how men at different stages ...
Macht Michael - - 2007
In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate ...
Smith Steven R SR Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, - - 2007
Evidence from rodent studies indicates that the beta-cell-derived neurohormone amylin exerts multiple effects on eating behavior, including reductions in meal size, intake of highly palatable foods, and stress-induced sucrose consumption. To assess the effect of amylin agonism on human eating behavior we conducted a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigating ...
Bağci Bosi A Tülay - - 2007
This study has been carried out to "identify highly sensitive behavior on healthy nutrition (orthorexia nervosa-ON)" in residence medical doctors (MD) in the Faculty of Medicine. Diagnoses of ON was based on the presence of a disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality. The study is a cross-sectional research, which reached out to ...
Kosa Katherine M - - 2007
Consumers are relying increasingly on ready-to-eat (RTE) foods because they are convenient, quick, and easy. Open dates let consumers know by which date to purchase or use RTE foods for best quality. To further characterize consumer knowledge and use of open dates for specific refrigerated RTE foods (smoked seafood, cooked ...
Petrovich Gorica D GD Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States. - - 2007
Motivation plays an important role in the control of food intake. This review will focus on recent findings using a neural systems analysis of a behavioral model for learned motivational control of eating. In this model, environmental cues that acquire motivational properties through Pavlovian conditioning can subsequently override satiety and ...
Lowe Michael R - - 2007
An increasing proportion of human food consumption appears to be driven by pleasure, not just by the need for calories. In addition to its effects on body mass and health, the food environment in affluent societies may be creating an appetitive counterpart to the psychological effects of other hedonically-driven activities ...
van Strien Tatjana - - 2007
This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n = 596). External eating turned out ...
Martin Corby K - - 2007
This study tested a central tenet of behavioral weight control: does slower eating rate reduce food intake and positively affect appetite ratings. This study used direct behavioral observation of participants' (n=48; 25BMI35) eating behavior using Universal Eating Monitors. Food intake and ratings of "desire to eat" (collected each minute during ...
Chung Sukyung - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to understand how the retirement decisions of older Americans influence household food consumption patterns by gender and, in turn, to examine the impact of the change in food consumption on weight. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This study used five waves of the Health and Retirement Study ...
Sabbatini Gloria - - 2007
We investigated responses toward novel foods and novel objects by wild capuchins that routinely exploit visitors' foods in Brasília National Park. Given the capuchins' daily exposure to human foods and objects, we expected them to be more explorative toward novel foods and objects compared to capuchins that are not habituated ...
Shragge Jeremy E - - 2007
The psychosocial strategies used by advanced cancer patients to manage anorexia are poorly described. A greater understanding of them may guide clinicians to provide appropriate interventions to patients and caregivers. METHODS: Glaserian Grounded Theory was used to recruit and analyse data from two women and seven men with advanced cancer ...
Schweitzer Dave H - - 2007
Eating behavior is determined by a balance of memories in terms of reward and punishment to satisfy the urge to consume food. Refilling empty energy stores and hedonistic motivation are rewarding aspects of eating. Overfeeding, associated adverse GI effects, and obesity implicate punishment. In the current review, evidence is given ...
Blake C E CE Division of Nutritional Sciences, Martha Van Rensselaer Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. - - 2007
This project examined adults' food cognitions by applying schema theory to explain how adults categorized foods for different contexts. Qualitative interviews and repeated card sort activities for different eating contexts were conducted to elicit as many food categories as possible from 42 US adults. Participants labeled card sort piles with ...
Nguyen-Michel Selena T - - 2007
To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency ...
Hilbert A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: While restrained eating is one of the most well-established risk factors of eating disorders in females, its role for eating disturbances in males remains largely unclear. The present study investigates eating behaviour in response to food cues and negative cognitions in male restrained eaters. METHODS: Twenty-four restrained eaters and ...
Cheng Shu-Li - - 2007
This paper examines some central themes about change in consumption behaviour through an empirical investigation of the practice of eating. It analyses patterns of food consumption in the UK using time diary data from 1975 and 2000. The practice of eating is decomposed into four component activities which are used ...
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