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Results 251 - 300 of 969
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Anschutz Doeschka J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. DESIGN: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched either ...
Nikendei C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive processing of food cues is considered pivotal in the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. However, the influence of hunger and differences in processing because of the type of stimuli remain largely unclear. METHOD: Memory bias for food-related pictorial and semantic stimuli was assessed in a recognition and a free ...
Hoefling Atilla - - 2008
In this study, restrained and unrestrained eaters' immediate evaluations of high calorie content and low calorie content were measured, both when being deprived of food and when satiated. As an indirect measure, the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) [De Houwer, J. (2003). The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task. Experimental Psychology, 50, ...
Södersten P - - 2008
Outcome in anorexia nervosa remains poor and a new way of looking at this condition is therefore needed. To this aim, we review the effects of food restriction and starvation in humans. It is suggested that body weight remains stable and relatively low when the access to food requires a ...
Wansink Brian - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the eating behaviors of people at all-you-can-eat Chinese buffets differs depending upon their body mass. The resulting findings could confirm or disconfirm previous laboratory research that has been criticized for being artificial. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Trained observers recorded the height, weight, ...
Boston Raymond C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Disordered temporal eating patterns are a feature of a number of eating disorders. There is currently no standard mathematical model to quantify temporal eating patterns. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a simple model by which to describe the temporal eating patterns of adult humans. For this purpose, patients with ...
Elfhag Kristina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks and the psychological dimensions of eating in parents and their children. The role of the parent's characteristics for their children's food intake was also explored. DESIGN: Food intake patterns were assessed by self-reported consumption of the respective ...
Ferriday Danielle - - 2008
Exposure to the sight and smell of food influences our momentary desire to consume it. This study explored the process by which cue exposure promotes greater consumption of food. Three hypotheses were explored, cue exposure: (i) increases the planned consumption of food; (ii) increases tolerance of larger portion sizes; (iii) ...
Scoboria Alan - - 2008
Previous studies have shown that suggesting childhood events can influence current self-reported attitudes towards future behavior. This study shows that suggesting a false past event (i.e. becoming sick on a specific food during childhood) can modify present behavior (i.e. reduce eating of the food). Participants screened to be normal eaters ...
van den Engel-Hoek Lenie - - 2008
A child with spinal muscular atrophy type 2 was referred for evaluation of eating and swallowing problems. The dysphagia evaluation demonstrated coughing during eating and drinking and occasionally stertorous when eating solid food. The videofluoroscopic swallow study showed a late upper esophageal sphincter opening with hypopharyngeal residue, more with solid ...
Hermans Roel C J - - 2008
Laboratory taste-test studies have shown that social modeling effects on food intake are powerful. The aim of the present study was to examine the degree to which people model food intake in a more naturalistic eating setting. After completing a cover task, female participants (N=102) spent a 15-min break with ...
Markowitz Jessica Tuttman - - 2008
Perceived deprivation describes a feeling of not eating what or as much as one would like, despite being in energy balance. This construct was previously found to correlate with the Restraint Scale in obese binge eaters and current dieters [Timmerman, G. M., & Gregg, E. K. (2003). Dieting, perceived deprivation, ...
Grissom Nicola N Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2008
Restraint elicits a number of physiological stress responses that can be increased or decreased in magnitude based on prior stress history. For instance, repeated exposure to restraint leads to habituation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation to restraint. In contrast, acute restraint after a different repeated stressor leads to facilitation of HPA ...
Newman Emily - - 2008
External eaters reportedly increase snack intake when stressed, which could be due to an attentional shift towards food stimuli. Attentional biases for food stimuli were tested in high and low external eaters in stress and control conditions, using a computerised Stroop. A significant interaction was observed between external eating group ...
Larson Nicole I - - 2008
PURPOSE: Frequent fast food intake is associated with poorer diet quality and greater weight gain. The aims of this study were to describe changes in fast food intake during the transition from middle adolescence to young adulthood, and to identify baseline correlates of this eating behavior in early young adulthood. ...
Kullberg K - - 2008
To analyse, describe and compare the frequency and energy intake of eating events, including specific food items, among diseased older men living in ordinary housing. Descriptive and explorative. Interviews were performed in the participants' home. Thirty-five co-living and 26 single-living men, 64-88 years of age. Participants had one of three ...
Byrd-Bredbenner Carol - - 2008
Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. ...
Munsch S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether negative mood and unbalanced nutrition style (fat rich/carbohydrate low) synergistically trigger binge eating in overweight and obese binge eating disorder (BED) patients. METHODS: Subsequently to following an unbalanced or a balanced nutrition plan for three days, participants' food intake in a taste test was measured. During ...
McNamara Caroline - - 2008
There is a dearth of qualitative research exploring eating disordered individuals' emotional responses to the sight of different types of food. In this study we asked 10 adult women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) to articulate their thoughts whilst viewing slides ...
Dimitropoulos Anastasia - - 2008
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hyperphagia and food preoccupations. Although dysfunction of the hypothalamus likely has a critical role in hyperphagia, it is only one of several regions involved in the regulation of eating. The purpose of this research was to examine food-related neural circuitry using ...
Lundgren Jennifer D - - 2008
Night eating syndrome (NES) represents a delay in the circadian pattern of food intake, manifested by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal awakenings accompanied by ingestions of food. A neurobiological marker of NES has been implicated with the recently discovered therapeutic response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline. This pilot ...
Viana V - - 2008
The objective of this study was to examine the association between the scores of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and BMI in a sample of Portuguese children. Using a cross-sectional design, a sample of 240 children (123 females and 117 males) aged 3-13 years were recruited from clinic and ...
Lebel Jordan L - - 2008
We examine the comfort food preferences and consumption patterns of women with highly versus less developed schemas for cognitive restraint, emotional and situational eating. In an online survey, 196 women provided their personal definition of what constitutes a comfort food, indicated their favourite one, and their level of hunger and ...
Kubiak Thomas - - 2008
Emotional eating is conceptualized as eating in response to negative affect or distress and is discussed as a mechanism leading to eating binges. Recent evidence suggests that eating may not only be triggered by negative affect, but also ruminative thinking. We report results of an experience sampling study examining the ...
Soetens Barbara - - 2008
The study tests existing evidence on the paradoxical effects of exposure to a forbidden snack. Sixty-eight females were assigned randomly to one of two conditions: a temptation group, who were given the instruction to abstain from a favourite snack for 24h while being exposed to it, or a control group, ...
Sellaeg Kari - - 2008
Most studies of social aspects of foods have focused on people in multi-person households, often from the perspective of women. Little is known about the food-related experiences of men who live alone. We therefore conducted a qualitative study with 12 men aged 27-47 who lived alone in Vancouver, Canada. Our ...
Turconi Giovanna - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates eating habits and behaviors, and nutritional and food safety knowledge of a group of Italian adolescents. DESIGN: A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested was self-administered during school time. Each section was evaluated using a separate score. SETTING: The study was carried out as a ...
Yamamotová Anna - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Light and food are important synchronizers of circadian rhythmicity. In eating disorders, the circadian rhythms of food intake and temperature are abnormal. METHODS: We analyzed the effect of the morning light application on the circadian rhythm of tympanic temperature and its association with hunger and mood changes in the ...
Mendez Mario F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Changes in dietary or eating behavior are common in dementia and may help distinguish between different dementing illnesses. Objective: To evaluate and characterize differences in dietary and eating behavior among patients with early frontotemporal dementia (FTD) versus Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: This study administered the Food-Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) ...
Lefkowitz Stanley S - - 2008
Toxicity to glucose is not a normal state, however, it has been reported that after certain individuals ingest sugar, they produce excess tumor necrosis factor. An other wise healthy 47 year old male developed a severe sensitivity to foods containing sugar over a 12 year period. After eating certain foods ...
Blake Christine E - - 2008
Individual differences in food-related knowledge structures were explored by applying schema theory to examine the categories 42 adults used to classify foods across four eating contexts. Food card-sort labels were organized into 12 categories, category salience for each person was evaluated, and cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of ...
Wang Zhihong - - 2008
The purpose of the study is to examine the dynamic eating behaviors of the Chinese people, focusing on snacking and the choice of cooking methods, and to identify the influences of socioeconomic factors on these eating behaviors. Data for this study were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). ...
Peeters José M - - 2008
"Eating profiles" can be defined as types of clients distinguished by combinations of food preferences, consumption patterns, and preferences for ambiance. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and initial testing of an instrument to establish eating profiles of residents of nursing homes or elderly homes. We ...
Aschenbrenner Katja - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess dietary behavior and possible changes in food selection in patients with smell loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 176 patients (114 women and 62 men) age 17 to 86 years were classified into three diagnostic groups (normosmia, n = 12; hyposmia, n = 75; functional anosmia, ...
Jones Sandra C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent and nature of healthy eating messages Australian consumers are currently exposed through magazine advertising. METHOD: Analysis of healthy eating messages in advertisements found in the top 30 Australian magazines between January and June 2005 was conducted. Advertisements were analysed and classified by source, subject, food ...
Miwa Hideto - - 2008
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occasionally show food cravings and/or compulsive eating that result in significant, undesired weight gain. Dopamine replacement therapy may be the cause of this type of eating disorder. We evaluated 60 consecutive patients to see if they had any alteration of eating patterns after starting levodopa. ...
Bryant E J - - 2008
Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review ...
Cohen Deborah - - 2008
The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over ...
Schwarz Judith - - 2007
There is an acknowledged difficulty in distinguishing between some morally and legally accepted acts that hasten dying, such as refusing life-sustaining treatment, and other acts that also hasten dying that are labeled as acts of "suicide." Recent empirical findings suggest that most terminally ill and suffering patients who voluntarily chose ...
Kluge Michael - - 2007
The second generation antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine frequently induce weight gain. Randomized studies investigating abnormal eating behavior (food craving, binge eating) possibly associated with weight gain are lacking. Thirty patients with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder were included in this randomized, double-blind, parallel study comparing abnormal eating behavior using a ...
Elfhag Kristina - - 2008
Personality traits can give a fuller understanding for eating behaviors in obesity. The objective was to describe eating behavior (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) in terms of the Big Five personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) in obesity patients (n=442). Emotional eating was strongly positively associated to Neuroticism, in particular impulsiveness and ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session ...
Downey La Vonne A - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The use of restraints to manage patients in the emergency department (ED) is controversial. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO) and numerous advocacy groups have pushed for the use of alternatives to restraints. The need to protect the patients' rights while also reducing the risks they ...
Boakes Robert A - - 2007
Rats given the combination of unrestricted access to an activity wheel and restricted access to food can lose weight to the extent that they will die unless removed from these conditions. Although this has been known for forty years, why this happens has remained unclear. The phenomenon is paradoxical in ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2008
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 ...
Kissileff Harry R HR St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10025, USA. hrk2@columbia.edu - - 2008
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate ...
Gomel Jessica N - - 2007
Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to ...
Dovey Terence M - - 2008
Two factors have been shown to contribute to rejection or acceptance of fruits and vegetables: food neophobia and 'picky/fussy' eating. Food neophobia is generally regarded as the reluctance to eat, or the avoidance of, new foods. In contrast, 'picky/fussy' eaters are usually defined as children who consume an inadequate variety ...
Therrien Fanny - - 2008
Awakening cortisol response was measured in 78 men and women, on 3 mornings within a 2-month period. Psychosocial and eating behavior variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires on anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), body esteem (Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults), and eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating ...
Lohse Barbara - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Assess validity of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI) to measure eating competence (EC). DESIGN: Concurrent administration of ecSI with validated measures of eating behaviors using on-line and paper-pencil formats. SETTING: The on-line survey was completed by 370 participants; 462 completed the paper version. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 863 adults with 832 ...
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