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Killgore William D S - - 2010
Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown. We compared the effects of treatment with ...
Hollitt Sarah - - 2010
The study aimed to investigate attentional bias for food cues among restrained eaters. In particular, the roles of speeded detection (enhanced orientation of attention toward food stimuli) and slowed disengagement (trouble disengaging attention from food stimuli) were examined. Participants were 78 female undergraduate students aged 18-25 years, classified as restrained ...
Verbeke Wim - - 2010
Consumer demand in relation to food is shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their expectations, particularly with respect to beef tenderness. The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system obtained through muscle profiling ...
Petrovich Gorica D - - 2009
Environmental factors contribute to the motivation to eat and can override homeostatic signals to stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. In particular, stress, fear, and anxiety have been linked to suppression of eating and anorexia nervosa. Here, we use a rodent model of an ...
Blechert Jens - - 2010
Restrained eating is a pattern of chronic dietary restriction interspersed with episodes of disinhibited overeating. The present study investigated whether this eating pattern is related to altered electrocortical processing of appetitive food stimuli in two different motivational contexts. Restrained (n=19) and unrestrained eaters (n=21) passively viewed high-caloric food pictures, along ...
Gillespie Ardyth M H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food decision-making processes interact with family and community environments to shape families' thinking (i.e., their constructed reality) about food, eating, health, and well-being as discussed by Gillespie and Gillespie (J Fam Consum Sci 99(2):22-28 2007). PURPOSE: To understand the processes and impetuses for changing family food and eating routines ...
Bogl Leonie H - - 2009
The objective was to examine the association between several obesity-related nongenetic behaviors and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in young adult twins using reports from both twins on their similarities and differences. A total of 713 monozygotic (MZ) and 698 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 22-28 ...
Zick Cathleen D - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To describe how the time spent in food-related activities by Americans has changed over the past 30 years. DESIGN: Data from four national time diary surveys, spanning 1975-2006, are used to construct estimates of trends in American adults' time spent in food-related activities. Multivariate Tobits assess how food-related activities ...
Brown Lorraine - - 2010
Using findings from semi-structured interviews with international postgraduate students in England, this paper explores the meanings attached to the food they eat in a new culture. Our study, using interviews, aimed to uncover student responses to both the food they eat whilst abroad and to the food they have left ...
Evers Catharine - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which individuals are emotional eaters has typically been assessed by people's self-reported desire to eat when they experience negative emotions. Elevated scores on these emotional eater scales have been associated with eating pathology and obesity. However, evidence that individuals scoring high on these scales truly increase ...
Foo H - - 2009
Animals eat rather than react to moderate pain. Here, we examined the behavioral, hedonic, and neural requirements for ingestion analgesia in ad libitum fed rats. Noxious heat-evoked withdrawals were similarly suppressed during self-initiated chocolate eating and ingestion of intraorally infused water, sucrose, or saccharin, demonstrating that ingestion analgesia does not ...
Tanofsky-Kraff Marian - - 2009
Children with rs9939609 FTO variant alleles (homozygous = AA and heterozygous = AT) are predisposed to greater adiposity than are those with 2 wild-type alleles (TT). Because FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions that are important for appetite, FTO genotype may affect energy balance by influencing eating behavior. Loss ...
George Sophie A - - 2010
There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to laboratory stressors predict ...
Ferrer-García Marta - - 2009
This article explores the efficacy of virtual environments representing situations that are emotionally significant to patients with eating disorders (ED) to modify depression and anxiety levels both in these patients and in controls. Eighty-five ED patients and 108 students were randomly exposed to five experimental virtual environments (a kitchen with ...
Turner Sally Ann - - 2010
The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness ...
Hepworth Rebecca - - 2010
Following negative reinforcement and affect-regulation models of dysfunctional appetitive motivation, this study examined the effect of negative mood on objective and subjective cognitive indices of motivation for food; i.e., attentional bias for food cues and self-reported hunger/urge to eat, respectively. The study extended previous research on the effect of mood ...
Travis Susan - - 2010
Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the ...
Zald David H DH Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA. - - 2009
From a neuroeconomics perspective, decisions about what to eat are ultimately determined by basic features of how the brain codes and contrasts the values of different rewards and the potential positive or negative consequences of eating the food. Several brain regions play a role in this valuation and comparison process. ...
Berkowitz Robert I - - 2010
This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI ...
Choquette Anne C - - 2009
The glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) gene encodes for the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme (GAD65), which is implicated in the formation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake. The objective of the present study was to test for association between GAD2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ...
Kroese Floor M - - 2009
In the Western rich food environment, people are constantly confronted with palatable but unhealthy food products. For those who would like to watch their weight, the appeal of immediate satisfaction is in conflict with their long-term weight watching goal, constituting a classic self-control dilemma. The current studies were designed to ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2009
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in the processing of food-related pictures between women with high and low scores on a scale of external eating. Electro-encephalographic brain activity was recorded, while participants were actively exposed to pictures of food items and control pictures. The amplitude ...
Coletta Maria - - 2009
Restraint theory has been used to model the process that produces binge eating. However, there is no satisfactory explanation for the tendency of restrained eaters (REs) to engage in counterregulatory eating, an ostensible analogue of binge eating. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors investigated brain activation of normal ...
Marchetti Chiara - - 2009
Orientation tests performed with Emlen funnels show much variation. This scatter in responses can be partially explained by considering the birds' personalities. We studied a Passerine migrant, the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), on autumn passage at Kalimok Biological Station, Bulgaria. Birds caught in the morning were kept in cages with ...
Soussignan R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: To investigate hedonic reactivity and the influence of unconscious emotional processes on the low sensitivity to positive reinforcement of food in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHOD: AN and healthy women were exposed to palatable food pictures just after a subliminal exposure to facial expressions (happy, disgust, fear and neutral faces), ...
Papies Esther K - - 2009
Previous work has been unclear as to how restrained eating is related to implicit attitudes towards food. The present paper introduces a new variant of the affective priming paradigm to measure implicit attitudes towards food among restrained and unrestrained eaters, using food pictures as primes and emoticons as targets. Results ...
Mason Peggy - - 2009
The function of the endogenous analgesia system under natural circumstances has been little explored. Our recent work shows that animals are significantly less responsive to noxious stimulation during slow wave sleep, micturition, and while eating than during quiet wake. The analgesia associated with eating is dependent on activity in the ...
Nelson Melissa C - - 2009
Identify key factors underlying college weight gain, nutrition, and physical activity. Six focus groups and one-on-one interviews. Large, public Midwestern university. Fifty full-time freshman and sophomore students. Factors influencing weight and weight-related behaviors among undergraduates. Qualitative analysis using a specific thematic approach, identifying themes appearing consistently across transcripts from recorded ...
Strachan Shaelyn M - - 2009
Identity and Self-efficacy Theories were used to examine the relationship between healthy-eater identity, self-efficacy for healthy eating and healthy eating. Measures of healthy-eater identity, perception of healthy eating, nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy for both intake of fruits and vegetables and foods of low nutritional value were completed by 101 university students ...
Consoli Daniele - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Given the lack of reliable murine model of binge-like eating, we tried to induce this pathological behavior in mice. METHOD: We used an experimental protocol mimicking the etiological factors involved in the development of binge eating in humans, that is, food restriction, refeeding (R-R) in presence of high palatable ...
Lemmens Sofie G T SG Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Human eating behavior may be influenced non-homeostatically by the rewarding value of foods, i.e. 'liking' (pleasure/palatability) and 'wanting' (incentive motivation). The objectives of this study were to validate a computer test for assessment of rewarding value of food, and to assess how rewarding value of food is affected by eating ...
Salvy Sarah-Jeanne - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Friendship may be uniquely relevant and influential to youths' eating behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study examined how overweight and nonoverweight youths adjust their level of eating as a function of their familiarity with their eating partner. DESIGN: Twenty-three overweight and 42 nonoverweight youths had the opportunity to play and eat ...
Dragone Davide - - 2009
This paper addresses the rapid diffusion of obesity and the existence of different individual patterns of food consumption between non-dieters and chronic dieters. I propose a rational eating model where a forward-looking agent optimizes the intertemporal satisfaction from eating, taking into account the cost of changing consumption habits and the ...
Bailey Rachel - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine how children cognitively and emotionally process interactive marketing of snack food products in advergames. Children (N = 30) aged 10 to 12 were asked to play advergames with (a) avatars that were assigned to them, (b) avatars chosen from a pool, and ...
Hawkes Corinna - - 2009
Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on ...
Guerrieri Ramona - - 2009
Previous research has related impulsivity to overeating and obesity. However, the precise nature of this relation has not been examined yet. One possibility is that impulsivity causes overeating and hence contributes to overweight. To test this possibility we induced impulsivity versus inhibition to see whether this would affect food intake. ...
Van Strien Tatjana - - 2009
To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative ...
Cliver Dean O - - 2009
Manure is a resource, but sometimes also a nuisance. Manure management strategies have traditionally focused on soil nutrients (N, P, K), COD, and more recently biological substances (antibiotics, hormones, etc.), with disinfection being a relative afterthought. Zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella and other bacteria, protozoa, etc.) may be present in manure, but ...
Bezerra Ilana Nogueira - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between out-of-home (OH) eating and overweight and obesity among adults in Brazil. DESIGN: Data were based on the 2002-2003 Household Budget Survey (48,470 households) conducted by The Brazilian Census Bureau. Foods and drinks purchased for OH eating during ...
Maharaj Dushyant - - 2009
Eating and drinking in labor is a controversial subject with practice varying widely by practitioners, within facilities, and around the world. The risk of aspiration pneumonitis and anesthesia-related deaths at cesarean section has resulted in adherence to historical practices of starving women in labor. Studies have shown that the risk ...
Cockfield Annette - - 2009
Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric condition and its management is complex and multi-faceted, requiring a multidisciplinary team approach. Dietitians are an important part of the multidisciplinary team, offering objective nutritional advice with the aim of helping the patient to develop an improved relationship with food. ...
Remick Abigail K - - 2009
Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the ...
Liang Tina - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether eating while watching television poses a risk for poor nutrition and excess body weight over and above that of time spent watching television. DESIGN: We analysed data of grade 5 students participating in a comprehensive population-based survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. This survey ...
Burd Carlye C Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, North Dakota, - - 2009
To examine the caloric intake in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and how it varies by day as a function of the presence or absence of binge eating and/or purging behaviors. Female participants with AN (n = 84, mean age = 24.4, range 18-51) were recruited from three different sites. ...
Anschutz Doeschka J - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between restrained, emotional, and external eating and total energy intake, and total fat and carbohydrate intake controlling for body mass index and physical activity. The sample consisted of 475 female students. Energy intake was measured over a 1-month period ...
Bonneau Michel - - 2010
The present paper reviews the available information on the eating quality of pork from the perspective of production systems considered at farm level. Among the specifications differentiating systems having a claim on eating quality, breed, feeding strategy, rearing conditions and slaughter age/weight of the pigs may influence pork eating quality. ...
Wilson G Terence - - 2009
Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective ...
Kirkham Tim C - - 2009
The ability of Cannabis sativa to promote eating has been documented for many centuries, with the drug reported by its users to promote strong cravings for, and an intensification of the sensory and hedonic properties of food. These effects are now known to result from the actions of cannabinoid molecules ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2009
Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to ...
Lyly Marika - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A high intake of dietary fibre has been suggested to support the regulation of energy intake and satiety, which could contribute favourably to the increasing obesity problem. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of three fibres differing in chemical and physical properties on perceived satiety and hunger-related ...
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