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Buettner Andrea - - 2014
Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/ olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons, and b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks ...
Zschoke Anja A Institute of Biology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Planegg-Martinsried, - - 2014
In Old World monkeys (OWM), the olfactory sense is thought to be less important than in other primate taxa. However, during the last decade experimental studies have shown that OWM possess much better olfactory capabilities than suspected. Here, we investigate for the very first time sniffing behaviours in three guenon ...
Soria-Gomez Edgar E INSERM, U862 NeuroCentre Magendie, Endocannabinoids and Neuroadaptation, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The internal state of the organism is an important modulator of perception and behavior. The link between hunger, olfaction and feeding behavior is one of the clearest examples of these connections. At the neurobiological level, olfactory circuits are the targets of several signals (i.e. hormones and nutrients) involved in energy ...
Iannilli Emilia E Smell & Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Eating implies mutual interactions between different senses. In the present work we aimed at studying relations between food texture and food odor, using both psychophysical and imaging techniques. Eighteen right-handed healthy human subjects participated to both behavioral and fMRI sessions. Fresh, sweetened milk and a more thickened version were delivered ...
Cason Angie M AM Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Basic Science Building 406, 173 Ashley Avenue, MSC 510, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. Given that eating disorders affect women more than men, we reasoned that the orexin system may be strongly engaged in female rats, and during periods of food restriction as we recently reported in ...
Power D J DJ Division of Evolution, Ecology & Genetics, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, - - 2014
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) requires an evolutionary explanation, because it carries fitness costs in many species. When mated females disperse alone to a new habitat, their offspring may have no option but to mate with their siblings and incur inbreeding depression. However, some of the offspring of polyandrous females ...
Vlautin Christian T CT University of Memphis, Department of Biological Sciences, (901) 678-3509, Ellington Hall, Memphis, TN 38152, - - 2014
Many terrestrial mammals will deposit scent marks and over-marks, the latter being the overlapping scent marks of two conspecifics. Studies have shown that male rodents that are exposed to the overlapping scent marks of two female conspecifics later spend more time investigating the mark of the top-scent female than that ...
Seu Emanuele E Department of - - 2014
The procurement and consumption of palatable, calorie-dense foods is influenced by the nutritional and hedonic value of foods. Although many factors can influence the control over behavior by foods rich in sugar and fat, emerging evidence indicates that biological sex may play a particularly crucial role in the types of ...
Leigh Deborah M DM Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterhurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zurich, - - 2014
In male dimorphic species, growth influences morph expression and thereby the reproductive success of males. However, how variation in nutritional conditions affects male morph development and whether males can compensate for lost growth is poorly known. Here, we performed an experiment where males of the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini)-which are ...
Couture Philippe P Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Québec, - - 2014
The MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) is a device used to perform transcatheter edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. We describe the follow up of a 78-year-old man with severe functional mitral regurgitation and ...
González-Gómez Paulina L PL Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto de Filosofía y Ciencias de la Complejidad, Santiago, - - 2014
In scatter-hoarding species, several behavioral and neuroanatomical adaptations allow them to store and retrieve thousands of food items per year. Nectarivorous animals face a similar scenario having to remember quality, location and replenishment schedules of several nectar sources. In the green-backed firecrown hummingbird (Sephanoides sephanoides), males are territorial and have ...
Milisenda Giacomo G Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy; Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (CoNISMa), Rome, - - 2014
In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish ...
Jayawardena Ranil R Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia ; Diabetes Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri - - 2014
The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major ...
La Geung-Hwan GH Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, - - 2014
High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of ...
Wang Shu-Ping SP Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, - - 2014
Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify ...
Eerkens Jelmer W - - 2013
This article evaluates age of weaning and early childhood diets of eight males and nine females from a Middle Holocene (4300-3000 BP) site in Central California, CA-CCO-548. All individuals died as adults. δ(15) N values from serial sections of dentin collagen in first molars suggest females were fully weaned, on ...
Eppley Timothy M - - 2013
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been frequently observed to share food with one another, with numerous hypotheses proposed to explain why. These often focus on reciprocity exchanges for social benefits (e.g., food for grooming, food for sex, affiliation, kinship, and dominance rank) as well as sharing based on begging and deterring ...
Wegener Benjamin J BJ School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. - - 2013
An individual's gametes can represent a nourishing food source for a manipulative mate. Here, we provide evidence of ejaculate and sperm consumption in a cephalopod. Through labelling male spermatophores with (14)C radiolabel, we found that female squid, Sepiadarium austrinum, consumed the spermatophores of their partners and directed the nutrients received ...
Kim Shin Woong - - 2013
In this study, the generational transfer and multigenerational effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated by observing the parental generation (F0) to the fourth offspring generation (F4) using food-exposure approaches. There were no significant changes on survival rate under all generation by AuNPs maternal exposure to the ...
Gracida Xicotencatl - - 2013
Animals can thrive on variable food resources as a result of autonomous processes and beneficial relationships with their gut microbes [1]. Food intake elicits major physiological changes, which are counteracted by transient systemic responses that maintain homeostasis in the organism. This integration of external information occurs through cellular sensory elements, ...
Trematerra P - - 2013
In the present work, 3 years of field trials (from 2007 to 2009) were carried out to evaluate use of the pheromone (9Z, 12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (TDA) for mating disruption (MD) of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Dispensers containing the pheromone TDA were placed in two traditional flour mills. ...
Omkar - - 2013
Abstract Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the functional and numerical responses of fourth instar larvae, adult male, and adult female ladybird beetles, Anegleis cardoni Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), to different densities of aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the bottle gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris Seringe (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed ...
Barry Katherine L - - 2013
Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My ...
Sabau Ramona M RM The University of Memphis, Department of Biological Sciences, Ellington Hall, Memphis, TN 38152 - - 2013
In many species of small mammals, including meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, females come into postpartum estrus (PPE) within 12-24 h of giving birth, allowing them to mate and become pregnant while raising the current litter. PPE females show increases in attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity, the three components of sexual behavior, ...
O'Brien Erin L - - 2012
Annual reproductive success in many species is influenced by the number of breeding attempts within a season. Although previous studies have shown isolated effects of female quality, food, and timing of breeding on the probability of female birds producing second broods, to our knowledge, none have tested the relative importance ...
Vaughn Ashlee A - - 2012
An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent ...
Sampieri B R - - 2012
Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. ...
Sonerud Geir A - - 2012
In birds with bi-parental care, the provisioning link between prey capture and delivery to dependent offspring is regarded as often symmetric between the mates. However, in raptors, the larger female usually broods and feeds the nestlings, while the smaller male provides food for the family, assisted by the female in ...
Poivet Erwan - - 2012
Sex pheromones are released by adults of a species to elicit a sexual interaction with the other sex of the same species. Here we report an unexpected effect of a moth sex pheromone on the caterpillars of the same species. We demonstrate that larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis ...
Uren Nihal - - 2012
Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), which is used as food preservative in apricot sulfurization and several fabricated foods, is a common air pollutant. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible genotoxic effects of SO(2) using in vitro human lymphocytes. The different endpoints of genotoxicity: sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei ...
Carbonell-Barrachina Angel A - - 2012
Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for essential macro-elements (Ca and Na), essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Cr, Co and Ni) and non-essential trace elements (As, Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and AAS. Baby cereals were an excellent source of ...
Cohen Marc - - 2012
Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have shown equivalent or superior efficacy and safety to unfractionated heparin as antithrombotic therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. Each approved LMWH is a pleotropic biological agent with a unique chemical, biochemical, biophysical and biological profile and displays different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. As a result, ...
Brand Nayuta - - 2012
Primitively eusocial halictid bees are excellent systems to study the origin of eusociality, because all individuals have retained the ancestral ability to breed independently. In the sweat bee Halictus scabiosae, foundresses overwinter, establish nests and rear a first brood by mass-provisioning each offspring with pollen and nectar. The mothers ...
Dmitriew Caitlin - - 2012
The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive ...
Jit Mark M is in the Modelling and Economics Unit , Health Protection Agency , London , UK , and the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom - - 2012
Life expectancy has increased by 20 years since the middle of the last century, but children under five have fared better than adult males.
Fearnley Emily - - 2011
Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these ...
Kim Jeong Soon - - 2011
Salmonella spp. are an important cause of food-borne infections throughout world, and the availability of rapid and simple detection techniques is critical for the food industry. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium cause the majority of human gastroenteritis infections, and there are a reported 40,000 cases of salmonellosis in the ...
Medus Carlota - - 2010
The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection of outbreaks in restaurants and to quantify the duration of Salmonella shedding in stool. Of 4,976 culture-confirmed Salmonella cases reported to ...
Dineen Patrick F - - 2011
Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with ...
Main D C J - - 2010
Evaluating the prevalence of lameness within herds of dairy cattle is important for management and certification purposes; however, sampling strategies that could reduce the time taken for an assessment would be valuable. The prevalence of lame and severely lame cows on 224 United Kingdom dairy farms was available for analysis. ...
Winsten J R - - 2010
This paper provides a summary of results from a recent survey of 987 dairy farmers in 4 northeastern US states. The survey results provide descriptive characteristics of the current state of dairy farming in the region, as well as farmer satisfaction levels, concerns, and plans for the future of their ...
Tesfaye Gebreyohannes Y - - 2010
The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) caused by Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows. A split-udder trial was carried out to determine milk yield losses in udder quarter with S. aureus-caused SCM. Each quarter of the study cows ...
Hovinen M - - 2009
Udder health and milk production were monitored in cows transferred from tie stalls or loose housing with conventional milking to loose housing with either automatic or conventional milking. Data were collected from 182 Finnish farms from September 1999 to February 2006. Data from the first year before and first year ...
Falchero Luca - - 2009
The nutritional distinctiveness of pasture-fed dairy products is mainly influenced by the transfer of specific chemical compounds from the grass to the milk and by their effect on rumen microflora and animal metabolism. Thus, the pasture-fed origin has to be objectively proven, using fast and reproducible analytical methods applied to ...
Van Hekken D L - - 2009
Transgenic cows secreting over 3 microg of lysostaphin/ mL of milk are protected against mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, but it is unknown if active lysostaphin persists through dairy processing procedures or affects the production of fermented dairy foods. The objective of this study was to determine the fate of ...
Hashizume Masahiro - - 2009
Epidemics of malaria in the East African highlands in the last 2 decades have often been associated with climate variability, particularly the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, there are other factors associated with malaria risk and there is increased interest in the influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), a ...
Kennedy E - - 2009
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of restricting pasture access time on milk production and composition, body weight and body condition score change, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of autumn calving dairy cows in midlactation. Fifty-two (19 primiparous and 33 multiparous) Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean ...
Ayenew Yitaye Alemayehu - - 2009
In order to characterise the dairy production systems as well as the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows in the study area, a total of 256 and 54 dairy farms were used for survey and monitoring data collection, respectively. Based on breed, land size, feed and market accessibility, two ...
Abrahamse P A - - 2008
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x 5 Latin ...
Boguhn J - - 2008
The objective was to study whether thermally treated lupins (TTL) can replace solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in dairy cow rations. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were used. They differed in the inclusion of the main protein feeds (TTL alone, TTL + RSM and RSM + SBM) ...
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