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Veenstra Esther M - - 2010
Using the exogenous cueing task, this study examined whether restrained and disinhibited eaters differ in their orientation of attention towards and their difficulty to disengage from high versus low-fat food pictures in a relatively short (500 ms) and a long presentation format (1500 ms). Overall, participants in the 500 ms ...
Williams Keith E - - 2010
Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment components ...
Levi Jane - - 2010
Food was and is an essential component in human space exploration. If it had not proved possible to eat and digest in space, none of the long-term space missions of the last four decades would have been achievable. Every country that has sent an astronaut on a mission has used ...
Konttinen Hanna - - 2010
We examined the associations of emotional eating and depressive symptoms with the consumption of sweet and non-sweet energy-dense foods and vegetables/fruit, also focusing on the possible interplay between emotional eating and depressive symptoms. The participants were 25-64-year-old Finnish men (n=1679) and women (n=2035) from the FINRISK 2007 Study (DILGOM substudy). ...
Allan Julia L JL School of Psychology, William Guild Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2UB, UK. - - 2010
Overeating can be automatically triggered by the presence of palatable food. When presented with an opportunity to consume unlimited chocolate under the guise of a consumer study, chocolate consumption in individuals (n=62) with healthy dietary intentions could be predicted from a psychological measure of cognitive inhibition. Individuals who were less ...
Tammela Liisa I - - 2010
Binge-eating (BE) subjects have shown altered brain activity at frontal regions during food presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the frontal brain electrical activity in obese BE women (n = 12) and in obese women without BE (non-BE, n = 13). Brain electrical activity was measured using ...
Hermans Roel C J - - 2010
This study examined whether young men adjusted their snack-food intake to that of a same-sex eating companion. Additionally, hunger was assessed as a possible moderating variable. A total of 59 young men (M age=21.73) participated. An interaction between participants' hunger and confederate's intake on the total amount of snack food ...
Hamermesh Daniel S - - 2010
In the 2006-2007 American Time Use Survey and its Eating and Health Module over half of adults report grazing (secondary eating/drinking) on a typical day, with grazing time almost equaling primary eating/drinking time. An economic model predicts that higher wage rates (price of time) will lead to substitution of grazing ...
Shimizu Mitsuru - - 2010
While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount ...
Ji Guoping - - 2010
Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in rural Anhui, China are poor and lack sufficient protein in their diet. This project was to increase soybean protein in the diet of PLWHAs in a resource limited area in rural Anhui. A community intervention was implemented, by providing soybean seeds and a ...
Gregory Jane E - - 2010
Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of ...
Hamelin Anne-Marie - - 2010
Producing a definition of healthful eating that expresses adequately the richness and the complexity of the eating experience is challenging. Still, the effort is crucial if one wants to promote behavioural change in the population, as well as a transformation of interventional practices, programs, and policies, and even the agri-food ...
van der Lelij A J - - 2010
The cross-talk between several parts of the gut and the brain involves the exchange of information that enables an individual to optimize metabolism and to adapt it to potentially huge variations in caloric intake during, e.g. fasting and eating. It also ensures that already parts of the gut downstream of ...
Cowbrough Kathy - - 2010
The toddler stage from one to three years continues to be a period of rapid growth although not as rapid as in the first year. Energy needs are high as toddlers become more active, but stomachs are still small relative to nutrient needs so food provided for this age group ...
Ishiguro H - - 2010
Marijuana use activates cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs) producing several behavioral effects related to addiction, mood, and appetite. We investigated the association between CNR2 gene, which encodes cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2-R) and eating disorders in 204 subjects with eating disorders and 1876 healthy volunteers in Japanese population. The effect of treatment with ...
Mok Leh Woon - - 2010
When satiety develops specific to sensory properties of food, variety leads to increased eating. The relationship between meal variety and dietary restraint was explored here in lean young women (18-20 years), classified into unrestrainers versus restrainers using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire Restrained Eating Scale. The expected variety effect obtained ...
Shi Lu - - 2010
Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the respondents' average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekday, the average ...
Latagliata Emanuele Claudio - - 2010
Eating disorders are multifactorial psychiatric disorders. Chronic stressful experiences and caloric restriction are the most powerful triggers of eating disorders in human and animals. Although compulsive behavior is considered to characterize pathological excessive food intake, to our knowledge, no evidence has been reported of continued food seeking/intake despite its possible ...
Killgore William D S WD Cognitive Neuroimaging Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA. - - 2010
Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown. We compared the effects of treatment with ...
Hollitt Sarah - - 2010
The study aimed to investigate attentional bias for food cues among restrained eaters. In particular, the roles of speeded detection (enhanced orientation of attention toward food stimuli) and slowed disengagement (trouble disengaging attention from food stimuli) were examined. Participants were 78 female undergraduate students aged 18-25 years, classified as restrained ...
Verbeke Wim - - 2010
Consumer demand in relation to food is shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their expectations, particularly with respect to beef tenderness. The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system obtained through muscle profiling ...
Petrovich Gorica D GD Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467-3807, USA. - - 2009
Environmental factors contribute to the motivation to eat and can override homeostatic signals to stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. In particular, stress, fear, and anxiety have been linked to suppression of eating and anorexia nervosa. Here, we use a rodent model of an ...
Blechert Jens - - 2010
Restrained eating is a pattern of chronic dietary restriction interspersed with episodes of disinhibited overeating. The present study investigated whether this eating pattern is related to altered electrocortical processing of appetitive food stimuli in two different motivational contexts. Restrained (n=19) and unrestrained eaters (n=21) passively viewed high-caloric food pictures, along ...
Gillespie Ardyth M H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Food decision-making processes interact with family and community environments to shape families' thinking (i.e., their constructed reality) about food, eating, health, and well-being as discussed by Gillespie and Gillespie (J Fam Consum Sci 99(2):22-28 2007). PURPOSE: To understand the processes and impetuses for changing family food and eating routines ...
Bogl Leonie H - - 2009
The objective was to examine the association between several obesity-related nongenetic behaviors and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in young adult twins using reports from both twins on their similarities and differences. A total of 713 monozygotic (MZ) and 698 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 22-28 ...
Zick Cathleen D - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To describe how the time spent in food-related activities by Americans has changed over the past 30 years. DESIGN: Data from four national time diary surveys, spanning 1975-2006, are used to construct estimates of trends in American adults' time spent in food-related activities. Multivariate Tobits assess how food-related activities ...
Brown Lorraine - - 2010
Using findings from semi-structured interviews with international postgraduate students in England, this paper explores the meanings attached to the food they eat in a new culture. Our study, using interviews, aimed to uncover student responses to both the food they eat whilst abroad and to the food they have left ...
Evers Catharine - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which individuals are emotional eaters has typically been assessed by people's self-reported desire to eat when they experience negative emotions. Elevated scores on these emotional eater scales have been associated with eating pathology and obesity. However, evidence that individuals scoring high on these scales truly increase ...
Tanofsky-Kraff Marian - - 2009
Children with rs9939609 FTO variant alleles (homozygous = AA and heterozygous = AT) are predisposed to greater adiposity than are those with 2 wild-type alleles (TT). Because FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions that are important for appetite, FTO genotype may affect energy balance by influencing eating behavior. Loss ...
Foo H H Department of Neurobiology and Committee on Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2009
Animals eat rather than react to moderate pain. Here, we examined the behavioral, hedonic, and neural requirements for ingestion analgesia in ad libitum fed rats. Noxious heat-evoked withdrawals were similarly suppressed during self-initiated chocolate eating and ingestion of intraorally infused water, sucrose, or saccharin, demonstrating that ingestion analgesia does not ...
George Sophie A SA Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Trauma, Stress and Anxiety Research Group, 4250 Plymouth Rd (Box 5765), Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, United - - 2010
There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to laboratory stressors predict ...
Ferrer-García Marta - - 2009
This article explores the efficacy of virtual environments representing situations that are emotionally significant to patients with eating disorders (ED) to modify depression and anxiety levels both in these patients and in controls. Eighty-five ED patients and 108 students were randomly exposed to five experimental virtual environments (a kitchen with ...
Turner Sally Ann - - 2010
The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness ...
Hepworth Rebecca - - 2010
Following negative reinforcement and affect-regulation models of dysfunctional appetitive motivation, this study examined the effect of negative mood on objective and subjective cognitive indices of motivation for food; i.e., attentional bias for food cues and self-reported hunger/urge to eat, respectively. The study extended previous research on the effect of mood ...
Travis Susan - - 2010
Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the ...
Zald David H DH Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA. - - 2009
From a neuroeconomics perspective, decisions about what to eat are ultimately determined by basic features of how the brain codes and contrasts the values of different rewards and the potential positive or negative consequences of eating the food. Several brain regions play a role in this valuation and comparison process. ...
Berkowitz Robert I - - 2010
This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI ...
Choquette Anne C - - 2009
The glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) gene encodes for the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme (GAD65), which is implicated in the formation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake. The objective of the present study was to test for association between GAD2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ...
Kroese Floor M - - 2009
In the Western rich food environment, people are constantly confronted with palatable but unhealthy food products. For those who would like to watch their weight, the appeal of immediate satisfaction is in conflict with their long-term weight watching goal, constituting a classic self-control dilemma. The current studies were designed to ...
Nijs Ilse M T - - 2009
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in the processing of food-related pictures between women with high and low scores on a scale of external eating. Electro-encephalographic brain activity was recorded, while participants were actively exposed to pictures of food items and control pictures. The amplitude ...
Coletta Maria - - 2009
Restraint theory has been used to model the process that produces binge eating. However, there is no satisfactory explanation for the tendency of restrained eaters (REs) to engage in counterregulatory eating, an ostensible analogue of binge eating. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors investigated brain activation of normal ...
Marchetti Chiara - - 2009
Orientation tests performed with Emlen funnels show much variation. This scatter in responses can be partially explained by considering the birds' personalities. We studied a Passerine migrant, the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), on autumn passage at Kalimok Biological Station, Bulgaria. Birds caught in the morning were kept in cages with ...
Soussignan R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: To investigate hedonic reactivity and the influence of unconscious emotional processes on the low sensitivity to positive reinforcement of food in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHOD: AN and healthy women were exposed to palatable food pictures just after a subliminal exposure to facial expressions (happy, disgust, fear and neutral faces), ...
Papies Esther K - - 2009
Previous work has been unclear as to how restrained eating is related to implicit attitudes towards food. The present paper introduces a new variant of the affective priming paradigm to measure implicit attitudes towards food among restrained and unrestrained eaters, using food pictures as primes and emoticons as targets. Results ...
Mason Peggy - - 2009
The function of the endogenous analgesia system under natural circumstances has been little explored. Our recent work shows that animals are significantly less responsive to noxious stimulation during slow wave sleep, micturition, and while eating than during quiet wake. The analgesia associated with eating is dependent on activity in the ...
Nelson Melissa C - - 2009
Identify key factors underlying college weight gain, nutrition, and physical activity. Six focus groups and one-on-one interviews. Large, public Midwestern university. Fifty full-time freshman and sophomore students. Factors influencing weight and weight-related behaviors among undergraduates. Qualitative analysis using a specific thematic approach, identifying themes appearing consistently across transcripts from recorded ...
Strachan Shaelyn M - - 2009
Identity and Self-efficacy Theories were used to examine the relationship between healthy-eater identity, self-efficacy for healthy eating and healthy eating. Measures of healthy-eater identity, perception of healthy eating, nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy for both intake of fruits and vegetables and foods of low nutritional value were completed by 101 university students ...
Consoli Daniele - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Given the lack of reliable murine model of binge-like eating, we tried to induce this pathological behavior in mice. METHOD: We used an experimental protocol mimicking the etiological factors involved in the development of binge eating in humans, that is, food restriction, refeeding (R-R) in presence of high palatable ...
Lemmens Sofie G T SG Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2009
Human eating behavior may be influenced non-homeostatically by the rewarding value of foods, i.e. 'liking' (pleasure/palatability) and 'wanting' (incentive motivation). The objectives of this study were to validate a computer test for assessment of rewarding value of food, and to assess how rewarding value of food is affected by eating ...
Salvy Sarah-Jeanne - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Friendship may be uniquely relevant and influential to youths' eating behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study examined how overweight and nonoverweight youths adjust their level of eating as a function of their familiarity with their eating partner. DESIGN: Twenty-three overweight and 42 nonoverweight youths had the opportunity to play and eat ...
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